MIS608 Agile Project Management Assignment Sample
You are required to write an individual research report of 1500 words to demonstrate your understanding of the origins and foundations of Agile by addressing the following areas:
1. The origins of Agile – why did Agile emerge, what was it in response to, and how did this lead to the values and principles as outlined in the agile manifesto?
2. The origins of Lean and how it has influenced Agile practice
3. The similarities and differences between Scrum and Kanban as work methods
4. Why adopting Agile benefits an organisation
Please refer to the Task Instructions for details on how to complete this task.
Organisations are increasingly using Agile as a project management approach to achieve their goals and objectives efficiently. While agile is predominantly used in software development, there are elements of agile that can be applied to achieving goals and objectives in many areas of an organisation. Understanding these concepts will be vital for you to progress in this subject. This knowledge will not only support your completion of the final group assignment, but also will assist you in managing your progress in the group project by using Agile techniques to communicate capacity and offer full transparency of work across the team.
1. Write a 1500 words research report to demonstrate your understanding of the origins and foundations of Agile by addressing the following areas:
• The origins of Agile – why did Agile emerge, what was it in response to, and how did this lead to the values and principles as outlined in the agile manifesto?
• The origins of Lean and how it has influenced Agile practice.
• The similarities and differences between Scrum and Kanban as work methods
• Why adopting Agile benefits an organisation.
2. Review your subject notes to establish the relevant area of investigation that applies to the case. Perform additional research in the area of investigation and select FIVE (5) additional sources which will add value to your report in the relevant area of investigation.
3. Plan how you will structure your ideas for the report. Write a report plan before you start writing. The report should be 1500 words. Therefore, it does not require an executive summary nor an abstract.
4. The report should consist of the following structure: A title page with subject code and name, assignment title, student’s name, student number, and lecturer’s name.
The introduction (100 – 150 words) that will also serve as your statement of purpose for the report—this means that you will tell the reader what you are going to cover in your report. You will need to inform the reader of:
a. Your area of research and its context
b. The key concepts you will be addressing
c. What the reader can expect to find in the body of the report
The body of the report (1200-1300 words) will need to cover four specific areas:
a) Why did Agile originate? When did it emerge and what was it in response to? How did this lead to the four values and 12 principles that are outline by the agile manifesto?
b) Where did Lean originate? Briefly define what Lean is and two Lean philosophies have been adopted in the evolution of Agile practice?
c) Scrum and Kanban have many similarities, but also key differences. Compare and contrast Scrum and Kanban with each other, illustrating these similarities and differences with examples.
d) Explain what value adopting Agile can offer to an organisation.
The conclusion (100-150 words) will summarise any findings or recommendations that the report puts forward regarding the concepts covered in the report.
Software development is a process that includes several stages to be passed in order to ensure that a good quality system has been developed. To manage each stage, project management concept is introduced that contains techniques and methods to monitor the process of software development. The most widely accepted method is Agile in which each sage of software development is iterated and incremented managed by different teams associated in software development. This report discusses Agile project management methodology in detail from its origin to its principles, lean philosophies, its examples – Scrum and Kanban and their comparison. The next section provides detailed insights of the highlighted topics mentioned above. The report ends with a conclusion that frames proper recommendations for the organizations involved in software development.
Many methods such as waterfall, V model and spiral models were used traditionally to monitor software development process. The waterfall model is non-iterative method and hence change in software requirement at any stage leads to development of prototype from the beginning. To overcome issues related to waterfall model, V-model and spiral model was introduced. However, the solutions offered by both the models were fine but these methods were heavyweight and needed much documentation which is not feasible. The researchers found the need of new method that can adapt ever changing needs of business; hence, Agile methodology was originated (Azanha et al., 2017).
Agile method was designed in 2001 by an alliance of seventeen companies. Agile methodology challenged traditional ways of project management ways. It was in response to previous models failures that could not handle different projects across the organizations and industries. It focused on dividing project modules across separate teams that work collaboratively in order to develop a good quality software product. Agile’s nature of delivering project modules at the early development stage brought managers attention onto it.
Agile manifesto consists of four rules and twelve principles which are based on Kelly Johnson’s few of the 14 rules of management. The team of members from the seventeen companies met to design the agile manifesto in which the values and principles were documented. Although values and principles are outlined, Agile offers freedom to software development teams to work so that project delivery is ensured in timely manner. 12 Principles of Agile methodology are as listed:
1. Foremost concern is a customer and business requirements to meet using continuous delivery of prototypes.
2. A huge task is segregated into smaller units of task and separate team is allocated so that it takes least amount of time to achieve the results. This also helps in quick integration for changes from the customer.
3. The delivery of product should be within decided deadline.
4. Project managers and customers should work collectively to ensure that project development is leading on right path.
5. Timely encouragements help teams to inspire and work well.
6. Timely meetings should be preferred.
7. The progress is defined through an executable product.
8. The consistency should be maintained while development of product.
9. The product quality should be priority for which technical requirements should be considered first.
10. Simple products are attractive.
11. A team itself should be well-organized to carry out the tasks.
12. The performance of teams should be continuously monitored for constant growth.
Agile methodology focuses on customers and their requirements at each phase and increment. Software development through Agile methodology. Deliverable after iteration is known as sprint. The sprint is launched and presented to the customer for any changes (Nicholls et al., 2015).
The lean manufacturing aka lean methodology has its roots in the production system of Toyota as known as Just In Time production. Lean was originated in Japan by a production engineer Taiichi Ohno with a motive of faster production with least time required for setup. The manufacturing plant of Toyota adapted the procedure and produced models in small batches which helped in minimizing setup and changeover period.
In Lean, manufacturing depends on the demand that is gauged through orders. The productions are as per demand and needs rather than projecting the need and supply it. The smaller batches of production increases quality and reduces time of production and changes if any.
Lean Philosophies adapted by Agile
Lean manufacturing has few philosophies those are adapted while evolution of Agile principle. It includes iterative development and short feedback loops (Hemalatha et al., 2021).
Iterative Development – The iteration of phases in regular batches is an efficient way of developing a working mode. It is quick to develop than larger product as a whole. Lean manufacturing adapts iterative development which is used by Agile methodology too.
Short Feedback Loops – The business requirements are strict and to adhere onto it, teams must work progressively and consistently. Same as lean, agile also allows teams to work together which helps in reduce waste. Short feedbacks from customers can solve issues quickly without much waste of time and resources. Whereas, if a larger product fails, it leads to waste of product as a whole as making changes in large systems can be tiresome.
Scrum and Kanban
Scrum and Kanban are two strategies of Agile methodology used for project management. Scrum strategy adheres to deliver smaller deliverables for review at each development stage. The deliverables are called as sprints. The focus of scrum is to get regular customer feedbacks to ensure that the development path is correct as per technical requirements. Kanban is another Agile strategy that helps in modelling work progress in visualizations which maximizes the efficiency. The teams strive to focus on minimizing duration in project development. The iterations improve the work flow as a whole (Lei et al., 2017).
Both the methodologies are useful and equally efficient; however there are few differences and similarities as discussed below (Raizada, 2013). Scrum teams most often use Kanban to visualize work progress.
Similarities in Scrum and Kanban
• Lean as well as Agile in nature
• Helps in limiting work in progress
• Concentration is on quick working prototype in regular intervals and at early stages of software development.
• Lucidity to procedure enhancement.
• The huge job is segregated in smaller modules.
• Contains several separate teams.
Comparison between Scrum and Kanban
Scrum stick to planned schedule at the start of every iteration. The sprints are developed based on planning and it ends with working prototype. For example, on the basis of customer feedback, a new schedule for the next sprint is made. The learning from previous sprints are helpful in future sprints development.
Kanban, on the contrary does not follow fixed schedules. The change in schedule is welcomed at any stage of development. The only focus is to solve problems quickly.
The time is measured on the basis of time duration required to make changes in previous sprints. Kanban generates graphs to track time required to fix the changes from customers feedback.
As Scrum depends on planning beforehand of development or change in prototype, estimations in terms of cost, efforts and time are important. Kanban does not rely on estimations as it never depends on prior planning and scheduling.
Teams allocated for work should commit a predefined time for the project when working in scrum environment. However, Kanban never expects commitment of time for teams as a mandatory factor.
The deliverables are knows as sprints in Scrum in which work should be complete while presenting it to the customer. Whereas in Kanban, the products and processes are continuously delivered whenever need is experienced.
Consider as an example, Scrum has delivered sprints A and B; C to E are in progress and tasks F to J are not yet initiated. The teams of tasks A and B will commit to task F to J in next round. However, Kanban can only develop three tasks at a time. This means even if more teams are available to develop next tasks, only three tasks i.e. C, D and E will be allowed to carry out.
Benefits of using Agile practice in an organization
Making use of Agile in an organization offer following perks:
1. Teams are engaged in collaborations so that more chances of success are projected.
2. Agile helps in being more productive as teams work together to solve a problem. The projects are more manageable and deliverables can be developed in early stage of software development which creates a sense of trust among the customers.
3. Flexibility is highly allowed when a project is monitored with Agile method. Each small chunk of project is continuously tested so that no bug is left when it turns out to be the final product.
4. The quality is observed to be improved when problem solving is quick and efficient.
Software development with Agile practice has gained its importance over recent years. Agile methodology is the most widely used practice that ensures timely delivery of quality product. The changes from customers can be easily integrated if the software development process adapts Agile methodology. The consistent achievement of business requirements is the motive of Agile practice. Lean and Agile methods share few philosophies that make them similar. However, use of Agile is mostly recommended for few advantages of Scrum and Kanban techniques. Scrum helps in meeting business requirements in fewer duration of time. It is a master problem solver for software companies that keep track of each deliverable that is based on time-boxed iterations. Kanban on the other hand allows teams to visualize their progress that helps in continuous growth in terms of efficiency and productivity. Iterations are managed by using Kanban where it encourages members to share responsibilities amongst each other.
Azanha, A., Argoud, A. R. T. T., Camargo Junior, J. B. de, & Antoniolli, P. D. (2017). Agile project management with scrum. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 10(1), 121–142. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJMPB-06-2016-0054
Hemalatha, C., Sankaranarayanasamy, K., & Durairaaj, N. (2021). Lean and agile manufacturing for work-in-process (wip) control. Materials Today: Proceedings. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.12.473
Lei, H., Ganjeizadeh, F., Jayachandran, P. K., & Ozcan, P. (2017). A statistical analysis of the effects of scrum and kanban on software development projects. Robotics and Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 43, 59–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rcim.2015.12.00
Nicholls, G. M., Lewis, N. A., & Eschenbach, T. (2015). Determining when simplified agile project management is right for small teams. Engineering Management Journal, 27(1), 3–10. https://doi.org/10.1080/10429247.2015.11432031
Raizada, R. (2013). Are scrum and kanban enough ? Itnow, 55(3), 54–55. https://doi.org/10.1093/itnow/bwt057
PPMP2008 Initiating and Planning Projects Assignment Sample
Word limit: 2500 words +- 10%
Due date: Week 9 Friday (13 May 2022) 11:45 pm AEST
The objective of this assessment is to help students learn about a range of trending topics in project management, especially throughout initiating and planning stages of projects - through conducting research. You are required to analyse two cases such as a failed project, and distil lessons learnt through answering a range of questions. The lessons learnt will inform the development process of the project plan for a new project of a similar nature (e.g. Assessment 3). Several questions will be asked in relation to the topics discussed in the unit. The questions address different knowledge areas covered in the unit (e.g. scope management, cost management, stakeholder management and risk management) in relation to project initiation and planning. Therefore, for students, it is essential to acquire a good understanding of the topics covered during the unit.
Two case studies are considered for this assessment. The case descriptions are provided as an attachment to this document. You must carefully read the cases and questions and answer to each question logically by using quality references from academic journals, books, PM standards (e.g. PMBOK and other authenticated sources (such as PMI and APM websites). You must clearly link theory to the case throughout your discussions.
This assignment must be delivered in a report format containing:
• Executive summary – overview of the purpose of report, findings and lessons learned,
• Table of content,
• Introduction - purpose of the report, cases summaries, and the structure of the report,
• Body – Answer to the questions by referring to relevant project management knowledge
and use of techniques. Cite high quality and relevant references,
• Conclusion – concluding each case finding and lessons learned,
• Reference list – Harvard style,
• Appendices (if any).
Case Study for Assignment Help
Case 1: Transurban’s West Gate Tunnel pushed back to 2024!
The Victorian government has signalled a breakthrough in its long-running dispute with Transurban over the $6.7 billion West Gate Tunnel project, with a potential site selected to move toxic soil and tunnel boring expected later this year for a new deadline of late 2024.The dispute over toxic soil disposal has meant tunnelling on the project has stopped for more than a year. Transurban and its builders said last month they would not meet the revised delivery date of 2023 for the Melbourne tunnel, which was originally expected in 2022. The blowout in timelines and budget is expected to flow onto other major projects including the $15.8 billion North East Link, the $11 billion Melbourne Metro Tunnel (already blown out by nearly $3 billion), the $10 billion Melbourne Airport Rail (designs for which were released on Monday) and the suburban rail loop, which is expected to cost at least $100 billion. Opposition spokesman for transport infrastructure David Davis said that because the government failed to provide a breakdown of the projects in last year’s budget, taxpayers remained in the dark. The opposition estimated that costs for major projects had already blown out by more than $25 billion, ahead of the May state budget. The government has urged a national strategy to co-ordinate a pipeline of more than $400 billion in state-based infrastructure projects, amid fears a shortage of bidders, skills and raw materials will lead to further cost blowouts and delays. Infrastructure Australia is working on a dashboard for national cabinet by mid-year to help co-ordinate the national supply-side constraints. “Infrastructure Australia is undertaking research to provide comprehensive demand and supply-side analysis of market capacity and capability, with a focus on increasing transparency of key risks for infrastructure delivery,” the body’s chief of policy, Peter Colacino, said on Tuesday. Corey Hannett, director-general of Victoria’s Major Transport Infrastructure Authority, told a media briefing on Tuesday that the approval of a site at Bulla, which received planning and environmental approval on Monday, would help kick-start the troubled West Gate Tunnel. He said the project should be completed within three years of starting later this year, leaving a deadline for late 2024. Transurban declined to comment. “We are hoping a site will be chosen shortly [for the toxic soil],” Mr Hannett said. “We are in daily conversation with Transurban and their builders John Holland CPB. We need the joint venture and Transurban to choose a site, the site needs to be constructed ... if it takes about six months ... we are anticipating to see tunnel boring starting later this year, then it’s about a three year process from there. “Originally, the tunnel boring was starting in 2019, it’s now a couple of years later ... Transurban said a couple of weeks ago they can’t make 2023, so we’ll provide further advice once they provide a date for tunnel boring.” Please carefully explore the following material before attempting to answer the questions:
? West Gate Tunnel: Another Case of Tunnel Vision?
? West Gate Tunnel - Ministers Assessment Final
? 'A fundamental betrayal': City council attacks plan to pump more cars into CBD
There are more resources to explore – Do your own research.
1. What are the potential risk events which could impact the project ? (Some risk events may have happened)?. Make your argument based on risk management theory and provide examples from the case (at least three risk events should be identified and linked to the case).
2. How does the West Gate Tunnel project authority handle the project's risks? Were they the appropriate approaches to handling risks?
