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## Question

With the aid of a digital arithmetic system, develop a combinational complete adder circuit system using CMOS integrated circuits.

Make sure the circuit is functioning while taking into account each logic level. Comparing your circuit's characteristics to those of the AND, OR, and Exclusive OR gates will help you understand how your circuit is constructed. Use truth tables to validate your evaluation.

Examine how sequential and combinational logic components of a whole adder circuit differ from one another in operation.

### Part 2:

Analyze and suggest modifications to the interface and data acquisition strategy employed in a digital system's circuitry. Keeping in mind the alarm system you utilized for circuit measurement, monitoring, and performance tweaking

Recognize and evaluate the system's operation in terms of information gathering and dissemination within its service, pointing out areas for improvement.
Recognize and suggest ways to improve how people engage with the Full Adder Circuit.

### Digital Logic Circuit:

Different voltage scales need to be employed for the operation of digital logic circuits. In digital circuits, abstract circuit elements are used. The abstract elements of the circuit are referred to as gates. The input variable is the gate's output. In contrast to analogue circuits, digital circuits address signal attenuation and noise interference. Digital circuits come in two varieties:

• Circuits for digital logic
• Circuits that combine logic

### Combinational Logic Circuits

The output of a combination logic circuit depends on the input. Therefore, a state cannot be stored in a combinational complete adder circuit. Combinational logic circuits perform the calculations on the data that is stored. Combinational logic circuits come in different varieties, including multiplexers, de-multiplexers, half-adder circuits, full-adder circuits, encoders, and decoders. The combination logic circuit is applied using the sum of products (SOP) and products of sum (POS) rules. There is no storage memory for circuits that use combinational logic. The combinational logic loop will remove the previous input data when it receives a new input.

Figure 1: Full Adder Circuit, Truth table, and Boolean expression

### Sequential Logic Circuits

In sequential logic circuits, the output is based on the current and previous inputs. Through sequential logic circuits and memory storage, the information is kept in a digital circuit. The simplest element of a sequential logic circuit is a latch. Flip flops are a possible name for latches. In the loop, one or more outputs are returned as inputs, acting as a combination circuit. SR (Set-Reset), JK, T (Toggle), and D flip-flops are frequently used. For memory components, sequential logic circuits are employed per cycle. The clock is utilized in circuits for sequential logic. It initiates the flip-flop process.

Figure 2: Block Diagram of Combinational Logic Circuit

Alarm system used in measuring, evaluating and identification of faults and changes needed
Unusual situations are dealt with using the support structure. Alarm systems are referred to as this type of support. The operator uses it as their primary support system. It notifies the user about the irregularity in the system. The hazard can be foreseen by the alert system. The alarm system is employed to alert, direct, and warn the user of the uncommon situation. It should be stated right now what action is necessary. It ought to be simple to understand and at a pace that the user can handle. Throughout all phases of operation, the alarm system should be accessible. It ought to have a thoughtful design. The fault-finder tracker is employed to locate the flaw. Any line that develops a flaw will sound an alert, which will help you locate the issue. Alarm systems are used to detect smoke and are frequently known as smoke detectors.

Figure 3: Smoke Detector Circuit

Figure 4: Circuit diagram of underground cable fault distance locator

The aforementioned circuit can identify a defective underground wire if one is found. The location of the problem must be identified in order to be fixed. According to engineering assignment help, the law of Ohm is adhered to in this situation. The microcontroller 8051 is used in this. The ADC unit determines the length of the wire (in KM). The relays are controlled by a relay driver integrated circuit. Using it, the wire connections are tested. The data is read using an LCD device that is connected to a microcontroller. Using a certain method, several electrical or physical terms are calculated. This process is known as data acquisition (DAQ). DAQ uses variables such as sound, voltage, pressure, current, and temperature to calculate results. The schematic for a DAQ system employing an 8051 microcontroller was displayed on the preceding page. All the required tools are displayed in the diagram. A system should be equipped with all of the necessary components to increase its efficiency. It will be simple for the device to obtain data if the microcontroller is connected to the DAQ circuit. Any programme should include a human interface. To increase the effectiveness of the computer, people should interact with it properly. The other devices can only be linked using the user interface. In order to increase application efficiency, a network's necessary devices should all be connected.

Figure 5:Data Acquisitions Block Diagram

The block diagram up top shows how the device is observed's data is being collected. The appliance is equipped with a variety of sensors. These sensors are connected to a computer through DAQ. DAQ places an order for the circuit upgrade. This improves the device's quality and function after being checked. The underground wire fault tracker's effectiveness may also be enhanced by it. When the DAQ circuit and alarm system are connected to the microcontroller, the alarm system may instantly identify the problem while also displaying the defect's location on the screen. It will boost the system's efficiency and dependability.

Figure 6: DAQ using 8051 microcontroller

The schematic for a DAQ system employing an 8051 microcontroller was displayed on the preceding page. All the required tools are displayed in the diagram. A system should be equipped with all of the necessary components to increase its efficiency. It will be simple for the device to obtain data if the microcontroller is connected to the DAQ circuit. Any programme should include a human interface. To increase the effectiveness of the computer, people should interact with it properly. The other devices can only be linked using the user interface. In order to increase application efficiency, a network's necessary devices should all be connected.

## MOD005778 Dynamics and Fluid Mechanics Assignment Sample

### Assessment Description

This assessment element is the max 1000 words coursework that needs to be submitted to Turnitin. The coursework weighs 50% of the final mark for the module and has the following parts which need to be fulfilled for assignment help:

1- Description of laboratory experiments, scope, and limitations
2- Description of experiment implementation and data extraction
3- Data analysis and presentation
4- Comparison of data with theoretical calculations

### Intended learning outcomes for the assessment

The assignment has been designed to cover all the learning outcomes expected from this module. The learning outcomes could be found on Learning Outcomes. The experiments cover a range of topics in dynamics, fluid mechanics and the heat transfer.

