PSYC20042 Building Wellbeing and Resilience Assignment Sample
In Assessment descriptive essay help online, you are required to collect and evaluate a series of resources pertaining to wellbeing in different areas.
For Assessment 1, You will:
1. Choose five topics from a list of wellbeing topics (please see below). You are also required to include an additional (sixth) topic area of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and wellbeing.
2. Pertaining to the six topics (five chosen topics from the list and one of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and wellbeing), source and collate a collection of peer-reviewed research articles, quality relevant websites, research-oriented summary media articles, and videos.
3. Reference each resource using APA style 7th edition.
4. For the six topic areas, summarise, analyse, and evaluate the collected resources (400 words +/- 10% per topic area).
1. Exercise and wellbeing
2. Nutrition and wellbeing
3. Mind-body wellness
4. Positive Education
5. Ageing and wellbeing
6. Families and wellbeing
8. Animals and wellness/animal therapy for humans
9. Building social support/social connections
11. Spirituality, meaning, and purpose
12. Stress reduction for wellbeing and resilience
13. Complementary and alternative medicine
14. Building wellbeing, resilience, and coping skills
15. Enhancing creativity
16. Sleep and wellbeing
17. Parenting and wellbeing
18. Work and wellbeing
19. The built environment and wellbeing
20. Creative arts and wellbeing
21. The benefits of social support
22. Effects of green space on wellbeing
23. Meditation and/or mindfulness
24. Intellectual development (can include curiosity)
25. Physical therapies and practices known to enhance wellbeing
26. Particular practices (e.g., gratitude, self-compassion, savouring)
27. Other. If you wish to research a related topic(s) not listed above, please contact your Unit Coordinator regarding the suitability of the topic.
Compulsory Topic: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and Wellbeing.
Sourcing and Collating Resources
It is expected that for each topic area, students collect a minimum of 4 resources. This means that you will have a minimum of 24 references for your assessment piece.
All collected resources (e.g., websites, videos) should be underpinned by peer- reviewed research. For each of the topics, the resources should include at least one review article (e.g., systematic review, narrative review) from a peer-reviewed journal. Other resources may include peer-reviewed research articles describing studies undertaken, quality relevant websites (e.g., material from Psychology Today or Scientific American), research-oriented summary media articles, and videos (e.g., TED Talks, videos posted to YouTube by experts in the area).
Topic area resources collected must have a primary focus on positive psychology and/or wellbeing and resilience.
For each topic area, your chosen resources should cover psychological, physiological/physical, and environmental approaches to wellbeing/resilience.
Each topic area must include at least one resource pertaining to a wellbeing intervention/exercise/practice pertaining to the topic area.
If you were to choose self-compassion and wellbeing as a topic, you would want to collect:
• One peer-reviewed review article, such as a review article that has explored the impact of self-compassion on some aspect of wellbeing.
You would also want to ensure that the resources you collect include material describing:
• Psychological aspects of self-compassion – for example, what are the benefits of self-compassion for wellbeing, such as happiness or better relationships
• Physiological/physical aspects – such as what happens to the body when a person experiences compassion
• Environmental aspects. For the last aspect, you might have to think carefully about this. There is probably not going to be research on self-compassion and nature/green space, for example. But perhaps you can look at sourcing an article that examines self-compassion in a particular context, such as the nursing environment where it is suggested that the nature of the work/environment means that they may benefit from building their self- compassion skills.
Summarising and Evaluating Resources
For all six of your topic areas, examine in 400 (+/- 10%) words per topic area:
• What the collected research can tell us about the wellbeing area. That is, analyse what the collected resources tell us about wellbeing and the topic area.
For example, if the topic was sleep, what do the resources tell us about the effects of sleep (e.g., sufficient sleep, lack of sleep) on our wellbeing? This is an overall or global summary of what your resources tells us.
• The links between psychological, physiological, and environmental approaches to understanding wellbeing and/or resilience in the topic area. For example, if the topic was sleep, what do the resources tell us about sleep from a physiological (e.g., how does sleep affect us physiologically?), a psychological
(e.g., how does sleep affect us psychologically?), and from an environmental
(e.g., what aspects of the environment affect our sleep?) perspective.