3. Suggest the appropriate risk response strategy for each risk event identified and discuss your rationale.
Myki was poorly planned and overly ambitious: Auditor-general In 2005, the Victorian government invested almost AU$1 billion into the state's Myki smart card ticketing system, which was introduced to replace the ageing Metcard system. A report published on Wednesday by the Victorian auditor-general's office, titled Operational Effectiveness of the Myki Ticketing System, has examined Myki to determine whether the expected benefits and outcomes are being achieved. In his report, Victorian Auditor-General John Doyle pointed the finger at Myki's "poor initial planning in its original scope" as one of the underlying reasons behind its lack of success. "The time taken to develop and implement Myki more than quadrupled from the initial expectation of two years, to in excess of nine years," Doyle said in his report. The auditor-general said that the original contract was "vaguely specified and overly ambitious", and that the state has incurred "significant, additional, unanticipated costs", as Myki's budget blew out by 55 percent -- AU$550 million more than its initial AU$1 billion commitment. In December 2012, Public Transport Victoria (PTV) assumed responsibility for Myki once the rollout had been completed and Metcard switched off; according to the report, PTV expected that Myki would deliver around AU$6.3 million to AU$10.8 million per year in economic benefits to Victoria and Victorians when they took on the responsibility. Doyle said he is concerned that PTV does not yet possess a complete and reliable picture of Myki's operational performance, due to shortcomings in performance monitoring. "PTV needs to urgently address these issues and assess the residual benefits achievable from Myki going forward, to optimise value from the state's significant and ongoing expenditure," he said. With PTV planning to re-tender the contract once its 2016 expiry date is reached, the auditor-general suggested that the transport authority needs to urgently address current issues to avoid perpetuating past mistakes. The report also found that between July 2010 and June 2014, the Public Transport Ombudsman received more than 5,450 complaints about Myki. Additionally, as of December 2014, more than 13.4 million Myki cards had been issued, with the system processing around 7.8 million "touch on" transactions per week from 9.9 million active cards. In FY2013-14, the total fares collected by Myki across all transport modes was around AU$800 million.
Please carefully explore the following material before attempting to answer the questions:
• Operational Effectiveness of the myki Ticketing System
? Major eGovernment Projects in Health, Education and Transport in Victoria
There are more resources to explore – Do your own research.
1. Why did the Victorian Auditor-General point to “poor initial planning in its original scope” as one of the main reasons for the Myki project’s failure? Make your argument based on project management theory and provide examples from the case (a minimum of 2 pieces of evidence should be identified and linked to the case).
2. Provide at least 2 recommendations that could help avoid poor project scope planning of the project. Support your arguments with evidence and reference linked to the project.
3. Identify at least 4 stakeholders of the project. Perform stakeholder analysis and develop a stakeholder engagement strategy to engages these stateholders. Discuss your rationale based on stakeholder management theory.
In this report, the project management system of two case studies is briefly discussed. In the case study 1, it includes the potential risks, impacts, and risk management theory, appropriate approaches in risk handling and risk response strategies to overview the risk mitigation and business management processes of West Gate Tunnel Project in Melbourne, Australia. An alternative in the business model is implementation.
In terms case study 2, it demonstrates the reasons of Myki’s project failure, recommendation, stakeholders’ identification, stakeholders’ analysis and stakeholders’ management theory to provide efficient project management procedure and planning. In this case study, it analyzes the areas the organization requires to make improvement in terms of MYki’s Project. Overall, the report suggests an efficient project management system to improve the implementation procedure.
Purpose of the Report
The purpose of the report is to promote an efficient project management system and suggest a development process of the project plan. On the other hand, to implement basic knowledge in terms of project management techniques and processes. It visualizes the uses of stakeholders’ in the business project management system, their responsibilities and impacts. It provides knowledge of choosing the business management procedures and stakeholders’ required for the particular field. The report also considered a description on the needs and requirement for better project management system and implementation procedures.
• In case study 1, it includes the stoppage of business project implementation process due to soil toxicity. It can lead to human health disposal and environmental impacts.
• In case study 2, it includes the project failure of Myki’s ticketing system. It is due to poor project planning procedure and project management system.
Case Study 1
The potential risk analyzed in terms of West Gate Tunnel is toxic soil, time and cost efficiency. In this report, it is analysed it impacts a major effectiveness in the project. Due to the purpose the toxic soil disposal may cause disrupt and stop the implementation practices as well. The discovery of toxic soil may disrupt the human inhabitant as it consists of chemical such as pollutants, and contaminants in soil. The concentration of the chemicals may present in a high concentration that result in leading risk in human health and stability (Prenger-Berninghoff et al., 2014). Before the initiation of the project, the project manager, risk management team and other stakeholders’ must have a discussion regarding the effective outcome of the project.
Before the initiation of the project, Transurban must focus on the project planning procedures and strategies. The stoppage of the West Gate Tunnel project has led the organization to face wastage of time and cost effectiveness. Due to toxic soil disposal, the organization has to stop working on West Gate Tunnel Project that leads Transurban to face gradual loss in business management system. Along with, the project was also linked with the other major project as well such as North East Link, Melbourne Metro Tunnel, Melbourne Airport Rail and Suburban Rail Loop. Due to the purpose of disrupt, it is time-wasting and influences the cost system effectively. For this, the organization has to implement an appropriate plan to manage disrupts analyzed in the project implementation process. The project leaders must focuses on the supply chain management system , human resources management system, project management system and implementation procedures. It requires stakeholders’ engagement and effective communication between the stakeholders to control the situation and improve the project management procedures.
Impacts of the Project
For effective impact on the project outcome, Transurban requires to focus on the few key elements, implementation processes, inquiry, scope management and requirement, stakeholders’ communication and engagement plan, environmental impacts and project outline.
Table 1: Key Elements and Explanation on the impact of the project
(Source: Developed by the author)
Planning Scheme Amendment
The implementation of the project requires amendment documentations and the planning scheme amendment must be approved by the minister (Maclennan, 2017). It requires approval on the planning and environmental impacts visualizes the effectiveness on the West Gate Tunnel Project.
It includes the processes of the project implementation and the approval decisions such as planning scheme amendment and EPA approval. The assessment includes the process of reducing the environment effects. Moreover, the planning assessment improves the waste project management system as well.
The organization has to pass through an inquiry regarding the environmental effects.
Scopes management and requirement
The organization focuses on scopes on managing the project implementation. The organization must provide a documentation and research material for project management and approval.
Stakeholders’ engagement and communication
For appropriate planning of the West Gate Tunnel Project, it requires stakeholders’ engagement during the implementation of the project. It results in better analysis, innovations and outcomes of the project. Moreover, it requires better communication with the stakeholders as well.
Table 2: Implementation Process and Impacts
(Source: Developed by Author)
Risk Management Theory
The West Gate Tunnel Project disposal is caused due to soil toxicity. The toxicity is made by per-and poly-fluoroalkyl substances. The risk management team should focus on the environmental impacts for better project outcome. The team must implement an alternative change in the business management system and implementation procedure (Maamir, & Derghoum, 2021). It requires an appropriate communication between the stakeholders’ and the risk management team. It results in finding the scopes to improve the implementation procedure. For the implementation of West Gate Tunnel project requires approvals such as planning, scopes, and environmental effects. It leads to better project initiation and implementation.
Appropriate approaches in Risk Handling
Due to the stoppage of the project, the organization is facing a gradual fall in the market in terms of cost efficiency. To implement new ideas from the beginning of the project may leads in wastage of time, delays and high cost. The risk management team should focus on the cost effectiveness as well in terms of implementing the business planning (Yazdi, & Zarei, 2018). The stakeholders’, the finance management team, and the risk management team must have an effective engagement and communication regarding the implementation of the project. It results in short-term solution, no delaying of the project and less cost.
Alteration in Designing Process
• Information and reviewing in terms of scopes lowering the extension components and modification of the project (Zhang, 2016).
• Information and assessment in terms of environmental impacts focuses on lowering the components and modification of the project.
Case Study 2
Reasons for Myki Project Failure
The Victorian Auditor General predicted that Myki is ‘poor initial planning in its original scope’. The project failure is caused due to the appropriate project planning, contractual arrangements, and deficiency in governance. Moreover, it is cost efficient and causes delays in the implementation procedure.
The organization requires an appropriate planning for better project implementation. The boards of directors, stakeholders and the team members require having a proper communication for better project implementation. It strengthens the project management system within the organization. The discussion between the stakeholders’ and team member results in new innovations and further implementation procedure.
In this case, the organization must focus on improving the project planning, structure, and analysis process. For effective project planning and implementation procedure, it must follow agile project management system for efficient project planning, analysis and implementation. Following the agile project management techniques provides effective market strategies. Moreover, it analyzes the demands of the consumers in terms of Myki’s ticketing system project. In this system of project management, the organization provides a feedback analysis team to collect feedback from the consumer after releasing few features in the market. On the basis of the demand and feedback analysis the project implementation procedure takes place. It requires efficient stakeholders’ engagement and communication with the scope management team, finance management team, and risk management team. Moreover, it results in better project implementation and planning strategies.
• The organization must follow agile project management system for better project planning, analysis and implementation procedure. On the other hand, the organization should provide several teams working on different categories such as scope management team, project management team, finance management team, risk management team, system developing team, etc.
During the implementation process, the organization must release few features in the market for analysis and testing purpose. It should provide a separate feedback analysis team for collecting feedbacks from the consumers to analyze the market demands and the areas to make improvement in the project implementation.
• The stakeholders’ within the organization are required to implement an appropriate project planning and arrangements. The organization should be associated with the efficient stakeholders’ engagement. It includes the boards of directors, supervisors, project manager, and finance manager. A proper engagement between the stakeholders’ analyzes the areas of improvements and implements new innovations for better outcome. On the other hand, a efficient communication with the team members requires better understanding and requirements of the project. Overall, it increases the productivity of the organization and results in appropriate planning and implementation procedure.
The stakeholders’ essential for Myki’s project management system are,
• Project manager
• Finance Manager
• Resource Manager
The stakeholder contributes a major significance in the project management system. They plan the business model, structure, and make arrangement on it. They lead the different teams in terms of project management system. The entire project planning relies on the following stakeholders. They analyze the outcome and further productivity of the company through business model (Balmer, 2017). It leads different teams such as project management team, finance management team, feedback analysis team, risk management team, scope management team and waste management team for the better implementation of the project. The project manager, finance manager, resource manager, and supervisor are required to have an efficient communication with the stakeholder (Wood et al., 2021). It requires better project management and understanding of the project implementation procedure to the team.
Table 3: Stakeholders’ Analysis
(Source: Developed by Author)
Stakeholders’ management theory
The stakeholders contribute an effective significance in terms of project management system. The stakeholders’ within the organization has an interconnected relationship (Eskerod et al., 2015). It connects the stakes of the organization such as between the business and suppliers, consumers, employees, investors and others. Moreover, these are the key elements of the stakeholders’ analysis.
The organization should follow descriptive approach in terms stakeholders’ management theory. During the process, it requires to develop more accurate model, structure and planning of the project (Hörisch et al., 2014). The theory must provide the organization an effective, practical and ethical way. In this way, it provides the organization a highly complex and turbulent practices.
Table 4: Stakeholders’ Theories and Impacts
(Source: Developed by Author)
In this report, it includes the overall improvements required for project planning procedures. For better project outcome, it is essential to implement an appropriate project planning. For business project implement, it is requires to follow a particular project management system for productive outcome and implementation of the project. The organization must follow a particular project management system in terms of project type. On the other hand, stakeholders’ engagement provides an effective change in the project model and arrangements whereas efficient communication with the leading team such as finance management team, risk management team, etc. results in better understanding and implementation of the project management system.
Prenger-Berninghoff, K. et al., 2014. The connection between long-term and short-term risk management strategies for flood and landslide hazards: examples from land-use planning and emergency management in four European case studies. Natural hazards and earth system sciences, 14(12), pp.3261–3278. https://cqu-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/permalink/f/1rb43gr/TN_cdi_doaj_primary_oai_doaj_org_article_637ac9473ab24c2b9c88b64125838d70
Maclennan, A., 2017. Information Governance and Assurance, London: Facet Publishing. https://cqu-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/permalink/f/1rb43gr/TN_cdi_proquest_miscellaneous_2133333566
Maamir, S. & Derghoum, M., 2021. Toward Preventive Management of Risks Theory: Foundation of Process Structuring the Theory. Management dynamics in the knowledge economy, 9(2), pp.185–203. https://cqu-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/permalink/f/1rb43gr/TN_cdi_doaj_primary_oai_doaj_org_article_346a0c8dbd8a493f9209fa39c7f227ca
Yazdi, M. & Zarei, E., 2018. Uncertainty Handling in the Safety Risk Analysis: An Integrated Approach Based on Fuzzy Fault Tree Analysis. Journal of failure analysis and prevention, 18(2), pp.392–404. https://cqu-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/permalink/f/1rb43gr/TN_cdi_proquest_journals_2002116049
Zhang, Y., 2016. Selecting risk response strategies considering project risk interdependence. International journal of project management, 34(5), pp.819–830. https://cqu-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/permalink/f/1rb43gr/TN_cdi_proquest_miscellaneous_1815987532
Balmer, J.M.T., 2017. The corporate identity, total corporate communications, stakeholders’ attributed identities, identifications and behaviours continuum. European journal of marketing, 51(9/10), pp.1472–1502. https://cqu-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/permalink/f/1rb43gr/TN_cdi_emerald_primary_10_1108_EJM-07-2017-0448
Ayuso, S. et al., 2014. Maximizing Stakeholders’ Interests. Business & society, 53(3), pp.414–439. https://cqu-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/permalink/f/1rb43gr/TN_cdi_proquest_miscellaneous_1531003569
Hörisch, J., Freeman, R.E. & Schaltegger, S., 2014. Applying Stakeholder Theory in Sustainability Management. Organization & environment, 27(4), pp.328–346. https://cqu-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/permalink/f/1rb43gr/TN_cdi_proquest_miscellaneous_1687666180
Perez, A. & del Bosque, I.R., 2016. The stakeholder management theory of CSR. International journal of bank marketing, 34(5), pp.731–751. https://cqu-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/permalink/f/1rb43gr/TN_cdi_proquest_journals_1795937542
Nieder, T.O. et al., 2020. Mapping key stakeholders’ position towards interdisciplinary transgender healthcare: A stakeholder analysis. Health & social care in the community, 28(2), pp.385–395. https://cqu-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/permalink/f/1rb43gr/TN_cdi_proquest_miscellaneous_2299773832
Wood, D.J. et al., 2021. Stakeholder Identification and Salience After 20 Years: Progress, Problems, and Prospects. Business & society, 60(1), pp.196–245. https://cqu-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/permalink/f/1rb43gr/TN_cdi_crossref_primary_10_1177_0007650318816522
Eskerod, P., Huemann, M. & Ringhofer, C., 2015. Stakeholder Inclusiveness: Enriching Project Management with General Stakeholder Theory. Project management journal, 46(6), pp.42–53. https://cqu-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/permalink/f/1rb43gr/TN_cdi_proquest_journals_1758455031
PRJ5105 Project Integration and Change Management Assignment Sample
Due date: Week 11
Word count/Time provided: 3,000 words report (excluding references)
Unit Learning Outcomes: ULO-1, ULO-2, ULO-3, ULO-4 ULO-5
Assessment Detail for Assignment Help
This task will give students an opportunity to practice the subject topics in a real project environment and demonstrate their competencies in using integration management methods. This assessment requires students to analyse a real-life project (either ongoing or completed) to develop and write the Project Plans for Integration Management, Change Management and Configuration Management tailored to the selected real-life project. Student can select project in their field of interest, but project must be aligned with the discipline of project management. This assessment also requires student present their plan using a presentation file (max. 10 mins with no restriction on word count or number of slides in the PowerPoint file). For this purpose, student will need to create Power point presentation slides and use them during “live” delivery. The components of the assessment (word file and PowerPoint file) must be submitted in Canvas using assignment submission link for final marking as per due date specified in Canvas. Word file and PowerPoint file needs to be separately submitted in Canvas.