## Solution

### Introduction/purpose:

The experiment is conducted for a “centrifugal compressor with vane-less diffuser, as conventionally uses for sewage disposal system. In order to execute a compressor experiment, there are standard setup, tools and equipment used to experiment. The equipment includes a centrifugal machine, standard mass, microscope, and pipette. The experiment is conducted to identify behavior which obtain from the experimental study and working procedure.

### Materials and Methods:

The laboratory experiment is significantly used in the biomedical area. The centrifugal compressor laboratory experiment is conducted to get the behavior of airflow to solidify specific media, incubators for the incubation of the sample specimen, uses supernatant and pellet, UV segment for the disinfection, gel electrophoresis machine to find DNA size and significant of PCRs for obtaining different results as specification and requirement. The laboratory experiment and equipment are useful to execute an experiment to obtain the precise outcome. However, there are various alternatives available which suitable for medical science and find the correct details about the human body, diseases, holistic picture of cells, etc.

The experimental working principle is to implement a centrifugal compressor as per the specification of the laboratory experiment. However, the centrifugal compressor uses to convert the rotary motion of fluid into kinetic motion. In general, the centrifugal is useful to separate fluid, gas, and liquid-based density. The fluid has been classified into pellet and supernatant forms. The pallet particle contains the solid element and keeps it as sediment, whereas the remaining portion of the mixture remains in the pallet.

For this case, the centrifugal technique uses to separate the heterogeneous mixture. To obtain that, the micro-fluid method uses to find the cell separation work. For this case, it requires a considerably large volume size, a high recovery rate, and enhance overall performance through an effective centrifugation approach. However, the centrifugal compressor outcome is obtained in “RPM” i.e. revolution per minute.

### Data:

There are mainly two centrifugation protocols used in defined sequences i.e. mRNA sequence and arrangement of the complete procedure. While experimenting, it observes the effects of centrifugation and performance outcomes. For this case, there are 110 colorectal cancer samples collected from 20 donors of plasma. As observed in first experiment about centrifugation, it observes 3800g for 10 minutes in 3?. However, for this case, the plasma ribosomal RNA was separated in 90% of total weight and 33% of total weight which follows the 15 kg centrifugal plasma Ghofrani, A., & Arduino, P. (2018).

From the experiment and data analysis, it observes that there are 4 genes out of 110 that demonstrate conventional lower expression in 13500 genes. However, there are 76/110 and 88/110 genes were separated into 3800g and 15000g. For this case, there are 18/110 genes were not identified significantly in the dual centrifuges elemental procedure. There are mainly two distinct centrifuges that appear with a distinct centrifugal force which demonstrates the specific and significant sequencing rate of mRNA. This approach can identify the behavior of gene expressions and the significant effect of centrifugation performance.
Discussion and analysis:

The primary requirement is to obtain the required donor to collect the plasma from that. From the survey, there are approximately 110 guaranteed cancer-related genes are used. For this case, approximately 10-15 ml of blood is collected from individuals, and collected blood is separated into mainly two groups. One sample is used for centrifugation rate with 3800 grams for approximately 10 minutes at 4-5? temperature and the second sample is used for 15000 g with the same time and equal temperature. The blood processing was conducted after approximately 4 hours of blood collection. That means, approximately 3.2 ml of plasma was collected and required to preserve in a standard manner.

For this case, it is required to use approximately 3 ml plasma as a sample and conduct an RNA extraction procedure to maintain standard procedure and protocol as well. However, there are different purifiers, standard tool kits, and RNS with free water used to conduct the experimental procedure. To obtain an efficient pure layer, there is approximately 0.54 volume of absolute ethanol was added and uses effectively.
As performing the centrifugal exp

Figure: plasma total RNA (a) with concentration and two parameters (b) RIN and DV200 from specific RNA
(Source: ("Home - PMC - NCBI", 2022))

From the statistical analysis, it was observed that plasma RIN was detached with the specific median of 7.15 and 1.25 respectively in 3800 and 1500g follows by 16000g centrifugal plasma. There is specific DV200 was observed with a median of 55.6 and 41.0 respectively in 3800g and 1600g following 16000g. There is conventional DV200 with 3600g centrifugal plasma demonstrate considerable high than that 1600 g follows through 16000g Eldridge.et.al.(2021)

However, the total numbers of genes are detachable and undetectable as demonstrated in the different gene expression levels in conventional two centrifugal forces. However, the detachable genes with 3600g execute with 70genes and 1600g behave conventionally through 16000g were 85 genes. There are 25 genes out of 110 genes that demonstrate higher expression as compared to another majority of the genes in both centrifuge elements, the median association of the gens with 3600g is distinct and the median associate of 1600g follows through 16000g genes are co-related. The remaining genes were covered or separated before their lowering sequencing coverage Chung.et.al. (2016).

There are potential distinct genes demonstrated with different expressions after the centrifugation occurs. However, the co-relation of the genes is demonstrated after the centrifugation process occurs. Therefore, it is important to consider that explicating the centrifugal force effect before experimenting should conduct and examine the mRNA with a significant effect.
Conclusions:

From the experiment, it concludes that we can obtain the cell separation for the distinct experimental centrifugation is considerable important. In fact, the advance technique, material selection, and precise machinery can assist to enhance overall efficiency and obtain the accurate value with considerable large range of sample specimen.