• The wellbeing intervention or practice, including the reasons it was chosen and its evidence base. For example, what is an intervention to improve sleep and is their evidence for its effectiveness?
• What are the strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in the literature? – that is, evaluating the resources (please see below).
An important part of this task is to provide some critique of the resources, such as gaps or unanswered questions posed by the research; methodological strengths and weaknesses of the collected materials; and what we may need to consider when using the intervention collected.
That is, while describing what the research tells us about wellbeing and the links between psychological, physical, and environmental approaches is a part of your write-up, you will engage in critical analysis and evaluation of the resources in order to make broader conclusions about what the collected resources can tell us about the topic area.
Some of the things that you might want to consider when evaluating resources are included below. Since you have a limit of 400 words per topic, you would only want to discuss 2 or 3 of these things. You can also choose whether you discuss these things at the end of each of your write-ups, or whether you integrate the evaluation throughout your write-up.
Please also remember that you are critiquing from the perspective of the resources that you have collated on that topic area. For example, you do not need to do an exhaustive literature search to see what groups have not been investigated, or to find what questions have not been answered. What we are looking for in your critique is evidence that, based on what you have collected, you have thought logically about the resources. For example, if most of what you have collected involved younger people, you might want to suggest why some research should be conducted with older people (this may or may not have been done – you do not need to go find out).
Potential Evaluation Areas:
• What groups have not been investigated/could be investigated regarding the topic?
For example, have younger but not older people been investigated; are most of the resources focused on the Western world?
• What relationships have not been investigated?
For example, has the effect of a practice on hedonic wellbeing been investigated, but not eudaimonic wellbeing?
• What outcomes are we not aware of?
For example, did the resources collected focus on one outcome of an intervention
(e.g., better relationships) but not others (e.g., better physical health).
• Is the method of investigation used (e.g., survey, experiment) the most appropriate one for the topic?
For example, what might be the problems with a self-report survey?
• What types of measures have been used in the resources collected? Are they appropriate?
For example, were measures considered valid or reliable.
• Has the research been done with enough people?
For example, was the sample relatively large (e.g., 100 people) or much smaller (e.g., 10 people). Remember, generally quantitative studies will have larger samples than qualitative studies.
• Does the sample of participants accurately reflect the characteristics of the population of individuals about which the researchers are trying to draw conclusions – that is, is the cohort used generalisable to the broader population?
For example, did the researchers want to investigate self-compassion in nurses, but only collected data on one type of nurse (e.g., mental health nurse). Does that mean we can make conclusions about mental health nurses, but not other (e.g., surgical) nurses?
• What questions have not been answered?
For example, did the researchers focus on exercise practices indoors, but not out in nature?
• Are there conflicting results between studies?
For example, do some of your resources suggest that the topic area impacts physiological wellbeing, while others don’t? Do we need to do more studies to resolve this?
For the intervention, specifically, some of the things to consider include:
• What is the evidence for the intervention chosen? Does the evidence support the efficacy of the intervention to improve wellbeing?
For example, is there good evidence that a self-compassion exercise can improve wellbeing?
• In what types of settings, people (populations), and method of delivery has the intervention been found to work best?
For example, is the evidence for the efficacy of the intervention stronger for younger versus older people; or have most studies investigated efficacy with one type of group.
• Are there particular gaps in our knowledge?
For example, have particular groups not been investigated?
1. Positive Education
In order to adopt positive mental health and different kinds of positive functions, the momentum corresponding to the positive psychology movement has to be increased.. Along with that, different principles of positive psychology are combined through the positive education, blended with best teaching practices (TED and mendro Foundation, 2021). Moreover, through positive education, a good link is created between academic success and well-being (PESA, 2022). In such circumstances, the framework of positive education is developing the Australian schools. Various well-being domains are positive engagement, positive emotions, positive purpose, positive health, positive relationships and others. Besides, a structured process is implemented through positive education where a better evaluation and research are guided by this education layout for mental health development (White & Kern, 2018). On the other hand, feeling good and doing good are indicated by the flourishing where different types of character strengths are included.