Sydney metro northwest is a transportation project having a separate car parking that provides transportation across the city that makes it easier for people to travel and transport all the materials easily and effectively. The presented report here discussed the real-life project and hence developed and discussed the plans for the project being made for integration management, change management as well as performing configuration management. This helped in learning about the real-life project in a much better way
Case Project Identification
A project is associated with a certain amount of effort that could lead to the creation of values by using some unique products, processes as well as services associated. It is being seen that certain projects could be used for resolving problems associated. The use of the Sydney metro is one of them that could help people to travel easily from one place to another while leading them to go to places more easily and effectively. Making of Sydney metro project would also lead to providing parking to people and hence parking their cars easily so that they could easily find them whenever required.
The project being selected is the Sydney Metro northwest. This project is known as a transportation-related project that has delivered about 8 railway stations having a large amount of car parking passages that is located in Sydney. The project presented is known to be having great scope for the transportation associated with railways that could make it easier for users to travel and have availability of trains for them. Trains that are associated with the project could be available in 4 minutes maximum while there are about 15 trains present that could be used within an hour. The Sydney metro northwest project is known to be delivering the automated railway system that is present across Australia and the cost is associated to be about $7.3 billion.
Several phases could be associated with the making of the Sydney metro project that includes, including strategic assessment, concept design, making detained design, assessing the environment and making approvals, procurement management, construction and hence the operation. To assess the plan being made for the project and its integration, change management as well as configuration management use of this project is being done while considering different phases associated with it that include, initiation to finalization in the end. The phases that are being included in the strategic assessment could lead to making some of the relevant strategies for the project, making a design for the concept, making a detailed design for the infrastructure as well as making the structure for the entire project, environment and hence making relevant approvals that could ensure an environment being made for the project. This also includes making some legal and governmental-related approvals to make an effective construction. It is also seen that the last phase which is the procurement phase is could be used to plan as well as manage all the materials, equipment and resources associated. The last phase is associated is the construction phase which would include the construction of the entire railway station and hence the operations related to the railway station are being performed.
Project integration management is known as making the coordination of all the elements of a project. Integration management is associated with one that includes several activities like coordinating tasks, stakeholders of the project as well as resources and other related elements of the project that could lead to the making of the project easily. It is being seen that the use of integration management could lead to management of all the conflicts that could arrive while making the project., making the trade-offs to complete the requests and hence evaluation of the resources associated. Integration management is associated as one that could lead to assessing the situation and hence making an informed decision. Integrated project management could lead to ensuring the project is not being managed in isolation. It could take into account all the aspects of the project that are related to each other while considering other parts of the project. Project integration management is associated as a crucial while is success factor that can be associated with project managers. Project integration management is required to be managed by looking at several factors that include, including scheduling, the cost associated, the scope of the project, changes being done, stakeholders associated, quality, resources and risks associated with the project. It is being seen that keeping a track of the project and knowing all the factors could be associated as a challenging aspect to managing a project while if it not being done then it could lead to failure of the project. Integration management is associated as one that could lead to making an increased chance of cutting off people not being required for the job, not going over the budget making the delivery of the project late too. Making an effective decision associated with the project could also lead to an impact on the other projects that are associated with it and the areas of business being associated with it (Arbabi, et.al, 2020).
It is seen that certain processes could be followed to make successful integration management possible that includes, including developing the project charter, making a project management plan, managing the project knowledge, performing the integrated change control and hence managing the knowledge gained from the project. The integration management process that is being associated with is known to occur in the entire lifecycle of the project. This could be associated with this as it could lead to making management of the integration management process an ongoing task which is required to take place continually. It is being seen that project integration management is known as a project management knowledge area that could help any team to work together seamlessly. Integration management could lead to bringing together several processes, methods as well as systems that could lead to making a cohesive kind of strategy indeed (Arbabi, et.al, 2020).
Integration management is associated with making an effective plan for any project that involves knowing the scope of the project, making an effective plan for the project and hence managing the project-related activities. The scope of the project is to make a fully automatic train for the metro which would require a cost of about 7.3 million dollars. The operation of the project and moving of the train would be in a lesser amount of time while the integration being done for the project is being done by making integration of the design while making 8 railway stations as well as using about 15 trains every hour. The entire project is being integrated by making new stations and hence the parking space for several cars too. The plan made for the project management is known to be having several phases associated with it that includes, strategic management, designing of the concept, detaining the design, assessing the environment, procurement, construction as well as lastly considering the operations that could lead to integration the entire project in the end. It is also seen that tools and techniques that could be used for the integrated management of the project include, the process of brainstorming while leading to collecting the data that is associated with the project, monitoring it and hence controlling the entire project in the end.
Integration management is associated with the Sydney metro northwest project is being associated while making integration with all the associated elements that could be used to assign the tasks and hence manage the resources or the equipment that could be used for communication with the associated project stakeholders. The use of this project could lead to making some relevant changes to par the cars easily while making an automated system that could work efficiently (Arbabi, et.al, 2020). Making use of the integration management requires making a specific plan for the management that includes:
• Scope: The Sydney metro project is being planned to make deliveries to about 8 railway stations while could easily provide about 4 thousand car parking passages that are growing in the northwest suburbs of Sydney. The project is known to be having a broader scope associated with the metro system that could lead to integrating the availability of trains within 4 minutes while providing a minimum of 5 trains indeed. The project is known to be having a budget of about $7.3 billion that could be used for delivering an automated railway system for Sydney indeed (Hidalgo, 2019).
• Project management plan: The plan that is being made for the project includes a particular project management lifecycle that includes making the strategic assessments, performing the concept designing, detaining designs, assessing the environment and making approval procurements, making effective construction and hence operations that could help in managing the metro project more easily.
• Managing the project activities: It is being seen that making effective and regular communication and hence making some involvement of the stakeholders of the project could lead to helping the metro project to manage the activities associated with the project.
• Tools and techniques: There are some tools and techniques involved in integration management planning that includes, performing data collection using the brainstorming process and effectively performing meetings for the project (Abyad, 2019).
Change Management Plan
Change management is associated as a process that could be associated with a business and is being used by the business that could help in implementing changes being performed across the organization. Change management plans are known as ones that could typically be used to make a significant or complex change to an organization which requires a strategic-based approach. Change management is associated with one that could lead affect the assets that are essential to the project (Daniel and Daniel, 2018). It is required that an organisational change management plan must be made that is being done sustainably. A change management plan is associated with a basic outline that could serve as a roadmap in defining some of the concrete steps taken by the company to make implementation and execution the change management process. The plans associated with the change management could be adopted by the organization that could embrace and hence encounter changes to achieve their flow of work. It could help in using the tool and processes that are being required to manage people to change the environment indeed. (Dinnik, et.al, 2019).
It could be associated with a basic process that could lead to implementing the change or changes that are being done in a project or across an organization indeed. Thinking of the change management plan is associated with a roadmap that could show up the steps that are being required to process including the identification of change and hence realizing the change in the end. The plan of change management being used could lead to the execution of the change while lead to asking about the impacts being laid by the project or any organization indeed, it could also lead to affecting the workflow and hence alter the relationship with the client or the team associated (Kerzner, 2022).
It is observed that there are some of the best practices that could be used for making the change management process to be implemented easily include:
• Performance of open communication: This kind of communication is performed when people involved in the communication process could easily express all their thoughts as well as associated ideas to each other (Arbabi, et.al, 2020). This could lead to boost productivity and hence perform the work more easily and effectively. This could lead to an increment of engagement that makes an increment of productivity in the end and all the involved people get the right kind of information at right time.
• Engaging and integrating the project management changes: The project management changes involve the management associated with the project that includes changes being done in the entire process, resources associated with the change, a process considered for the change and hence the people being involved in the change management. It is required that the changes that are being made in a project must be engaged and hence integrated so that project could work easily.
• Aligning the resources of change management: When any kind of change management is being processed, it requires some resources that could be used to process that change management. All the resources that are required for the change management must be aligned in a sequenced way that could lead to the use of those resources easily. The use of these resources could be done for change management that could lead to making an effective change to occur (Lee, et. al, 2018).
There is also a requirement for some tools as well as techniques that could be used for making an effective implementation of the project change that includes:
• Process maps: A process map is known as planning as well as a management-related tool that could be used for describing the basic flow of work visually. Process map that could be used effectively includes a flowchart, use of the process chart, functional process chart, process model as well as workflow diagram. This tool could be used for knowing who and what is being involved in the entire process while how this could be used within an organization or business that could lead to revel the areas associated with which process could be improved in an effective way (Kerzner, 2019).
• Lewis change model: Lewis change model is known as a simpler model as well as an easily understandable framework that could lead to making the change management process easily processed. 3 different distinct stages are involved in this process that includes, unfreezing, performing the change and then refreezing. These steps that are being involved could help in planning and hence implementing all the changes that are required to be done. Use of some combination of changes that are being processed while that are associated with change models as well as change management tools could be used to drive employees to make necessary changes in the end.
• Kottler’s 8-step changing model: This changing model is associated with one that could lead to use 8 steps that could be used for bringing a significant change while initiating the change-making process for the project. The eight steps that are being included in the change management process include, an increment in the urgency of the changes, building a team that could help in guiding people, development of a vision for making relevant changes, making relevant communication to make a buy-in, empowering the actions being proposed, creation of the wins that are based on short term only, trying not to give up at the end, while the last change is sticking to the changes being made (So?ta-Dr?czkowska, et.al, 2020).
Configuration Management Plan
Configuration management is known as an application or some set of characteristics that could lead to defining the product that is required to be delivered at the end of the deliverables associated with the project. The specifications that are being included in the configuration management planning include all the functional, as well as physical specifications, use of physical specifications, could include, size, colour, materials and other aspects too. The use of project configuration management is associated with one that could lead to managing the configuration being associated with the products and assets of the project. This could include the end products that are being delivered to the client (Kerzner, 2018).
There are some of the best processes that could be used for making the best configuration management for the project Sydney metro include:
• Initiation of a plan: It is required that a plan must be executed that could lead to making the configuration easier and hence effective to be used in a project. This requires conveying the entire plan to the associated people including the stakeholders, use of relevant technology and use of certain processes indeed.
• Monitoring using the project: It is required that the entire project must be monitored from the start to the end so that its configuration could be done more easily and effectively indeed.
• Covering each project area: It is required that each of the areas of the project must be covered so that configuration could be done more easily and effectively for the project.
Configuration management is known to be consisting of some functions that could be included in it so that configuration of a project could be done more easily and effectively. The functions that could be included in configuration management include, planning and management, configuration identification process, change management process, use of configuration status accounting and making verification and audit of the configuration process (Portny and Portny, 2022).
Project management is associated with using some kind of specified knowledge, skills and techniques that could help in making the delivery of some aspects that could provide value to people. The presented report here discussed the integration management that uses project resources, the timeline being used for making the project, the budget associated with the project and hence the stakeholders of the project. It also discussed the change management that is being processed for the project by considering several factors associated including, risks associated with the project, failures of the project, threats associated with the project and other associated changes required to be present in the project-making process. In the end is also led to know the configuration management being done for the project so that its configuration could be achieved more easily while using the techniques, strategies and resources of the project can then be utilized effectively.
Abyad, A., 2019. Project management: Science or a craft. Middle East Journal of Business, 14(1), pp.4-16.
Arbabi, H., Salehi-Taleshi, M.J. and Ghods, K., 2020. The role of project management office in developing knowledge management infrastructure. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management.
Arbabi, H., Salehi-Taleshi, M.J. and Ghods, K., 2020. The role of project management office in developing knowledge management infrastructure. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management.
Daniel, P.A. and Daniel, C., 2018. Complexity, uncertainty and mental models: From a paradigm of regulation to a paradigm of emergence in project management. International journal of project management, 36(1), pp.184-197.
Dinnik, D.I., Grigoryeva, N.S. and Galoyan, Y.E., 2019, August. Improving project management of socio-economic development of the region with the use of soft computing. In International Conference on Theory and Application of Soft Computing, Computing with Words and Perceptions (pp. 214-220). Springer, Cham.
Hidalgo, E.S., 2019. Adapting the scrum framework for agile project management in science: case study of a distributed research initiative. Heliyon, 5(3), p.e01447.
Kerzner, H., 2018. Project management best practices: Achieving global excellence. John Wiley & Sons.
Kerzner, H., 2019. Using the project management maturity model: strategic planning for project management. John Wiley & Sons.
Kerzner, H., 2022. Project management metrics, KPIs, and dashboards: a guide to measuring and monitoring project performance. John Wiley & Sons.
Lee, C.Y., Chong, H.Y., Liao, P.C. and Wang, X., 2018. Critical review of social network analysis applications in complex project management. Journal of management in engineering, 34(2), p.04017061.
Portny, J.L. and Portny, S.E., 2022. Project management for dummies. John Wiley & Sons.
So?ta-Dr?czkowska, E. and Mro?ewski, M., 2020. Exploring the role of project management in product development of new technology-based firms. Project Management Journal, 51(3), pp.294-311.
MKT101A Marketing Fundamentals Assignment Sample
Individual/Group - Individual
Length - 2000 words
Learning Outcomes Addressed
a) Describe the marketing concept
b) Outline and apply the elements of the marketing process.
c) Identify and explain the macro and micro environmental factors impacting the marketing of a business or industry.
d) Demonstrate an ability to incorporate new trends to solve marketing problems and apply communication skills.
Submission - By 11:55pm AEST/AEDT Sunday of Module 5.2 (Week 10)
Weighting - 40%
Total Marks - 100 marks
Instructions for Assignment Help
Develop a marketing report based on the following sections:
a. Cover Page including:
? Business name
? Student Identifier (name and number)
? Subject code and name
? Date of submission
? Facilitator name
b. Table of contents
c. Brief introduction
d. Target Market Profile. Develop a target market profile applying two (2) variables for each of the following segmentation elements: demographic, geographic, psychographic and behavioural elements. Note: Your business may target more than one market and if so, focus on what you think is the largest target market.
e. Positioning Statement. Develop a positioning statement for the client highlighting the values and benefits offered by the brand to consumers. This may be derived from evaluating the client’s website and marketing communications in order to complete the “Moore positioning statement” (template below):
For: (target customers)
Who must: (solve a specific problem or fulfil a need)
Our product is a: (describe product or solution)
That provides: (key breakthrough benefit which solves the problem and/or a reason to believe)
Unlike: (reference direct competitors)
Our product /solution offers: (describe the key point of competitive differentiation)
f. Analysis of the Current Marketing Mix. Analyse the variables that include
i. Product strategy:
- Identification/suggestion of the three levels of product
- Product classification
- Identification/suggestion of the product portfolio (width, depth and lines)
ii. Pricing strategies
Application/suggestion of at least 2 (two) relevant pricing strategies that may be used by the business and associated terminologies/concepts.
Identification/suggestion of at least 1 (one) marketing/distribution channel strategy used and apply associated terminologies/concepts.
Identification and description of at least 3 (Three) promotional tools used by the business including relevant application of associated terminologies /concepts.
g. Recommendations. Identify at least 4 (four) marketing recommendations based on the situational analysis and applying key concepts and marketing principles covered in the modules. These recommendations should relate to any/or all of the elements of the marketing mix (Product, Price, Place, Promotion). You may also include discussion of the targeting, positioning and branding if changes are recommended.
- A minimum of 4 credible and reliable sources should be used in your research
- As this is a report, appropriate headings and sub-headings should be used in your writing
- The reference list must be compiled using APA 7th ed.
- Please refer to the marking rubric at the end of this brief for grading details
The Little Big Dairy Co., a dairy company, was launched in 2012. The family-run company strives to provide its customers with high-quality dairy products (Little Big Dairy, 2022). The company's main goal is to ethically produce milk and dairy products and get them from the farm to the market. The company owns a farm where the milk is produced. The company aspires to become Australia's leading single-source producer of dairy products. According to the family-owned business, family members work with other members of their supply chain to maintain the quality of their milk (Little Big Dairy, 2022).
(Source: Little Big Dairy, 2022)
The company only operates in New South Wales, Newcastle, and Sydney. The company now only sells its products in stores and cafés in the above localities, using offline distribution techniques. They provide a variety of milk products, including full cream, reduced cream, no cream, premium non-homogenized milk, lactose-free milk, fair trade coffee milk, fair trade chocolate milk, honey malt and vanilla milk, pure pouring cream, and pure double cream (García-Moreno et al., 2019).
Australia's milk products market is anticipated to raise substantially throughout the estimate period. The market is growing due to population growth, increasing disposable income, and increased public awareness of the benefits of nutritious meals. The domestic dairy market is frequently directly impacted by fluctuations in the price of raw milk, which causes the dairy products industry to be unstable.
Figure 1. Target Market Key Points
(Source: Author )
Income, age, work status, gender, and other indicators are used to categorise the market; because marketers value these demographic traits so highly, they typically tie them to the needs and desires of the consumer (Moore et al., 2019). Target market factors are simple to quantify. The demographic factors used to divide markets are listed below. Little Big Dairy Milk uses the following characteristics to classify its aim.
Age: Most clientele are young, urban, working professionals between the ages of 20 and 40 who value their time and desire to lead healthy lives.A person in their middle or late years. Although the willing tetra package of nourishing milk is incredibly suitable for elderly folks, this is not the target market. The Little Big Dairy hopes to win.
Gender: Gender-neutral beverage The Little Big Dairy Milk is designed for anybody who wants to maintain a healthy lifestyle.
Income: The Little Big Dairy targets a market group of high-income consumers due to their brand name's association with a particular luxury level. For instance, Australian I.T. experts.
(Source: Little Big Dairy, 2022)
Occupation: athletes, health enthusiasts,working professionals, Students sports enthusiasts,
Psychographic target marketpurchasers are distributed in the following ways:
• Lifestyle: High profile class, student, working executives,
• Personality:diligent and health aware.
• Benefits:Feature and fitness
• Operator status: a regular user
• Reliability rank:regular Loyal
• Readiness stage:planning to purchase
• Approach toward invention:passionate and appreciative
A geographic target market categorizes the market based on spatial location. In geographic segmentation, there are numerous systems for the various geographical parts, such as positions, counties, and towns (Mbuthia et al., 2015). The majority of markets are located in distinct urban and rural areas. The following techniques have been used to divide markets based on the above:
Location: The Little Big Dairy Milk restrictions itself to semi-urban as well as urban Zones in India as that is their main customer base
Town: Class-A alsoClass-B cities, i.e., metro representative cities where people can not get milk easily
Section: Scattering is constant through urban zones
Social and economic groupings:They may be used by high-level employees with practical communication skills.
Behvavioral targeting foucs on the milk compnay publics view or positiion in the mind of consumer:
- Website engagement
- Purchase management
- Campaign engagement
They focus their geographic efforts on regions that have a vibrant I.T. culture. Their target audience comprises young, working professionals (20 to 40 years). The socioeconomic classifications middle and high class people were the main focus of the psychographic classification (Lagrange et al., 2015). They were found to be striving for both new and loyal clients via behavioral segmentation. They target big-box stores, supermarkets, and hypermarkets where people easily access the milk of the target compnay.
Key Target Audience:
- Manufacturers and distributors of dairy products in Australia
- Institutions for research and advisory services
- Trade groups, forums, and alliances about the dairy industry
- Elected representatives who decide on laws and public policy.
- Associations for trade
- Research about the market and guidance a Small but Powerful Dairy
The dairy products market in Australia may be segmented on manufactured goods type, the network of distribution, and regional exploration (Key & Czaplewski,2017). Based on the kind of product, the market may be classified into divisions for dairy milk, ghee and butter,cheese, ice cream, milk powder,yogurts, spread, and other goods. Australia routinely consumes more milk than other countries in the industrialized world. Australia's "coffee culture" and the appeal of flavor-enhanced milk products will also be expected to grow during the forecasted period. Cheddar cheese is the most widely consumed variety in Australia, one of the nations where cheese consumption is rising.
Analysis of the Existing Marketing Mix
Create marketing mix strategies to achieve the targeted market outcomes. It will be possible to implement its whole marketing strategy by creating plans that target the varied aspects of each category (Dadzie et al., 2017 ).
The following examines the four components of the marketing mix and suggests methods for each:
It offers nine major product categories, each of which connects to a variety of items it sells. Under the trade name The Little Big Dairy, the company sells all of its goods.
(Source: Little Big Dairy, 2022)
Offers a wide range of items for sale, allowing clients to choose the best that best meets their needs.
(Source: Little Big Dairy, 2022)
Offers customers a variety of features that its rivals do not by selling products that are highly different from one another (Capriotti et al., 2016). As a result, its products are considered as distinctive.
(Source: Little Big Dairy, 2022)
Its goods are regarded as being of a better caliber than those of competitors. As a result, customers are willing to pay extra for these.
Provides products that are recognized for their timeless designs and customer usefulness.
The pricing strategy is based on competition to choose the price level that will be adhered to. This is because there are several competitors in the industry, making information about them readily available (Kotler et al., 2015).
Expenses are also included in determining the price for a chosen few commodities for which information about competitors is either unavailable or their manufacture is more expensive.
Compared to competitors, it charges more for its items. This results from the additional features, which make up for the high cost.
Currently, it also uses product-bundle pricing, in which related items are packaged together and offered for a discounted price compared to the total of their costs.
It also uses an optional pricing model for some products, where the primary product is sold for one price. However, the accessories are priced differently (Aguirre-Villegas & Larson., 2017).
It requests a greater charge for the products it provides for online purchases. This is so because the cost of delivery is already included in the price of the items.
Prices for the finished goods have been decided. Members of the channel, such as wholesalers and retailers, pay less for the product and make money off their margins.
Employs two marketing platforms to promote its products. The first scenario involves an online direct sale to the customer. The second is the sale to wholesalers, who then sell to a wide variety of retailers dispersed around the country. The customers are then sold these.
Has more than 500 outlets around the country where it distributes its products. It has a thorough marketing strategy to distribute its goods to as many retailers as possible. This ensures that customers may quickly obtain its products around the country.
Normally websites receive a significant quantity of traffic and online revenue. The firm has collaborated with several delivery service providers to handle its online operations and guarantees on-time deliveries.
It makes its products readily available to clients by utilizing an integrated online and offline retail approach known as omni-channel distribution.
Acquires the raw materials it needs to make its goods from a network of more than 500 vendors (Tamime& Thomas, 2018). Due to the close working relationship the company has built with its suppliers, it can work with them to develop and include new, enticing features in its products.
Uses a range of mediums to promote its products. It employs traditional media, such as radio and television commercials. Due to its widespread appeal and ability to gather a huge audience, this is useful. The use of online and social media advertising, which is beneficial and less expensive, is made possible by the increase in internet usage.
It primarily advertises on YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter because of its high monthly usage rates (Cornelsen et al., 2015). It has more than 100,000 likes or followers on various websites, and these users are often exposed to updated material.
Participates in various trade fairs and events throughout the year, conducting various sales campaigns.
Personal selling uses a huge sales crew to increase its awareness at retail locations.
A percentage of sales method is used to establish the annual budget for promotions.
The targeting positiong and branding there no need to change and recommendation needed. The recommendation for The Little Big co. The Marketing mix is below:
Recommendation for product strategy
It should provide consumers who purchase its products with extra benefits, including warranties, delivery choices, credit, after-sales assistance, help lines, and other things.
It should introduce new products that reflect current market trends. It must identify market opportunities and release new products that capitalize on them.
It should test newly provided goods in test markets before ultimately commercializing them.
It should introduce new product lines to satisfy customer needs and broaden its product offering.
It should improve the packaging of its products to make them more straightforward to use and transport. Its packaging should also be visually appealing to attract customers.
Recommended Price Strategy
Reductions and allowances, whereby prices are temporarily lowered in an effort to entice customers and increase market share (Pirro et al., 2017). It may do this by deducting a set sum from the price of its items.
Should use psychological pricing, which makes items look more expensive than they are actually. For example, a product worth $100 may be priced at $99, so customers will view it as less expensive.
A price penetration strategy should be used when introducing new products, providing an initial price lower than competitors to gain market share. This will ensure that newly released goods are used by customers and become more well-liked than the rivals.
Recommended Place Strategy
It should open corporate-run retail locations to sell all of its products. The company could cut costs because retailer and wholesaler margins would not exist.
It should create a social media storefront where it may sell its products through posts on numerous social media platforms. As a consequence, the company will be able to boost sales. Its social media profiles and online shops should be linked to make user navigation simple.
It should put its attention into improving its online presence so that it becomes more accessible and user-friendly.
Ensure that personal selling is employed to offer its products to significant retailers. These enormous establishments have recently grown and garnered a considerable customer base. This would ensure that it increases sales.
Recommended Promotions Strategy
Should post on social media more content that is relevant to its target audience. The postings must also be crafted such that viewers are inspired to take further action, such as sharing them with others or leaving comments (Lokhorst et al., 2019). These should incorporate the newest hashtags, memes, and other social media trends.
Should begin gathering consumer information and contacting them via SMS or email, which may eventually result in repeat business from clients.
It should utilize social media influencers, such as well-known T.V./movie stars and bloggers, and highlight them in its advertisements. Bloggers may advertise by providing content on their social media accounts. T.V. and movie personalities may be utilized in advertisements to encourage customer acceptance of the products.
Should launch a marketing plan in which customers receive a unified message through all media. This will help the brand become more well-known to consumers.
Should be put into practice many digital marketing techniques to boost website traffic. Some of these include the development of its blog, SEO, and banner advertising.
Aguirre-Villegas, H. A., & Larson, R. A. (2017). Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions from dairy manure management practices using survey data and lifecycle tools. Journal of cleaner production, 143, 169-179.
Capriotti, A. L., Cavaliere, C., Piovesana, S., Samperi, R., & Laganà, A. (2016). Recent trends in the analysis of bioactive peptides in milk and dairy products. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, 408(11), 2677-2685.
Cornelsen, L., Green, R., Turner, R., Dangour, A. D., Shankar, B., Mazzocchi, M., & Smith, R. D. (2015). What happens to patterns of food consumption when food prices change? Evidence from a systematic review and meta?analysis of food price elasticities globally. Health economics, 24(12), 1548-1559.
Dadzie, K. Q., Amponsah, D. K., Dadzie, C. A., & Winston, E. M. (2017). How firms implement marketing strategies in emerging markets: An empirical assessment of the 4A marketing mix framework. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 25(3), 234-256.
García-Moreno, O., Álvarez-Laó, D., Arbizu, M., Dopico, E., García-Vázquez, E., Sansegundo, J. G., ... & Turrero, P. (2019). The little big history of the Nalón River, Asturias, Spain. In The Routledge Companion to Big History (pp. 300-319). Routledge.
Key, T. M., & Czaplewski, A. J. (2017). Upstream social marketing strategy: An integrated marketing communications approach. Business Horizons, 60(3), 325-333.
Kotler, P., Burton, S., Deans, K., Brown, L., & Armstrong, G. (2015). Marketing. Pearson Higher Education A.U.
Lagrange, V., Whitsett, D., & Burris, C. (2015). Global market for dairy proteins. Journal of food science, 80(S1), A16-A22.
Law. T.J. (2022). Why you desperately need a defined target market and target audience. Retrieved November 15, 2022, fromhttps://www.oberlo.com/blog/target-audience
Little Big Dairy (2022). Welcome to the Little Big Dairy Co.. Retrieved November 15, 2022, from https://www.littlebigdairy.co/
Lokhorst, C., De Mol, R. M., & Kamphuis, C. (2019). Invited review: Big Data in precision dairy farming. Animal, 13(7), 1519-1528.
Mbuthia, J. M., Rewe, T. O., & Kahi, A. K. (2015). Evaluation of pig production practices, constraints and opportunities for improvement in smallholder production systems in Kenya. Tropical animal health and production, 47(2), 369-376.
Moore, J. B., Horti, A., & Fielding, B. A. (2018). Evaluation of the nutrient content of yogurts: a comprehensive survey of yogurt products in the major UK supermarkets. BMJ open, 8(8), e021387.
Pirro, M., Vetrani, C., Bianchi, C., Mannarino, M. R., Bernini, F., & Rivellese, A. A. (2017). Joint position statement on “Nutraceuticals for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia” of the Italian Society of Diabetology (SID) and of the Italian Society for the Study of Arteriosclerosis (SISA). Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 27(1), 2-17.
Schwab. P. N. (2021). Marketing Mix: definitions, analysis examples [Complete Guide 2022].Retrieved November 15, 2022, fromhttps://www.intotheminds.com/blog/en/marketing-mix/
Tamime, A. Y., & Thomas, L. V. (Eds.). (2018). Probiotic dairy products. John Wiley & Sons.
PMN610 Project Management Principles Assignment Sample
This assessment requires you to conduct and write a “Business Case” report on a project concept. The report must analyse the Client or Project Sponsor Organisation’s vision, mission, strategic direction, corporate or business plan and determine if the project should proceed, based on the project’s benefits alignment with their vision, mission, strategic direction, corporate or business plan. As each organisation – and the projects they undertake – are unique, no pre-determined criteria have been provided to you. These criteria will be defined by you, based on information you glean from the organisation and/or your research. Please note that this assessment is not specifically about determining the technical feasibility of a project, although this could be one of the criteria included by you.
A Business Case (sometimes also called a feasibility study) describes the necessary information for justifying the need for a project – and any recommended or preferred option(s) – along with the description of key project management activities. It is often used as a basis for getting an approval or authorization from a project board, funding agency, etc. for initiating a project.
Assessment Objective and Your Tasks for assignment help online
The objective of this assignment is to prepare a “Business Case” for a project – a task that would be undertaken during the initiating phase of the project lifecycle. The Business Case must be based on how the intended benefits, gained from undertaking the project, will assist the organisation in achieving their strategic objectives. Project benefits, drivers and other criteria of success will generally be outlined by the Client Organisation and noted in the project brief, business plan, pre-feasibility study, etc. It is likely that you may not have full access to this information.
In this assessment, you will investigate a project proposal, or the terms of reference of a proposed project and prepare a “Business Case” report, which will address the proposed need for the project, describe and evaluate the options considered and recommend a preferred option. Once the preferred project option is determined, you will then provide a high-level project definition and approach, and detail the time frame, cost/budget analysis and the strategies for managing risk, quality, project completion and benefits realisation. You will use the Business Case Template provided for this assessment, to structure your report.
You will analyse the project using Project Management (PM) principles, concepts, processes, appropriate/relevant knowledge areas and best practices, that are discussed in the unit, as well as those that you glean from various other sources (e.g., books, journal articles, websites, news articles, reports).
This assessment requires you to work in a group. Each member of the group is expected to actively and regularly participate in the group/team meetings, make serious efforts to fulfill the assigned role and responsibilities on assignment tasks, make significant contribution to group work and cooperate. You will also evaluate each team member’s performance against the peer evaluation criteria. Your individual team evaluation score will then be used against the total marks of the group to arrive at your final adjusted mark.
Study (Report) Requirements (Strict adherence is required)
You are to write a 5,000-word report – excluding table of contents, appendices, tables, figures and references – in a professional format, with appropriate referencing. The report will record details of a Business Case for a proposed project concept. The chosen project concept should be a new project of your choice, one that has not obtained formal approval and is recognised and/or has significant details available within the public domain. The project can be a fictional project, but it must be based on a real-world environment.