“Martin Seligman's PERMA model” and the “Values in Action (VIA) classification” can be implemented in the programs and interventions for well-being and happiness corresponding to positive education. Besides, in the positive education programs, the PROSPER framework can be utilized which indicates the integration of multiple principles corresponding to positive psychology along with effective teaching and learning process for good outcome.
Joy, hope, gratitude is involved with the positive emotions which have to be developed through the positive education for mental happiness. Moreover, the concept of happiness, different motivation, hopes, self-esteem and empathy are aimed by the positive education where several activities can be performed like tree plantation, pollution free nature and others for mental health development. In such correspondence, psychology, physiology and environment are connected well being through the positive education.
Besides, interest, absorption and engagement are included in the positive engagement whereas the positive accomplishment included the achievement of the meaningful outcomes (Seligman & Adler, 2018). Along with that, physical and psychological health is improved by positive health. In such correspondence, for the implementation of the positive education, several positive domains have to be lived, taught and enabled. In such correspondence, the tent of positive education is lived by the well-being support staff (Halliday et al., 2019).
Less social activities and poor maintenance of mental health, less contribution from the parents can be harmful for a child that can be considered as the weakness of positive education and wellbeing. Furthermore, various traditional skills are taught through this process where it is enabled in the school community for the implementation of positive education. In such accordance, in the schools, positive education has to be implemented for the development of mental health and different positive aspects blended with the well-being of the society.
Halliday, A. J., Kern, M. L., Garrett, D. K., & Turnbull, D. A. (2019). The student voice in well-being: A case study of participatory action research in positive education. Educational Action Research, 27(2), 173-196.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/09650792.2018.1436079
PESA, (2022).Personal Development opportunities.Retrieved fromhttps://www.pesa.edu.au/. [Retrieved on 25 March 2022]
Seligman, M. E. P., & Adler, A. (2018).Positive education.Global happiness policy report, 52-73.https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Alejandro-Adler/publication/331936613_Positive_Education_Seligman_M_E_P_Adler_A_2019_Positive_Education_In_J_F_Helliwell_R_Layard_J_Sachs_Eds_Global_Happiness_and_Wellbeing_Policy_Report_2019_Pp_52_-_71_Global_Council_for_Wellbeing_and_Ha/links/5c93baca92851cf0ae8e98bf/Positive-Education-Seligman-M-E-P-Adler-A-2019-Positive-Education-In-J-F-Helliwell-R-Layard-J-Sachs-Eds-Global-Happiness-and-Wellbeing-Policy-Report-2019-Pp-52-71-Global-Council-for-Wellbein.pdf
TED and mendro Foundation, (2021). How every child can thrive by five.Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/molly_wright_how_every_child_can_thrive_by_five?language=en. [Retrieved on 25 March 2022]
White, M., & Kern, M. (2018). Positive education: Learning and teaching for wellbeing and academic mastery.https://hekyll.services.adelaide.edu.au/dspace/bitstream/2440/118534/3/hdl_118534.pdf
LC3002 English For Academic Purpose Resit Information Assignment Sample
You are answering the same essay question that you did last term:
• You will produce a problem / solution essay of 1500 words +/- 10%, focusing on either the problems associated with gender inequality or global migration, and some suggested solutions to those problems. You will be expected to use sourced material to support your essay and to demonstrate your ability to provide references and a bibliography.
• You must not copy text from the internet or books. You risk failing if you do this.
• You must include references and a bibliography. (Remember you have free access to Cite them right online - Home when you log in using your UEL email.)
• If you submitted an essay last term but you didn’t get a score of 40, you need to improve the essay before you resubmit it. Check your grammar and vocabulary and make sure you haven’t copied from the internet.
Include references for assignment help
ESSAY HAND IN DATE:
Essay: 15:00 Friday 19th March via the module from last term on Moodle: Course: LC3002 2021 (T1)
English for Academic Purposes (OC) (uel.ac.uk) Then go to “Assessment” and “Essay Resit”.