You will follow the provided Business Case template and prepare the report. In preparing the Business Case, you should consider, but not be limited to, the following aspects:
• Project Need: Articulate and explain the reasons for developing this business case.
• Options Analysis:
• Describe different options, alternatives or solutions considered or available (type, methods, project features, delivery approach, etc.) to address the identified project need and their comparison and recommended best option. It is suggested a Multiple Criteria Assessment be used. It should be noted that ‘do nothing” option is equally possible for an organisation i.e. the project is not viable.
However, for the purpose of this assessment, you will identify a few plausible options and choose the best option, which will then form a basis for further analysis.
Do nothing option should not be considered in your option analysis!
• Project Definition: Define the scope of the recommended option (project) including the constraints, dependencies, deliverables, and performance measures.
• Project Approach: Detail the strategies for managing the project, project procurement, communication and stakeholders.
• Budget, Program, Risk, and Quality: Detail the time frame, cost and budget analysis, broad risk present or associated in the project environment and strategies to manage them, quality management, project completion strategy and benefits realisation plan.
Project requirements analysis, often known as a needs assessment, is a vital aspect of the planning process. The emergence of the demand may have been precipitated by the realisation of a problem or the discovery of an improvement possibility. The objective of each given undertaking is to better or otherwise take advantage of some existing circumstance (WYRED Consortium, 2017). The process of defining the project's needs may be used as a preliminary assessment of:
• Human resource required
• The time, money, and expertise needed to finish the project
• How long it will take to do the project,
• The amount of financial resources that should be set aside for the undertaking
Business will benefit from a mobile-friendly website design in terms of both sales and conversions. Users are more likely to connect with and engage with the events across devices if they know Global Treps website is mobile-friendly. It's important to put investment into this feature early on because of the impact it will have on customer loyalty and retention over the long run. With more and more consumers accessing site from mobile devices, it's crucial that website is optimised for these visitors and that they can access any part of the customer journey, regardless of the device they're using (Weblite, 2022).
Global trust may gain the trust of young entrepreneurs in a big manner by making the website accessible to them on their mobile devices. By continuously improving entrepreneur’s offerings to meet and even surpass your consumers' expectations, this can show both new and returning customers that firm can adapt to their needs and wants. The customer's experience is streamlined and enhanced by a feeling of genuineness and trust. Along with this more events like Shark Tank could be managed (Weblite, 2022).
The goals of a project are the outcomes desired. This may be physical things like projects completed and assets acquired, or it could be something less concrete like a rise in productivity or morale (Meredith et al., 2017).
• Strategic objectives for Global Treps include expanding operations and becoming a nonprofit.
• A mobile-friendly website and app will help the company reach its objectives by showcasing its knowledge to existing and new customers on the move.
• The product will give a streamlined system at a lower price.
• The project is to build a website to ensure continuing organising more pitch events and it would be ease for young entrepreneurs and investors to show interest.
Critical success factors (CSF)
Organization's purpose and goals serve as the inspiration for its most important success criteria. They lay out the steps necessary for success and are often consistent across all businesses (Kim et al., 2018). Items like as:
• Making more growth.
• Growing interest among workers.
• Facilitating the recruitment and retention of top personnel.
• Taking measures to reduce their impact on the planet.
CSFs for Global Trep website development project are explained below:
• The website would be having a responsive design, since it is recommended by Google and is a key way to make the website more accessible.
• The website will have template for providing guidelines to entrepreneurs to present their pitch in suitable manner.
• The website would be responsive to accept investor fund and also will lead investors to participate in the events
• Global Trep would hire an experienced technical team that will monitor the speed, responsiveness, performance and accessibility criteria of the website
• Global Trep would be able to have constant communication to the customers that might have raised query and also have submitted their application on the website.
With reference to the study of Alias, (2014) some additional success factors are related to management, planning and monitoring of the project. Current website building project would be strategic focus that means a leader would be responsible to managing the technical team and manager would be having responsibility to monitor the progress of the project. In addition, adequate personnel would be hired that would meet the utility of the project. Thus, Global Trep would further focus on website promotion and marketing of the business to attain success of the project. Further, finance team would be responsible for budget allocation and for arrangement of timely facilities and equipments.
Organizational change is the process through which a firm or business modifies a significant aspect of itself, such as its culture, underlying technology or infrastructure, or internal procedures. Managing organisational change effectively is the goal of change management. Dramatic shifts in strategy for the corporation (Macaya et al., 2016). Changes that affect a smaller portion of a company are less noticeable. To better understand change, it might be useful to visualise it as a spectrum. On other hand, adaptive change, this is indicative of those little tweaks. The other kind of change is called transformational change, and its goal is to bring about radical shifts. Organizations may adapt to changing demands by making gradual, incremental adjustments (Hornstein, 2015). It's common practise for managers to make modest tweaks and alterations as part of carrying out their companies' strategic plans. Processes may be added, removed, or improved upon as needed by leadership.
For instance, it is required to have the change request form by the project team that is offered to project manager and other stakeholder that can occur in any form of suggestion or sudden change in the project.
For example, the current change in the project could be reduction of online streaming of the show. Online streaming is not necessary as it will consume additional resources, time and costing of the project. This will affect on the infrastructural objects required to conduct live streaming of the shows for the entrepreneurs and other audiences. Therefore, the online streaming of the pitch show is excluded from the scope of the project. Thus, it would affect on reduction of the project budget. Thus, website would have less traffic and that will help young entrepreneurs to participate and also increase the attention of investors.
Thus, with reference to concept of change management it is necessary for the project manager to prepare for the change of the project along with the team. Thus, it will have weekly meetings and reporting to implement the change successfully in the project (Macaya et al., 2016)
Hosting events at which entrepreneurs may present their company ideas to a panel of investors in return for funding and guidance on how to establish or expand their firm is at the basis of Global Treps' operation. The firm is able to focus on its objectives and operations to establish a charitable organisation by developing a website and app that are compatible with mobile devices to assist communities in the organisation of meetings like these, which are guaranteed to attract entrepreneurs. Developing a website with a Shark Tank-inspired motif is included in the scope of this project. The website will provide entrepreneurs with rules and templates that they may use to present a pitch for their firm in a way that is appropriate.
In order to take advantage of the chance, there are three different choices accessible to you.
1 Do nothing: Because business is growing, there is no need for the company to embark on this new initiative.
2. The newly added mobile-friendly aspects of the website and apps may be planned and developed in-house using mostly hardware and software that is already in existence.
3 Make an investment in a website and application and reduce the amount of in-house product development as much as possible.
Options Evaluation Criteria
In situations when there are several potential solutions to a problem and the decision-maker must balance competing priorities, multi-criteria assessment (MCA) is a useful approach. MCA is both a framework for organising decision issues and a collection of techniques for determining which options are most desirable. In theory, MCA may concentrate less on the outcome and more on the decision-making process by openly considering the potentially competing, multifaceted, incommensurable, and unpredictable implications of any given choice (CIFOR, 2022).
Usually, a solution that maximises every criterion simultaneously does not exist, hence trade-offs must be made. To underline that firm is not simply looking for the 'best' answers, firm strive for 'compromise solutions,' which colloquially may be dubbed 'the least awful' options, since firm take into consideration several aspects. Because of their potential to be inter- or multi-disciplinary (taking into account the many dimensions at play), participatory (inviting input from all parties), and transparent, multi criteria methods have been proposed as a useful framework for policy analysis when considering sustainability issues (Munda, 2008). The MCA process as a whole—from ideation to weighing and evaluating possibilities to outcome discussion—may benefit from including stakeholder input.
Some of the criteria and weights have been considered for Global Treps project and that show the reason for the chosen project.
Table 1: Option Criteria
An increase in sales and conversions is the primary benefit of a mobile-friendly website. For survival in today's cutthroat digital market, it's crucial to provide consumers with a frictionless mobile experience. This may be a game-changer in terms of income, plus it eliminates the hassle of keeping separate mobile and desktop versions of the site updated (Schubert, 2016).
People are more interested in mobile platforms. Even if individuals use desktop computers, whether for business or play, the odds are good that they also utilise mobile devices. People have become used to having all the same resources available at their fingertips at all times, and this has led them to anticipate the same level of accessibility from their mobile devices as they would from a desktop computer (Chan, 2013).
Option 3 is the best course of action. Global Treps organise events in order to suggest new ideas for businesses, but doing so needs a significant amount of labour and organisation. The major responsibility is to organise an event, which include choosing a location, deciding who will attend, and making any other required preparations. Invitations will also need to be sent out. If the concept is implemented well, it might provide investors with a website that is compatible with mobile devices as well as applications that provide information on the most effective procedures for holding events such as shark tanks (Iwasaki, 2021).
The website that are now under development should be beneficial to Global Treps. It is necessary to have the support of both the current consultants and clients for the strategy, and the project must create sufficient cost reductions and new revenue within one year to pay its expenses. The manager of the company's Project Management Office is responsible for navigating the waters, and the project team must include personnel from a variety of departments as well as representation from the company's regular customers (Cahyadi et al., 2022). The new system has to include fully working versions of all standards and forms, and it should need only minimum amounts of technical support to use. It is necessary that it be resistant to cyber threats while at the same time being easily accessible by customers and consultants.
Establishing the parameters within which to define precisely what it is that the organisation intends to accomplish is the project scope (Moustafaev, 2014).
The benefits of having a website that is suited to mobile devices are as follows:
• DonorsChoose.org provides investors with the opportunity to make financial contributions to a particular school or charity organisation that is organising an event.
• The availability of a set of rules and models for the organisation of events in the form of a "shark tank."
• The firm need to be open to ideas for new goods and services that customers may have.
• Conceive a scheme whereby the Global Treps organisation would get a share of the revenues from any purchases or contributions made by contestants; implement this scheme.
• Via an online platform, show videos of the candidates and the real-time responses of the sharks, as well as receive real-time input and contributions from audience members.
• If organisations are given the opportunity to construct their very own websites from the ground up, they will be in a better position to reach out to regional competitors, investors, and "sharks," as well as to advertise both the achievements and the shortcomings of their respective undertakings.
Constraints and dependencies
The constraints of a project are the broad limits that business needs to take into consideration throughout the life cycle of the project. For instance, if business has a cost restriction, it implies that firm have to stick to a certain budget for the project, and if project have a time constraint, it means that project have to finish the project within a certain amount of time. Because most project constraints interact with one another, managing constraints effectively is essential to the successful completion of a project (Sebestyen, 2017).
A project's limitations are the overarching restrictions that must be taken into account at all stages of the project's development. Constraints may be placed on a project in the form of monetary amounts (such as a set budget) or temporal frames (such as a deadline) that must be adhered to. Managing constraints correctly is crucial to the completion of a project since most limitations interact with one another. If project manager decide the project timeline has to be extended, it's likely that project also need extra money to see it through to completion. The breadth of Global Trep project will grow in tandem with the amount of resources project dedicate to it (Rani, 2013).
Figure 1: Considerations
The below image the dependencies of the activities that are required to be followed for managing the project of Global Treps.
Figure 2: Project dependencies
The project team's work will include the following deliverables in addition to any others that have been functioned by Global Trep, the requesting department, and the website's backend systems.
2. Specifications & Deliverables for a Website
• The first is an illuminating article on the evolution of accounting and IT.
• There should be a safe place for entrepreneurs to save their information online.
• 4Free-flowing dialogue is encouraged.
• Fifth, private online forums where only instructors, students, and staff may participate.
3. Public announcement online
A page with useful information on upcoming events of SHARK TANK
4. Managing website
• Brief overview of the website and the many backend systems that support it
• Second, explain the website's management features.
• Third, a Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)-style guide on fixing common issues.
• Access credentials for the web team's administrative areas.
• Security is offered for online registration
Graphic designers, project analysts, web developers, programme managers, and project supervisors will work together to set the specifications for the site design.
Features of the Website: Better the user's experience, Adding a search bar to the website will do two things: (a) make it easier for visitors to discover the content they're looking for (and (b) give users more agency in their experience. Optimization for Search Engines and Site visitors will have access to both internal site search functionality and third-party search engines like Google and Yahoo!
Project related deliverable
• The project is estimated to be completed in 4 months (120 days) of the timeframe with the estimated budget of $130000.
• The project is expected to complete with the actual and new hired human resources.
• The project would also survey and clients and investors that have visited the website to test the performance.
Product related deliverable
Global Treps is planning to organise four SHARK TANK events within four month on international scale. The project will accept donations from the potential investors and also will organise webinars to welcome ideas for any kind of project. The project will help entrepreneurs to use of available templates on the website.
Key performance indicators (KPIs) give the information necessary for a company to determine whether its CSFs and objectives have been attained. Key performance indicators (KPIs) may be used at several tiers of a company, from the top down to the bottom up, and from broad, company-wide goals to more specific, team- and individual-level aims.
Figure 3: Following are KPIs for Global Trep website
Project management strategy
The following is a summary of the key features of this approach.
STEP 1: Analysis
The process of formulating a web strategy in which a website helps business to take relevant actions. The major goal of this stage is to lessen the possibility of problems caused by a lack of support from upper management and confusion about what is needed from the system (Wilson, 2014). There are three stages to this portion of the process:
• Creating a plan for how to implement the online strategy, including a description of the current status of the company, its future goals, and the steps necessary to reach those goals.
• Establishing one's aim
• Analysis from an outside perspective, including examination of factors such as costs, benefits, risks, and benefits.
STEP 2: The next step is the planning stage.
The website should be built with the expectation that features and procedures will be added to it over time as needs and technology evolves (Wilson, 2014). There are 2 simple stages to it:
• Visual Communication Design
• Design Testing, since doing so at an early stage may help avoid future problems and malfunctions of the website and so make the overall development process more efficient.
STEP 3: The Generational Phase.
It involves the four procedures that move the project from the conceptualization stage to the production of the real website.
This includes steps I choosing appropriate resources, ii) reviewing designs, iii) developing and installing code, and iv) testing.
STEP 4: The last stage is actualization.
This stage continues even after the website has been built. Two parts to this process are 1) actual execution, and ii) ongoing care and feeding. iii. A Re-examination of Goals
The benefits of using this approach are substantial. It's organised, informative, and easy to grasp. It breaks down the process of creating a website from start to finish into manageable chunks, offering developers clear direction at every stage. Not only may tasks be arranged, but progress can also be closely monitored (Wilson, 2014). On the other hand, project management strategy provides a helpful but broad framework to aid with web development. Since their approach was not designed to be effective for Global Trep websites, it will need to be modified and changed to meet the criteria of this dissertation's project. In addition, their approach seems to be better suited to bigger projects with well defined responsibilities for developers (Mir & Pinnington, 2014).
The WBS divides the project into large chunks called "major deliverables," smaller chunks called "sub deliverables," and even smaller chunks called "work packages." Work breakdown structure (WBS) is ideal for real-world tasks. This project (Website) is process-oriented, which makes it challenging to apply WBS. Process Breakdown Structure (PBS) is the ideal approach for this sort of undertaking. There, the work is broken down into several stages. Each stage of the project influences the next (Burghate, 2018).
The items on the PBS checklist include: Checkpoints to verify that deliverables are full and correct and deliverables that must be completed before moving on to the next phase.
Obtaining buy-in from key players that the current stage has reached completion and may proceed to the next stage.
Figure 4: Project structure
Project governance framework
Oversight role that is consistent with the organization's governance model and covers the whole project life cycle is about "project governance (Alie, 2015). Thus, below image shows the cycle through which the current project is completed.