Gender is a key indicator of socioeconomic division, and therefore, of exclusion. There are significant differences between men and women in material well-being, irrespective of social status through the level of disparity that exists across sectors and regions. As a consequence, most communities have gender disparities, with males traditionally occupying higher roles in social, financial, and political structures. The aim of eliminating gender disparity has occupied a central position in international organizations and national policy proposals for more than twenty years. Millennium Development Goal 3 represents the worldwide attention to the problem of gender discrimination and has provided policymakers with the incentive to eradicate it. Gender difference is not solely propagated by unequal access to and ownership of economic resources. Also, men and women are treated differently in the same workplace, given different wages for the equal amount of work done by them. As a whole, gender roles and expectations promote gendered identities and regulate women and men's actions in ways that contribute to discrimination (Ridgeway, 2011).
Three domains of gender inequality
The following principles serve as the foundation for this framework for analyzing global developments in inequality. Gender equity in the first domain is based on skill equality, which ensures that males and females are on an equal level in terms of core functions (schooling, healthcare, and nutrition). Furthermore, in order to enhance financial equality, women must be able to turn their talents into the ability to produce income on par with men, implying that advances toward gender parity in socioeconomic well-being must be made. Although people neglect gender-disaggregated statistics on wages, data on gender differences in access to employment, credit, and land ownership rights should enable us to assess fairness in this second domain. The final component, service, is concerned with decision-making autonomy and representation in society's key resource distribution sites: the home, the office, and regulatory bodies. Women can be capable of influencing the conditions that contribute to inequalities in the skills or lifestyles domain if they have a voice in these fields. As a result, these 3 domains are interconnected (Huang et al., 2020). The shift in a single domain can be leveraged by progress in another. Furthermore, advancement in any one of these three domains is insufficient to accomplish the ultimate objective of equality of the sexes without development in the others.
Aggressive behavior is widely accepted as a natural part of the behavior of men and a necessary part of becoming a man. In reality, violence is culturally 'masculinized.' Gender-based abuse is linked to power structures and emotions – the exploitation of women and some male groups. Gender disparity leads to the perpetuation of a violent society. Men are less hesitant to use and degrade women because of their own purposes since the wellbeing of men is considered to be of greater significance. Women are treated as anything less, as individuals entitled to male authority. Despite the fact that the strict concept of gender includes male, female, as well as other gender identities, most individuals still perceive gender discrimination issues as women’s concerns. Gender disparity, on the other hand, affects all, even men. Stereotypes or 'regulations' on how men, women, girls, and boys must behave begin in early childhood and continue throughout adulthood. Inequality does not affect everybody in an exact way. Those who are exposed to various types of prejudices face a more complicated situation, which is often more harmful.
Inequalities in wage distribution
Men and women employees earn different salaries for jobs of equal importance, which is one of the fields at work where gender disparities can be seen (Heymann et al., 2019). According to a 2013 report by the International Labor Organization, the international wage disparity is 23%. However, this figure excludes the women around the world who operate in the unregulated informal economy with no legal security. Furthermore, many nations lack reliable data to produce more detailed reports, resulting in an even higher percentage of disparity. Due to these participants and demographic implications, gender wage disparities decrease female jobs, which raise fertility and reduce economic growth. As a result, exposure to and power over properties, and lifelong social security protection is also inadequate.
Inequalities in education system
Access to higher education remains critical to closing the pay disparity. It is not, however, the only measure, since highly educated women are at the extremes of the gender divide. Unequal and uneducated communities have a lower degree of harmony. They are more likely to engage in anti-social activity and aggression. Inadequate access to education is expressed in the daily struggles of women's and girls' affairs, such as the growing number of women living below the poverty line compared to males, women's and girls' deprivation of autonomy over their identities, and abuses of sexual and reproductive freedoms, and disparities in job opportunities.
Argument on the problems
Gender equality strengthens ties between nations. Their citizens are in healthy condition and have a greater sense of well-being. For far too long, women have attempted to address these issues on their own: by balancing work and home life, undergoing further training, and struggling to smash through the power structure. However, it has become particularly important for people of all genders to work together to address the issues of gender equality. A sociological viewpoint indicates a variety of steps to resolve the behavioral and structural variables that lead to gender inequality. It is important to reduce the socialization of girls and boys into stereotypical gender norms by parents and other family members (Tay et al., 2018).
Inequalities in the participation in economic and social benefits, such as fair jobs and wage equality, Gender disparity results in a significant loss of human resources, with consequences for both men and women. Social justice is thus central to democracy, progress, and a human rights framework in which everybody has a share (Heise et al., 2019).
Probable solutions to the problems discussed in three domains
In general, the number of men who earn is much higher than that of women. Increasing mentorship and other attempts to raise the percentage of women in predominantly male professions and political leadership roles would inculcate trust and integrity in them. Many government initiatives, such as increased monetary assistance for child care, can also contribute to having female workers who want to preach their passion.
Due to the wage-gap issues, UNI has committed to working to ensure that ILO Convention 100, which mandates fair pay for equal work, is implemented in every workplace. On the one side, Cavalcanti and Tavares' research indicates that wide wage disparities between men and women would impede economic development. Boosting government funding for elevated day-care alternatives is vital to enable families, especially mothers, to operate outside the house if they wish, without fear of jeopardizing their wealth or their kids’ well-being.
The biggest thing that can contribute to more advancement in society and let women have their say in various matters is a shift in people's attitudes. With the help of digital platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and news media, people of both genders must address gender discrimination.
There ought to be a greater public awareness of the causes for physical and sexual harassment, as well as the scope and repercussions of sexual harassment and exploitation. The effective implementation of current legislation prohibiting gender-based disparities in the workplace and sexual assault in the workplace will help to alleviate workplace gender inequality. Funding for support centers and other programs for males and females who have also been sexually abused should be increased. It is important to remember that everyone, regardless of gender, maybe assaulted and harassed. Abuse, sexual harassment, and domestic violence can decline as gender disparity decreases (Cerrato & Cifre, 2018).
Unequal expenditures in girls' schooling at the household stage, for instance, can be corrected by ensuring that government funds are provided to enhance girls' access to quality education.
Courageous women and men questioned the power structure by bringing harassment and sexual abuse, and domestic abuse into the public conscience, and by drawing attention to gender disparity in the office, school, and elsewhere. In order to continue to minimize gender inequality, a successful women's movement must continually remind us of the patriarchy that still exists in various cultures and around the world. Only by resolving the overwhelming burden of suffering, lack of accessibility to knowledge and health care, and shortage of productive opportunities faced by women will inequality be eradicated.
Inequality between men and women occurs in most cultures around the globe in varying degrees. Despite the fact, due to the modern women's rights movement, these disparities have diminished significantly since the early 1980s. They still exist and obstruct attempts to achieve complete gender equality. Gender discrimination is caused by a complex combination of cultural and social influences, according to sociologists, which must be resolved if gender inequality is to be minimized more than it has been since the early 1980s. Despite the changes that occurred during this era, children are still socialized from birth to conventional conceptions of male and female roles, and gender-related stereotyping centered on these notions persists (Dashper, 2019). Regardless of the fact that people should be able to follow whatever family and job commitments they choose, socialization and stereotyping continue to hinder the willingness of girls and boys, males and females, to consider less conventional options.
Ridgeway, C. L. (2011). Framed by gender: How gender inequality persists in the modern world. Oxford University Press.
Huang, J., Gates, A. J., Sinatra, R., & Barabási, A. L. (2020). Historical comparison of gender inequality in scientific careers across countries and disciplines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(9), 4609-4616.
Heise, L., Greene, M. E., Opper, N., Stavropoulou, M., Harper, C., Nascimento, M., ... & Gupta, G. R. (2019). Gender inequality and restrictive gender norms: framing the challenges to health. The Lancet, 393(10189), 2440-2454.
Heymann, J., Levy, J. K., Bose, B., Ríos-Salas, V., Mekonen, Y., Swaminathan, H., ... & Gupta, G. R. (2019). Improving health with programmatic, legal, and policy approaches to reduce gender inequality and change restrictive gender norms. The Lancet, 393(10190), 2522-2534.