Figure 5: Project governance framework
(Source: Alie, 2015)
The goals and requirements of each project and programme are unique. They include a wide variety of tasks, but the four most important ones are those of establishing, maintaining, and enforcing project governance. The perspectives of these many responsibilities on the project are complementary yet distinct (Alie, 2015).
The following are the four most important positions required for establishing, directing, implementing, and validating project governance:
• Steering committee,
• Project Management Officials and
• Project manager
Figure 6: Project governance framework followed for Global Treps project
Project Reporting Structure
A project's management organisational structure establishes the chain of command and the roles of each team member. Team members may refer to a chart outlining the structure, which specifies the roles of each team member and the reporting lines between them, as the project progresses (Sebestyen, 2017).
Figure 7: Project reporting
Role of Cloudflare technology:
Hosting website on WPEngine (using an enterprise subscription) and having a content delivery network (CDN) that is enough for our day-to-day requirements. Following Cloudflare's business strategy in preparation for Shark Tank. The Always OnlineTM technology offered by Cloudflare was the primary factor in our decision to go with this package. Even though this protection is included with every subscription, only the Business plan allows for daily crawls.
The website is designed that could be adequately operated over the website
Contacting with host
Firm never fail to get in touch with the agency representative at WPEngine and advise them about the impending traffic surge as well as the preparations. Further, website performance, active users and website traffic would be regularly monitored
Firm can send thousands of concurrent visitors across the website by using the virtual user agent testing provided by LoadImpact.com. Each user starts by seeing the homepage and the about page, and then they sign up for the email list using the form that's provided. This procedure might have bottlenecks on the website, which are locations of potential failure that might cause it to become inaccessible. Thus, these are to be considered.
Communication and stakeholder management strategy
Manager of a Project
The Project Manager must take the initiative in order to improve project communications. The necessary channels of communication are outlined in the Communications Matrix. The communication matrix will be used to decide what data should be presented. The matrix specifies what should be communicated, to whom, and when.
Chairman and Supervisor
The project's financing comes from the sponsor, who is named in section. The chairman and supervisor of the project are the highest-ranking officials who should be responsible for communicating with the public. Unless specifically requested, correspondence should be succinct and to the point (Eskerod & Vaagaasar, 2014). Sponsors are the only ones who should initiate contact with the project manager and team members.
Senior Web Developer
The senior web developer must supervise the completion of all technical aspects of the project and the reliable execution of all related tasks. Project gives detailed plans, blueprints, and specifications for construction and implementation. Web Developer keep the project manager and team in the loop at all times.
Since this is a project for the Accounting and Information Systems Department The website will be handed over to the Chairman, who will be kept up to date on the project's progress and given final approval before any modifications are made. He'll talk to the boss and the head of the project (Eskerod and Jepsen, 2016).
Data base specialist
It is assumed that the outsourced Database Specialist would stay in contact with his host department as necessary. Since the database will be used on a regular basis, he will also train the employees and selected faculty member to utilise it effectively.
Figure 8: Communication Matrix
Budget, program and risk
Timing / project readiness
The assumed Gantt Chart is being created for 104 (6 days are taken in meeting and decision making and two of them are holidays) days and with that it would be observed that the project is completed on time and thus resources are accordingly managed.
Budget/cost analysis and funding strategy
The preliminary cost estimate for the whole project comes to 130 000 dollars. This projection is based on the assumption that there will be a period of time of six months during which the project manager will put in an average of 20 hours per week of work and the internal team will put in an average of 60 hours per week of work.
It is inappropriate to provide financial compensation to client agents who are helpful.
The cost of the project manager is:
On-staff project managers would get $40 per hour in compensation. Because the project would need the use of resources that are normally paid for by customers, the hourly cost for these resources would be $60 given that it might be necessary to utilise them.
The preliminary estimate puts the cost of third-party software and services at close to ten thousand dollars. When the project is done, there will be ongoing maintenance costs of $30,000 per year, the majority of which will be allocated to the updating of content as well as the coordination of the Ask the Expert feature and online publications.
The anticipated benefits are the result of time savings that will be accomplished as a direct consequence of the reduced requirement for the consultants to perform research on a variety of subjects, including information on event planning, event venues, invitation templates, and investment prospects.
The benefit predictions also take into consideration a slight increase in bottom-line performance as a consequence of new business obtained as a result of this endeavour. This improvement is accounted for in the benefit projections.
If each of the 300 managers saves only 40 hours per year, which is less than one hour per week, and they are able to bill that time to projects that yield a conservative estimate of $10 per hour in revenues, then the benefit that is estimated to accrue is $120,000 per year.
Using data from previous years' earnings, we can determine that an extra $30,000 in yearly profits would be generated by a 1% increase in business as a direct consequence of launching the new app and website.
Donations may be given to non-governmental organisations (NGOs) by private people, corporations operating for profit, charity foundations, and governments at any level, including local, state, federal, and even international. Dues may be collected from members, and they can also sell products and services since they are non-profit organisations.
Risk analysis and management strategy
The top three high-risk and high-impact hazards are below:
Projects might suffer from misunderstanding. In meetings and other duties, every actions must be justified to achieve the intended outcome. A poorly done work might affect subsequent tasks. The following step must specify needs. Stakeholders might also be negatively impacted by misunderstanding (Edwards & Bowen, 2013).
Incompatible outputs might result from miscommunication. If somebody finds an issue, they should report it. It's likely to happen without excellent communication.
Reaction: Schedule meetings frequently. Allow all opinions. To explain, provide sufficient documentation. Give everyone a communications list so they may immediately connect.
Lack of stakeholder involvement
Since the website will be cutting edge, stakeholders must be included. The stakeholders must know the project's result to accept it. Thus, underestimating the result may prevent the project team from receiving sufficient support, resources, and time to complete the project (Edwards & Bowen, 2013).
Potential Response: Direct contact between sponsors and project team may avoid this danger. To improve communication and minimise misunderstandings, meetings will be organised.
Late in the project, stakeholders may demand big adjustments. Changes like this may wreck a project. The project's phases are interconnected. Major modifications may need almost impossible revisions. For instance, modifying website functionality may affect visual design, web design, web programming, backend programming, and resources. The project team will suffer from these changes (Aven, 2016).
Reaction: Scopes and project requirements should be adequately written and signed by stakeholders. If large modifications are needed, there should be documentation. It should specify extra time and resources.
Figure 9: Risk Matrix
Project quality management strategy
Quality Control monitors project outputs to ensure they meet standards and eliminates poor performance. Stakeholders in the project rest easy knowing that all quality-related activities are being carried out as planned thanks to the proof provided by quality assurance. With these precautions in place, you can be certain that your outputs will always be of the highest quality. Both the outputs of a project and the methods and practises used in its management undergo quality assurance checks. A process checklist or a project audit help the team do this.
Project completion strategy
There are just around 4 months to get the project up and operating. The website's user base is notoriously picky. Finding sponsors for an website that large might be difficult for a department The website's security is of paramount importance to us as a division. Thankfully, Global Treps arranged for private server to host on. It can be challenging to train faculty and staff to use and update material, but it shouldn't take too much time. The website's upkeep is also a problem. Thankfully, project’s own private server is in the works. Project manager have complete command and can quickly reset it from anywhere in the globe if something goes wrong. Since he lacks a dedicated operation, he must rely on the host machine, which is not ideal.
Benefits realisation plan
“From” to “to” that have been achieved since management of the project. In the end, a mobile-friendly website is a solid investment that may provide actual returns with the right implementation strategy. Whether business thinking about the future or the present, it's apparent that mobile-friendly sites are where it's at in terms of web design, and that the companies who get on board with these developments early will be the ones to benefit (Chan, 2013).
These days, mobile-friendly websites aren't a nicety for a niche audience. Because of how often people use their smartphones now, it's crucial. Still, mobile device compatibility is just part of the option. In today's technological era, it's more important than ever to have a website that's accessible on mobile devices. Insight into these factors may help company see the advantages in adopting this strategy (Qian, 2015).
Alias, Z., Zawawi, E. M. A., Yusof, K., & Aris, N. M. (2014). Determining critical success factors of project management practice: A conceptual framework. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 153, 61-69.
Alie, S. S. (2015). Project governance: #1 critical success factor. Paper presented at PMI® Global Congress 2015—North America, Orlando, FL. Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute. https://www.pmi.org/learning/library/project-governance-critical-success-9945
Aven, T. (2016). Risk assessment and risk management: Review of recent advances on their foundation. European Journal of Operational Research, 253(1), pp.1-13.
Burghate, M. (2018). Work breakdown structure: Simplifying project management. International Journal of Commerce and Management, 3(2), 453-461.
Cahyadi, A.T., Miftahuddin, N., Islahiyah, N.S., Yulianti, F.D. and Masturah, B.N.H., 2022. Website Designing for Business Enterprises Using Wix. com.
Chan, M. (2013). Marketing Tips for Intelligent Dummies: A Mobile-Friendly Website. Fam. Advoc., 36, 6.
CIFOR, 2022 [Online] [Accessed through 5th November, 2022] https://www.cifor.org/knowledge/publication/769
Edwards, P., & Bowen, P. (2013). Risk management in project organisations. Routledge.
Eskerod, P. and Jepsen, A.L., 2016. Project stakeholder management. Routledge.
Eskerod, P., & Vaagaasar, A. L. (2014). Stakeholder management strategies and practices during a project course. Project Management Journal, 45(5), 71-85.
Hornstein, H. A. (2015). The integration of project management and organizational change management is now a necessity. International journal of project management, 33(2), 291-298.
Iwasaki, P.Y., 2021. From Concept to Website: Designing an Instructional Module for Documentary Film Research. International Journal, 15(2), pp.62-73.
Kim, B., Kim, H., & Jeon, Y. (2018). Critical success factors of a design startup business. Sustainability, 10(9), 2981.
Macaya, E. O., Crawford, B., & Soto, R. (2016, June). Change management in technology projects: Using a comprehensive model of change management. In 2016 11th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.
Meredith, J. R., Shafer, S. M., & Mantel Jr, S. J. (2017). Project management: a strategic managerial approach. John Wiley & Sons.
Mir, F. A., & Pinnington, A. H. (2014). Exploring the value of project management: linking project management performance and project success. International journal of project management, 32(2), 202-217.
Newton, P. (2015). Principles of project management. Retrieved from www. free-managementebooks. com.
Qian, F., 2015. Toward mobile-friendly web browsing. IEEE Internet Computing, 19(5), pp.72-76.
Rani, H. A. (2013). The iron triangle as the triple constraints in project management. Jurnal Teknik Sipil Universitas Muhammadiyah Aceh, (1).
Schubert, D. (2016). Influence of mobile-friendly design to search results on Google search. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 220, 424-433.
Sebestyen, Z. (2017). Further considerations in project success. Procedia engineering, 196, 571-577.
Weblite, (2022) 3 Reasons Why A Mobile Friendly Website Is Important [Online] [Accessed through 5th November, 2022]https://www.weblite.com.my/blog/reasons-why-a-mobile-friendly-website-is-important#:~:text=Mobile%2Dfriendly%20websites%20boost%20your,without%20being%20annoyed%20or%20inconvenienced.
Wilson, R. (2014). Mastering Project Management Strategy and Processes: Proven Methods to Meet Organizational Goals. FT Press.
WYRED Consortium. (2017). Requirements Document (WP3_D3. 1).
PRO100 Information System Project Management Assignment Sample
Individual/Group - Individual
Length - 1500 words (+/- 10%)
Learning Outcomes - The Subject Learning Outcomes demonstrated by successful completion of the task below include:
a) Describe and analyse PM knowledge areas and process groups
b) Differentiate between PM methodologies and discuss relevance for Information Systems (IS)
Instructions for assignment help ?online ?
1. Please read the PRO100_Real-World-Scenario-Project case study provided.
2. Complete the following assessment tasks:
Develop a business case for this project in a Microsoft Word document using no more than 400 words. The business case should include a cost and benefit analysis using the Net Present Value (NPV) model over the next 10 years. Use 3% as the discounting factor. Apart from financial criteria, are there any other non-financial criteria to consider?
Please note that you are required to make reasonable assumptions about this project to develop a business case for it; for example, the initial investment of this project, the operating cost of the system, the cost the organisation would be able to save, etc.
You are now appointed as the project manager for this project and your first task is to develop a project charter. The project charter (in a Microsoft Word document) must contain, as a minimum, the following:
• Title page
• Project purpose and justification
• Project objectives and product characteristics
• High-level requirements
• Project assumptions, constraints, high-level descriptions and boundaries
• Project success criteria
• High-level risks
• Summary schedule and key milestones
• Summary budget
• Stakeholder list and the type of each stakeholder
• Project approval requirements and approval authority
• Project manager assigned to project
• Signatory block
You are also required to identify key stakeholders in this project and compile a stakeholder register (in a Microsoft Excel document). The register must contain the following columns:
• Contact details
• Role in the project
• Interest level (1-5)
• Impact level (1-5)
Please note that some of the information has not been explicitly outlined in the hypothetical project case study. You will need to make reasonable assumptions about such information.
Develop a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and the associated WBS dictionary. The WBS must have at least three layers. The WBS dictionary needs to contain the following information for each of the node in the WBS.
• WBS element ID
• WBS element name
• Work description
The Microsoft Word document should contain a graphical representation of WBS and the WBS dictionary entries for each element in the WBS.
The project reflects on a business case owned by a family with practical and robust knowledge of management and beauty. The case study is " I AM Styled" and the founder of this business is Allyson who has developed experience in the makeup and hair industry and is rich with professional expertise in this field.
The name of the project is a digital software implementation and this project is looking forward to delivering the scope to understand the project and represent a strategy of developing and growing the market digitally as a digital solution implemented for bookkeeping, accounting, and website. The budget sanctioned for this project is $80,000 for three months with the date of approval beginning on 1 June 2022 (I AM Styled | Business.gov.au, 2021).The strategy implemented in this project is to understand the digitalization process and manage the complete accounts which is an essential problem for the company and is looking forward to an effective solution that can also be managed later on its own. The factors which are impacting the overall analysis of cost and benefit is a discount factor which is 3% and the digital solution for bookkeeping accounting and website management is to be implemented for 10 years. There are some factors that are projecting the yearly net cash flow which is about $10,000 to $20,000. The project is based upon the requirement and the clients which are brought up by I am styled and initially attracts a variety of customers due to their situation and it can be reflected on the financial achievements besides keeping a security plan activated according to their good revenue services and University that focuses on multiple careers and has a cost for multiple activities required for Hardware and software. The cost which is being calculated in the cost-benefit analysis is about $86,614.67 which is comparatively very less than the benefits which are made $1,32,985.89 for the investment cost of about $80,000 by the complete project of digitalization. This project is completely feasible in terms of financial criteria as investment and cost-to-benefit analysis define positive NVP and make the project more feasible in terms of finances (Nurmi & Ahtiainen, 2018).
The non-financial criteria are also undertaken by understanding the implementation capability and available skills as per the requirement. All these activities and numbers define that non-financial are also feasible accepted and specified as per the demands met by the customers to sponsor us and specifications.
Figure 1: Screenshot of Cost-Benefit Analysis
Digital Software implementation is describing the complete system of managing the digital solutions for accounting, bookkeeping, and website (About Us | I Am Styled, 2020).
Project purpose and justification
The main theme of the project is to develop and implement software digitally that is focused on managing and providing solutions for accounting, and bookkeeping, and also identifying the task to manage the web as per the requirement of the company (Stanitsas et al., 2021). The current system has some clashes based on the manual interference and inconvenience to manage all the activities at once which can be avoided by implementing the new Digital solution.
Project objectives and product characteristics
Objectives and scope which are required to be managed by the project are developed according to a specific and digitalized implementation for the solution that is easily accessible to the company users by managing at a competition the required task of bookkeeping and understanding the website requirements for multiple implementations. The product characteristics are described as follows:
? Helps in managing the business finances and personal finances separately
? Provide an internal control with effective policies and procedures to reduce the risk
? A variety of accounting methods are available to use as per the convenience
? Track of each and every expense accounting software
Digital software implementation requires a specific function and non-functional category to be implemented as per the behaviour of the system and accounting services required by the organization.
? The system should be able to perform multiple sets of duties and responsibilities
? Require a specific set of reporting rules as per the business strategy
? Authentication of accounting techniques
? The cancellation process should be scheduled as per the digital implementation of software
? Regulatory and legal activities as per laws
? Reliability of the software
? Usability of the software with effective implementation
? Performance, maintenance, and stability of the product and service
Project Assumptions, Constraints, High-Level Description, and Boundaries
The project has multiple constraints based on its implementation, scope, time foundation, and cost. There are various constraints assumed according to the budget as per timeline and obligations that are responsible as per the software implementation and employ accessibility to the use of software and for the increase the diligent approach to determine transactions and maintain the banking statements (Guo & Zhang, 2022).
Project constraints are implemented according to the scope and the cost of the project with the specific timeline.
The description is completely based upon the requirements which are specified on a high level by the project sponsor and the manager.
The boundaries of the project are restricted to the project scope and the timeline as per the software requirement and the management of different techniques for implementing digital software.
Project Success Criteria
The success criteria of the project depend upon the acceptance of stakeholders and implementation of software by customers and end-users who are satisfied with the user based on the benefits.
The risk associated with aspects and outcomes is based on positive and negative parts of risk management for the project. That is are as follows:
? Risk for improper implementation of digitalization
? Inaccurate time and cost estimates
? Delay with the projection
? Inactive working of team members
? Misunderstanding of software design
? Failures in supporting the project as an executive
Summary Schedule and Key Milestone
The project overall is scheduled according to the implementation of software on June 1st, 2022, where the system is implemented with the design software for managing accounting, bookkeeping, and website for I am styled and has a specific time to be implemented about 3 months for effective learning and implementation of software.
The key milestones can be described as effective system analysis, effective design system, integration between the services such as accounting and bookkeeping, and managing the website with effective targeted sales and services (San Cristóbal et al., 2018).
The budget of a project is to be summarised based on a complex task and has a specific amount to be invested which is $80,000.
List of Stakeholders with Each and Every Type Specified
Figure 2 List of Stakeholders
Project Approval Requirements and Approval Authority
The project is fulfilled and approved by certain objectives and scope define to achieve the implementation of digital software for bookkeeping, accounting, and website services which are scheduled and planned as to the priorities of the investor and stakeholders that can be effectively responsible as the approval authority of the project.
The Project Manager Assigned To The Project
The project manager which is assigned to directly implement the project is a finance manager which has complete control over information, communication, And Technology with an experience of previous history working with some other organizations managing similar activities.
WBS graphical representation and dictionary
The work breakdown structure has a specific purpose which defines to work description with respective element name and provides complete information about the concerning project with effective implementations of the task which is to be managed.
Figure 3 WBS Graphical representation
The Work Breakdown Dictionary is as Follows:
This report concludes and defines the idea of strong leadership, planning, adequate positive work culture, essential and effective stakeholder meetings, discussions, and communication within the team and the stakeholders to improve the implementation and facilitate a smooth planning technique for the overall understanding and implementation of digital software which is feasible for financial and non-financial criteria. The project is also profitable which further helps in reducing the operation cost according to which feasibility.
I AM Styled | business.gov.au. (2021, June). Business.gov.au. https://business.gov.au/online/digital-case-studies/i-am-styled
About Us | I Am Styled. (2020, September 24). I Am Styled. https://iamstyledhair.com.au/about-i-am-styled/
San Cristóbal, J. R., Carral, L., Diaz, E., Fraguela, J. A., & Iglesias, G. (2018). Complexity and Project Management: A General Overview. Complexity, 2018, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4891286
Guo, K., & Zhang, L. (2022). Multi-objective optimization for improved project management: Current status and future directions. Automation in Construction, 139, 104256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2022.104256
Stanitsas, M., Kirytopoulos, K., & Leopoulos, V. (2021). Integrating sustainability indicators into project management: The case of construction industry. Journal of Cleaner Production, 279, 123774. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.123774
Nurmi, V., & Ahtiainen, H. (2018). Distributional Weights in Environmental Valuation and Cost-benefit Analysis: Theory and Practice. Ecological Economics, 150, 217–228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2018.04.021
PRJ6001 Applied Project Assignment Sample
Word count/Time provided: 3500 Words
Unit Learning Outcomes: ULO1, ULO2, ULO3, ULO4
Assessment Detail for best assignment help – Students prepare a final report, model, or artefact of the research study.
The final report will incorporate key aspects of the applied research and will be presented in a structured and coherent manner which is appropriate for a research report or publication. This will include abstract, introduction, methods, analysis, results, discussion, recommendations, conclusion and appropriate referencing.
The assessment will be marked out of 100 and will be weighted 40% of the total unit mark. The marking criteria and rubric are shown on the following page.
The evolution of digital media platforms is one of the easiest ways for improving the market share globally. Present-day customers are increasingly using the digital platform to stay in connection with brands and enhance their knowledge and stay informed. It offers diverse opportunities to reach potential customers. The use of effective digital marketing strategies enhances awareness and opens opportunities for many businesses to establish their brands. In the restaurant business in Australia, it helps companies to gain brand recognition and generate increased revenue. The market size in terms of revenue generated in the restaurant business in Australia is 13.9 Billion Dollars estimated in 2022 (Marketshare, 2022). The annual revenue amounts to 45 billion dollars from the cafe, restaurants and so on in Australia and it is believed that social media platforms will enhance its growth. The picture and posts of the food products and services can be uploaded by the business and the reviews provided by the customers and food vloggers provide insight into the customers. The increased engagement enhances the brand's capabilities and provides an opportunity to expand the brand and increase the relevant market share of the company. It also helps businesses in building a loyal client base. In addition to this, it helps to target the customers effectively and helps in promoting the businesses.
Social media platforms are emerging platforms to increase connectivity and enhance brand recognition. It is one of the marketing tools for businesses to improve their market share and build a loyal customer base. This study aims to discuss the use of social media platforms to improve the market share of the restaurant business in Australia.
? What are the factors that can be considered by the restaurant business for marketing?
? How social media marketing tools are used to promote restaurant businesses in Australia?
? How growth in market share stimulates the performance of the restaurant business in Australia?
? How does an increase in market share related to the sustainability of the Australian restaurant business?
? To understand the factors that can be considered by the restaurant business in Australia for marketing.
? To assess the use of the social media marketing tools needed for the restaurant business in Australia.
? To understand how the increase in market share affects the performance of the business.
? To understand the relationship between the growth of market share and the sustainability of the business.
The major problem is that it does not engage the followers properly. People can interact with others freely through social media platforms and come to know about different interesting offers of the organisation. This study is prepared based on an Australian restaurant company and their market shares and brand awareness that have been influenced by social media marketing. The biggest problems faced by the restaurant business are improper business strategy, deficiency of proper business resources, tracking data and establishment of stable followers to increase brand awareness (Javed et al., 2022). Social networking sites allow the progress of real-time monitoring including interaction with people. Identification of target customers and strategic business changes are allowed by digital marketing.
The importance of research incorporates the growing trend of digital marketing. The research is significant in this regard as it provides an elaborate view of restaurant business activities for using social media marketing to increase existing market share in Australia. It is also essential to understand and analyze the existing products for determining the market share (Bartelt and Hommel, 2021). The determination of the existing market share of Australia helps to understand the business performance of restaurants. The research also focuses on the methodology and the collected data that help to understand the perspective of participants. Further, the research also incorporated a recommendation provided to the restaurant business in Australia to increase the existing market share.
In this research, the positivism research philosophy has been used. Positivism research philosophy adheres to the actual knowledge obtained from the research such as the measurement of research data is trustworthy. Positivism research philosophy ultimately resulted in foundationalism and empiricism (Ryan, 2018). The term “positivism” can be determined as a research approach that relies particularly on the evidence of scientific and empirical research including statistics and controlled experiments (Park, Konge and Artino, 2020). This is considered a belief that the people in the community should not cross the boundaries of the observation of the research. This research provides a significant approach to the community regarding the use of online platforms in increasing brand awareness of an Australian restaurant. The main characteristics of this research philosophy are clear, brief and concise discussion from the subjective interpretation and feelings of the people. Positivism philosophy does not describe the topic more.
Explanatory research has been identified as a research design that is used to identify the reason behind the availability of little data regarding the research topic (Goffin et al., 2019). This research design will help an individual to build a better understanding of the topic of the research. Explanatory design is considered the first or primary stage in the entire process of the research. The explanation involves observations as well as focusing on the generalisations and predictions of a particular circumstance (Okpotor, 2021). This also helps to predict further research on this topic. Here, the use of it in raising awareness of the brand of the Australian restaurant business has been discussed. To conduct this research, an explanatory research design has been selected. The main motive of this research design is to explain the reason behind the occurrence of a particular phenomenon that has been identified by the hypothesis of the research. The research hypothesis specifies the direction and nature of the relationships between the research variables.
A deductive research approach explores a known phenomenon and examines its validity in the given circumstances. With the help of a deductive research approach, an individual can associate with scientific research (Patel and Patel, 2019). In this research deductive approach has been taken to research the effectiveness of digital marketing in increasing brand awareness and market share of a restaurant company in Australia. In this research approach, the individuals study others’ work on the same research topic and the existing phenomenon of those studies. A deductive research approach is appropriate for understanding the relationship between the dependent and independent variables of the research (HR and Aithal, 2022). The analysis of data in this research by following a deductive research approach generally means the application of the existing theories to the information to test the validity. This approach also has been identified as a top-down research approach to the analysis of data. This is applied in qualitative data analysis with the application of predetermined codes to the information.
Data Collection Method
This research collects data through quantitative methods of data collection. Quantitative data helps an individual to measure the data obtained from the research numerically. In the quantitative process, data have been collected by asking multiple-choice or close-ended questions to people in the community through polls or surveys (Omrani et al., 2019). If the restaurant business of Australia wants to improve its services, understand the motivations of the customers, recognise the potential products and raise the satisfaction level of the customers they should collect the data quantitatively. Surveys have been identified as the most common method in quantitative data collection. Quantitative surveys also collect the demographic data of the customers or people like qualitative data collection. This method of data collection is based on the instruments of structured data collection and random sampling. The findings obtained from qualitative data analysis are generally easy to summarise, generalise, present and compare.
Data Collection Source
In this study, primary data collection is selected to be taken as a source of the research. Primary data collection has been used as a procedure to collect information directly from the source. This process is applied in this research to collect first-hand data regarding the research topic. Therefore if the researcher gathers data from the scholars then they need to use the primary sources of data collection. Memoirs and autobiographies are the most identified primary data collection sources used by the researchers. Some common primary data collection methods are personal interviews, questionnaires, indirect interviews, focus groups and so on.
The research was done following multiple ethical considerations. The participants who participated were not forced to divulge information regarding the Australian restaurant businesses. The participants were given ample time to gather and think about the answers and then give their opinions, any kind of pressure was not created.
Analysis and Findings
1. How far do you believe that social media marketing plays an important role in the growth of revenue?
The data that has been gathered on the behalf of the first question is analysed here effectively. The first question was whether social media marketing plays a significant role in the growth of organisational revenue. After analysing the response of participants, it can be concluded that 15 participants accepted the above-mentioned fact. The analysis also said that 26.7% of participants strongly believed in the intervention of social media marketing on the growth of revenue. In the context of the question, only two people provided a neutral response and one person neglected the fact. However, 13.3% of participants strongly disagreed with the above-mentioned statement. The overall result displayed that majority of the participants believe in the respective Fact and provide positive feedback.
2. How far do you agree that the inclusion of social media in marketing increases the engagement of customers in the restaurant business?
Now come to the second question of the research that focuses on the inclusion of social media that increases customer engagement. It is one of the most common aspects of the current landscape of the business industry. The data that has been collected from the research portrays the role of social media marketing in business scenarios. According to the research data, 7 people which indicates 22.6% of participants effectively agreed with the respective fact. Moreover, 35.5% of participants strongly believed in the fact. It indicated the preference of more than 50% of participants toward the positive impact of social media marketing that increases customer engagement in Australian restaurants. Besides positive feedback, 16.1% of people also provided neutral responses considering the second question of the research. The percentage remained the same for the participants who disagreed with the respective fact. However, 9.7% of the participants strongly disagreed that the inclusion of social media increased customer attraction to the restaurant business. The overall analysis of this pie chart explored that the majority of the participants provided positive feedback. It can ultimately prove the positive nature of social media marketing that will be beneficial for a restaurant business.
3. How far do you agree that a restaurant business enterprise does marketing for increasing market share?
The third question of the analysis portion says whether a restaurant organisation does market to increase its market share. The restaurants adopted many marketing strategies to attract new customers that stimulate the growth of market share (SevenRooms, 2022). The response mentioned on the pie chart effectively satisfies the scenario mentioned in the question. The analysis of information collected on behalf of the question is discussed here. According to the information collected by research, 30% of people believed that the restaurant businesses did marketing to maximise their market share. 46.7% of the participants strongly agreed with the above-mentioned statement. The percentage already displayed that the majority of the participants delivered positive feedback. However, 4 people out of 30 participants provided neutral responses. The pie chart also incorporated the percentage of people who disagree and strongly disagreed with the question. The percentage of the participants who neglected the above-mentioned fact was 6.7%. Furthermore, 1 person also strongly disagreed with the statement mentioned in the third question analysis. Ultimately the overall result indicated that more than 70% of the participants effectively provide positive feedback on the context of the question.
4. How far do you believe that social media marketing is essential for the increment of market share in Australia?
The next question of the analysis and findings section is whether social media marketing is essential for the increment of market share in Australia. Social media marketing for restaurants provides liberty that helps the entity to target the desired audience (Times, 2019). The overall responses and feedback were displayed in a form of a pie chart and table. Analysis of the pie chart mentioned that only 10% of people believed that social media marketing increased the market share in Australia. However, the people who strongly believed in this fact were also very few. The percentage that was gathered by collecting the data displayed that only 6.7% of people strongly believed in the fact. The pie chart showed the majority of participants provided neutral responses. The percentage of the participants who delivered neutral feedback was 43.3%. They are not sure about the impact of online marketing that is directly responsible for the growth of market share in Australia. The feedback of the people helped to understand that 23.3% of participants provide negative feedback. Moreover, 16.7% of participants strongly disagreed with the above-mentioned statement.
5. How far do you agree that the use of digital platforms in marketing influences the existing market share?
The fifth question that was used during the collection of data focuses on the role of digital platforms in marketing. The question was whether digital platforms in marketing stimulate existing market share. The data which was collected on the behalf of the question was displayed here in the form of a pie chart and table. The finding said that only one person believed in the above-mentioned statement. On the other hand, 30% of the participants strongly believed that digital platforms in marketing impacted existing market share. However, 6.7% of participants also provide neutral responses. The pie chart simultaneously displayed the people who neglected the fact. It incorporated 26.7% of participants who disagreed with the statement. Besides that, 33.3% of the participants strongly disagreed with the above-mentioned fact.