Batz-Barbarich, C., Tay, L., Kuykendall, L., & Cheung, H. K. (2018). A meta-analysis of gender differences in subjective well-being: estimating effect sizes and associations with gender inequality. Psychological science, 29(9), 1491-1503.
Cerrato, J., & Cifre, E. (2018). Gender inequality in household chores and work-family conflict. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 1330.
Dashper, K. (2019). Challenging the gendered rhetoric of success? The limitations of women?only mentoring for tackling gender inequality in the workplace. Gender, Work & Organization, 26(4), 541-557.
EAP2 English for Academic Purpose Assignment Sample
In order to meet the requirements for Academic Purposes 2, all students must write a Cause and Effect essay citing reasons from various sources for assignment help.
Cause and Effect Essay
Question: Discuss the effects of on society.
Possible Cause Examples:
• 3d printing (design, IT and business students)
• Antibiotics (health students)
• Preservatives/food additives (catering and hospitality students)
• Block chain technology (IT and business students)
• Negative gearing (accounting and business students)
• Zoning/lock out laws (hospitality students)
• Plastic (fashion, business, health students) Write a cause and effect essay based on at least 6 references (2 journal articles, 2 industry sources and 2 government sources)
• Can analyse and synthesize information
• Can identify relationships and/or patterns
• Can show understanding of the literature and evidence of critical evaluation
• Can provide an appropriate conclusion
In order to successfully complete this assignment, follow the steps listed below:
• Write 6 paragraphs: introduction, 2 cause paragraph, 2 effect paragraphs, conclusion, reference list (separate page)
• Read references to find evidence to support your 2 cause paragraphs and/or your 2 effect paragraphs
• See that you have explained the main reasons for the causes (e.g. why was there a need for antibiotics or plastic)
• See that you have explained the main effects of these causes (e.g. an environmental effect such as pollution from plastic or a health effect from food additives)
A well-structured Cause and Effect essay must include:
• A cover page clearly stating your name, student ID, title of the essay, your teacher's name and word count
• An appropriate introduction
• A critical analysis in 2 cause paragraphs and 2 effects paragraphs
• An appropriate conclusion in which you summarize the main points
• A reference list following the APA Gh referencing conventions
Plastic materials are diverse products and bi-products of petrochemicals. Global plastic production has increased exponentially in the past decade. Disposability feature along with the low rate of recycling of plastics considerably increase waste production internationally. For example in Australia in between the years, 2010 and 2011 plastic waste produced was around 1,433,046 tonnes. Around 20% of t his amount was only recycled. National plastic production rate production in the year 2017-2018 was 9.4 percent (Environment.gov.au, 2018). The country’s government acknowledges the threat caused by plastic to the marine ecosystem. To combat this better understanding of the hazards of plastic waste to marine life in Australia is made through this paper.
The advantages of plastic cannot be denied. Plastic material is lightweight, easy, and cheap and this has led to the huge production and use of plastic in the world. Such a trend will continue increasing in the next decade as well. The resulting environmental degradation needs the government of Australia to understand, regulation and innovate ways to optimize the waste creation and disposal of plastic for conservation of life. Plastics as bi-products are increasingly used for the vulnerable item packaging and containerization of manufactured products due to their durability and cost effectiveness. Gradually they have become a unique commodity in their genre (Comanita, Hlihor & Ghinea, 2018). The versatility of plastic has become an increasing trend all over the world. Unfortunately, a large mass of such plastics are disposed of in the environment. The vulnerable products which go through transit and transportation need to be protected from contamination. Moisture, microorganisms, humidity, insects, gases, and lights are such external and internal contaminants that can damage such products and impact their quality. As a result, its value will be degraded (Ritchie & Roser, 2021). Plastics are used for such vulnerable products for effectively safeguarding their quality and integrity.
The main reason for using plastic packaging is to protect food from getting spoilt. The food waste in the world is extremely high. This leads to a very high environmental impact since a massive carbon footprint is caused due to the waste created from packaging with plastic. There was an acute need for using the plastic package as using this food can travel too long distances, stay on the shelves for long and large wastage of food could be avoided. A large amount of resources is used all over the world for creating food. It is natural to take steps to maintain its quality as long as it is possible (MarketResearch, 2021). Moreover, countries located in all parts of the world can get a supply of food products such as powders, spices, and liquids which are even out of season owing to special plastic protection added to them.
Plastic debris is a continuous problem in the oceans of the world. Government worldwide is recognizing the need to manage such issues. Marine debris is the consistent, processed, and manufactured solid discarded materials which are abandoned or disposed of in the coastal and marine environment (Asuquo, 2018). The bio-diverse life in the marine ecosystem comprises of species which are to be protected. The debris causes threat to their life system. Injury, death via drowning, entanglement caused by internal injuries, starvation and ingestion are the major impacts created by plastic waste and debris in the water bodies in this nation. The marine mammals, turtles, and sea birds severely get injured sometimes and even die from the entanglement of such marine debris. This can limit their mobility, cause infection, starvation, drowning, amputation, and smothering. The sea birds at times become entangled in the fishing lines. Such fishing lines and nets have plastic-packed straps. Often marine debris is lost from them when the nets are used fast in the water. When consumed marine mammals can lose their fastness in movement in the water, ability to hunt prey as well as safeguard themselves from predators. This can lead to obstructions in blood circulation and sometimes leads to asphyxiation as well as death. The skin of the turtles and marine mammals is also impacted if cut through the plastic of ropes and nets in fishing lines. This can lead to infection and also sometimes causes amputation of the tail, flippers, or flukes.
Research has suggested that around 90% of marine birds in the last two decades have consumed some kind of plastic material in their lifetime. It can puncture the internal organs as it moves through the alimentary canal. At some time the plastic debris can remain in the intestine and stomach as well. Migratory birds, as well as their young nestlings, are also at high risks of death as they ingest the plastic which leads to a full feeling in their stomach. This is a misleading feeling since it is not food and hence they attempt early migration. The nutritional value of the consumed plastics runs out soon from the body of these birds. Their energy degrees and they drop down lifeless as they do not have food to sustain themselves for reaching their destination (Gbrmpa.gov.au, 2021). The birds which are young feed from parents attempt to get the nutritional value from plastic but do not get adequate energy and nutrition. Such young birds die early and do not even reach adulthood. This leads to the less addition of adult population in such birds. Sensitive species can even go extinct in this manner as the food web is directly impacted due to their total dependence on marine environment.
There are varied kinds of plastics and their chemical composition is also different. Some plastics are used for protection or wrapping, food packaging, or used as fishing nets and lines and biodegradable items. Although some plastics are recyclable yet the remaining can cause a disastrous impact on marine life. The massive production of such plastic products, their toxic impacts, entanglement, strangulation, starvation, malnutrition, and micro plastic impacts on Australian marine life is life-threatening. The government of Australia has developed varied environmental acts and policies for optimizing production, use, and disposal of waste from plastic materials to conserve marine life and the environment.
Asuquo, I. (2018). Plastic Waste in the Aquatic Environment: Impacts and Management. Environment, 2(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.31058/j.envi.2018.21001
Comanita, E., Hlihor, R., & Ghinea, C. (2018). Occurrence Of Plastic Waste In The Environment: Ecological And Health Risks. Environmental Engineering And Management Journal, 15(3), 675-685. https://doi.org/10.30638/eemj.2016.073
Environment.gov.au. (2018). Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment. Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment. Retrieved 26 March 2021, from https://www.environment.gov.au/protection/waste/publications/australian-plastics-recycling-survey-report-2017-18.
Gbrmpa.gov.au. (2021). Marine debris. Retrieved 26 March 2021, from https://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/our-work/threats-to-the-reef/marine-debris.
MarketResearch. (2021). Australia Plastic Market Research Reports & Analysis page 1. Marketresearch.com. Retrieved 26 March 2021, from https://www.marketresearch.com/seek/Plastic-Australia/1606/1358/1.html.
Ritchie, H., & Roser, M. (2021). Plastic Pollution. Our World in Data. Retrieved 26 March 2021, from https://ourworldindata.org/plastic-pollution.