In the first question, an analysis was made of the belief of people relating to the social media platform and its role in the growth of the revenue. Social media platforms help in raising brand awareness and building effective communication for restaurant firms (Li, Kim and Choi, 2021). The responses received a focus that the majority of people agreed with the fact. 50% of the total members which is 15 members are in favour of the mentioned fact and believe that social media play a crucial role in the increase in revenue of the firm. According to the response, 8 members are strong believers of the fact while 13.3% of members that is 4 members strongly disagree. 2 members remain neutral and 1 member provided a negative response to the fact. After a complete analysis of the first question, it is evidenced that the majority of people believe that social media platforms contribute to the growth of the revenue of the business. There are a few members who strongly disagree and only one member opposes the fact. In this context, they feel other factors are also present that contribute to an increase in revenue and thus they disagree with the question.
Social media has undoubtedly improved customer engagement in businesses, especially in the restaurant business. In this context, the second question focuses on whether the inclusiveness of social media marketing increases customer involvement and engagement. Many companies and brands are actively using social media to message customers and offer promises and let them know about the offers and schemes. This improves their engagements and customers are communicating with the brands (Moran, Muzellec and Johnson, 2019). The responses of the data evidenced that 23.3% which is 7 members agree on the respective fact. In addition to this, 36.7% of members that is 11 participants strongly agree on using social media to improve customer engagement. Collectively, it shows that more than 50% of participants are in favour of the fact. It also shows that they believe that social media marketing will put a positive impact on customer engagement in the Australian restaurant business. However, 5 members which are in terms of percentage 16.7% remain neutral and the other 16.5% of participants disagreed. Although there also 10% of participants strongly disagreed with the respective fact. The analysis of the pie chart shows that the majority of participants believe that the inclusion of social media will positively improve customer engagement in the restaurant business in Australia.
Advanced technology has leveraged the management process and provided direction to customer behaviour (Campbell et al., 2020). This also helped businesses in implementing marketing strategies and improving their share in the market. The third question focuses on analysing whether marketing in restaurants improves share in the respective market. The responses show that majority of participants which is 46.7% of members strongly agree with the fact. Further 30% of participants agreed that marketing in the restaurant business will improve the market share. Only 2 members in terms of percentage 6.7% of participants disagree and 4 members remain neutral. 3.3% of participants which is only 1 member disagreed on the respective fact. Thus, it is seen from the finding that the majority of members are in favour of adopting marketing strategies to improve the market share in the restaurant business in Australia.
The fourth question discussed in the finding section focuses on whether it is necessary for the growth of the market share of the Australian restaurant business. The success of a restaurant highly depends on its response to the competitive environment, planning, resource availability and use of marketing strategies (Lepkowska-White, Parsons and Berg, 2019). According to the responses received the majority of members remain neutral in numbers it is 13 members. While only 10% of participants agree with the fact and 2 members which are 6.7 % of participants strongly agree with the fact. However, 7 that is 23.3% of members disagreed and 16.6% of participants disagreed. Thus, it is evidenced that using social media marketing platforms is not a necessary factor for improving the market share rather it supports improving the market share to a wider extent.
The use of the digital platform in marketing the business is emerging and evolving. The fifth question focused on the use of the digital platform in marketing and its influences. Marketing activities are transforming and making businesses dynamic (Bala and Verma, 2018). The analysis of the pie chart and responses noted that only 1 member believe in the fact while 30% of participants strongly believe in the respective statements. Further 2 members remain neutral and 26.7% of participants disagree with the fact. In addition to these 10 participants strongly disagreed and the responses indicate that majority of participants believe that the digital platform is just a platform to market but there is no connection with it to improve the market share of any restaurant business in Australia.
? Checking the present business trends: At the time of product selling, the managers of the restaurant company should be aware of the present social media trends because the platform will project the organisation as well as the business effortlessly in front of millions of social media users.
? Application of multimedia: The videos or images of the food of the restaurant on social media should attract customers positively. The organisation should use the visuals of its products on social media platforms through interesting and simple conversations in the digital platform to engage the target audiences (Ryu and Moon, 2021). The authority of the organisation should choose a proper social media platform to promote its product.
? Show-off the business activities: At present, people who love restaurant food follow YouTube videos more, so the Australian restaurant company should share high-quality photos on social media of its prepared delicious dishes (Bluvstein Netter and Raghubir, 2021). This way they can easily attract customers to come into their restaurant and taste the food.
? Formation of consistent voice: The restaurant business of Australia should establish an iconic brand for their organisation on sustainable and fresh food (Farny, Kibler and Down, 2019). The modern and clean aesthetic of the restaurant company should be consistent in all their activities on social media platforms.
? Response to the online reviews: With the appreciation of positive reviews and identification of negative reviews the working team of the Australian restaurant company can create a friendly and transparent persona on social platforms. Negative reviews should be used by the managers of the Australian restaurant as a new opportunity to observe its customers.
In conclusion, it can be said that online marketing is one of the most common aspects of the business industry. Many business Enterprises including restaurant businesses also use this marketing strategy to increase the share market. In this context, the task deals with the research in question and its objective. Furthermore, it also focuses on the problem faced by Australian restaurants while dealing with social media marketing. Research philosophy, approach, design, data collection method and sources are also considered. Ethical considerations are also mentioned in the respective task. The data which was collected through interviews or surveys are displayed in pie charts and tables. The research data are further analysed elaborately in the discussion section. Primary data analysis sources are used in this task to analyse those research data. The task also deals with a recommendation that helps Australian restaurants increase their existing market share.
Bala, M. and Verma, D., (2018). A critical review of digital marketing. M. Bala, D. Verma (2018). A Critical Review of Digital Marketing. International Journal of Management, IT & Engineering, 8(10), pp.321-339. Available at: https://d1wqtxts1xzle7.cloudfront.net/57617823/IJMRA-14610-libre.pdf?1540293561=&responsecontentdisposition=inline%3B+filename%3DA_Critical_Review_of_Digital_Marketing.pdf&Expires=1670934181&Signature=b~r~bcJ~gQjDzlO4Rknscu95kop1EkuGZHMiU1vLbqIGXG9bginqaAjI0hbL63W2qVEzGQ4YyHPTDY1mU966vkIyBby6VwrBNoGhLZ37nxeYC2fRkMoiN95arqcrBxorInMFG8U5fkufb7NCp~lAtSmssG9lIwiljzZutqeQPXZLw0m3XpKOJ8LiSy~RxxxEBbryB3Pfgwm4dHjAypg457ECyoAP9v1uZWwoYJdQEk5V9H~GTPEapcOvW01qzPSdX8KCVOhxpZ9ji83iiqa8y2MpFLLm75WL8JJ4D7Pm7v5gQpwbTBevVAg93jg7-aSqukEzhPXVzKBrwEigA__&Key-Pair-Id=APKAJLOHF5GGSLRBV4ZA
Bartelt, N. and Hommel, U., (2021). Did Wirecard ever matter? Reflections on the structure of the German e-commerce payment service provider market. Journal of Payments Strategy & Systems, 15(1), pp.67-78. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ulrich-Hommel/publication/351069153_Did_Wirecard_ever_matter_Reflections_on_the_structure_of_the_German_ecommerce_payment_service_provider_market_Journal_of_Payment_Strategy_Systems_151_67-78/links/608e3e2da6fdccaebdffe9d6/Did-Wirecard-ever-matter-Reflections-on-the-structure-of-the-German-e-commerce-payment-service-provider-market-Journal-of-Payment-Strategy-Systems-151-67-78.pdf
Bluvstein Netter, S. and Raghubir, P., (2021). Tip to Show Off: Impression Management Motivations Increase Consumers’ Generosity. Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, 6(1), pp.120-129. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Shirley-Bluvstein-Netter/publication/342761124_Tip_to_Show_Off_Impression_Management_Motivations_Increase_Consumers'_Generosity/links/5fca949c299bf188d4f57781/Tip-to-Show-Off-Impression-Management-Motivations-Increase-Consumers-Generosity.pdf
Campbell, C., Sands, S., Ferraro, C., Tsao, H.Y.J. and Mavrommatis, A., (2020). From data to action: How marketers can leverage AI. Business Horizons, 63(2), pp.227-243. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Colin-Campbell-16/publication/338290896_From_data_to_action_How_marketers_can_leverage_AI/links/5e4c8ac492851c7f7f456b8e/From-data-to-action-How-marketers-can-leverage-AI.pdf
Farny, S., Kibler, E. and Down, S., (2019). Collective emotions in institutional creation work. Academy of Management Journal, 62(3), pp.765-799. Available at: https://arro.anglia.ac.uk/id/eprint/703420/1/Farny%20Kibler%20and%20Down%202018.pdf
Goffin, K., Åhlström, P., Bianchi, M. and Richtnér, A., (2019). Perspective: State?of?the?art: The quality of case study research in innovation management. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 36(5), pp.586-615. Available at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdfdirect/10.1111/jpim.12492
HR, G. and Aithal, P.S., (2022). Approaching Research in Different Ways-How to Choose an Appropriate Research Approach/Reasoning During Ph. D. Program in India?. International Journal of Philosophy and Languages (IJPL), 1(1), pp.59-74. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ganesha-H-R/publication/364829267_Approaching_Research_in_Different_Ways_How_to_Choose_an_Appropriate_Research_ApproachReasoning_During_PhD_Program_in_India/links/635cc3cc96e83c26eb6250aa/Approaching-Research-in-Different-Ways-How-to-Choose-an-Appropriate-Research-Approach-Reasoning-During-PhD-Program-in-India.pdf
Javed, A.R., Shahzad, F., ur Rehman, S., Zikria, Y.B., Razzak, I., Jalil, Z. and Xu, G., (2022). Future smart cities requirements, emerging technologies, applications, challenges, and future aspects. Cities, 129, p.103794. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Abdul-Rehman-
Lepkowska-White, E., Parsons, A. and Berg, W., (2019). Social media marketing management: an application to small restaurants in the US. International Journal of
Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research. Available at: https://web.archive.org/web/20201108181650id_/https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/IJCTHR-06-2019-0103/full/pdf?title=social-media-marketing-management-an-application-to-small-restaurants-in-the-us
Li, J., Kim, W.G. and Choi, H.M., (2021). Effectiveness of social media marketing on enhancing performance: Evidence from a casual-dining restaurant setting. Tourism Economics, 27(1), pp.3-22. Available at: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1354816619867807
Marketshare., (2022). IBISWorld - Industry Market Research, Reports, and Statistics. [online] Available at: https://www.ibisworld.com/au/market-size/restaurants/.
Moran, G., Muzellec, L. and Johnson, D., (2019). Message content features and social media engagement: evidence from the media industry. Journal of Product & Brand Management. Available at: https://mural.maynoothuniversity.ie/13927/1/GM_message.pdf
Okpotor, F.I., (2021). We All Need Philosophy of Science: Analyticism as a Vehicle for Explanatory Understanding in Multi-method Research. African Affairs, 120(479), pp.277-296. Available at: https://watermark.silverchair.com/adab002.pdf?token=AQECAHi208BE49Ooan9kkhW_Ercy7Dm3ZL_9Cf3qfKAc485ysgAAAs0wggLJBgkqhkiG9w0BBwagggK6MIICtgIBADCCAq8GCSqGSIb3DQEHATAeBglghkgBZQMEAS4wEQQM0XasOE6nHjK1ZqZ4AgEQgIICgOOcQRTPt0Dxurqg8f8SDE1PBFRc1zUe1hyKygqhLoHJoqqgWB1EnWhiucNuyygKB4hQbQXH03aFPt9fbQgqi1Go2PJixdVjRfmADrobVS1TtqS3FQwjfsmFpVCsFSG6c_T7
Omrani, A., Wakefield-Scurr, J., Smith, J. and Brown, N., (2019). Survey development for adolescents aged 11–16 years: a developmental science based guide. Adolescent Research Review, 4(4), pp.329-340. Available at: https://research.stmarys.ac.uk/id/eprint/2395/1/Omrani-et-al-Survey-Development-for-Adolescents.pdf
Park, Y.S., Konge, L. and Artino, A.R., (2020). The positivism paradigm of research. Academic Medicine, 95(5), pp.690-694. Available at: https://hsrc.himmelfarb.gwu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1075&context=smhs_hs_facpubs
Patel, M. and Patel, N., (2019). Exploring Research Methodology. International Journal of Research and Review, 6(3), pp.48-55. Available at: https://d1wqtxts1xzle7.cloudfront.net/63543152/IJRR001120200605-115829-bxlrli-libre.pdf?1591425499=&response-content-disposition=inline%3B+filename%3DExploring_Research_Methodology_Review_Ar.pdf&Expires=1670929160&Signature=C3Y~JHzzbeQwAFdIh4N4zaeXZrR6-eBgqFo2R5wrfir1QhWiGsowrE9ATzh-zNgyIIGUi~lX1T4B4i159yRDZSL9Kk-tUfdBwMvzi8xOqCXDOXvbyH0J0SfoZsY6hZcxJLUEgkNEbRShwT0rYR~1AehRHsXsWHynLYheZHowUZVNaXkTUNzxhqyvHWkB2babEXTiu5f~Q6dX~7dhOsxPyrQ1n0WTvK5J89QvnJsRmoAxsqf31QhNCjLCWQZhk0-zohXBvJWKzo7rhHPyZC3OmQTX0gJ4-GRbym~GEnTTGIYnZ-mACO-AatygysmZFH5zwcKrEMUvYhRL2XKAFs8ShA__&Key-Pair-Id=APKAJLOHF5GGSLRBV4ZA
Ryan, G., (2018). Introduction to positivism, interpretivism and critical theory. Nurse researcher, 25(4), pp.41-49. Available at: https://oro.open.ac.uk/49591/17/49591ORO.pdf
Ryu, G.H. and Moon, S.J., (2021). Metadata model-centered cost management app for small business owners in the restaurant business in O2O environment. International Journal of Internet, Broadcasting and Communication, 13(2), pp.52-59. Available at: https://koreascience.kr/article/JAKO202116954721828.pdf
SevenRooms., (2022). 20 Ways to Increase Restaurant Sales. [online] Available at: https://sevenrooms.com/en/blog/increaserestaurantsales/#:~:text=Use%20social%20media%20ads%20and [Accessed 13 Dec. 2022].
Times, T.R., (2019). The Complete Guide To Social Media Marketing For Restaurants. [online] The Restaurant Times. Available at: https://www.posist.com/restaurant-times/resources/social-mediamarketingforrestaurants.html#:~:text=Running%20your%20restaurant%20ads%20on[Accessed 13 Dec. 2022].
PROJ6009 Business Process Management and System Assignment Sample
• Business Process Analytical Plan: “As-Is & To-Be” mapping.
Words limits Part A: 1500 words per report
1. Critically analyse the role of management information systems in sustaining successful organisations.
2. Critically evaluate approaches to business process management and systems, their associated risks and implementation processes.
3. Establish and justify governance processes for business process management change to ensure that all stakeholders are considered in technology change decisions
Instructions for best online assignment help:
In this assessment, the students will begin with identifying a process case in a professional working environment. The case can be from an organisation or a project the students participated in before.
To prepare for this assessment:
• Review Modules 1, 2 and 3
• Identify a case from any industrial sector (production or service industry) you experienced.
Business Process Analytical Plan
Choose a realistic and detailed organisation or project, and analyse the Business Process Management (BPM) methods and techniques taught in the first three modules.
Students are required to work on a process analytical plan (including As-Is and To-Be process mapping). In your analysis, consider and include the following:
• Critically analyse the role of business process management in your chosen case study
• Critically evaluate approaches to business process management and systems, their associated risked and implementation processes
The Business process analytical plan contains:
• Business or project process briefing
• Case based business or project process mappings (As-Is and To-Be)
• Critical analysis on two mappings where are applicable: Good Bad and Ugly; Costs and
Benefits; Advantages and Disadvantages; Feasibility and Sensitivity etc.
Global digitalization has influenced businesses such as healthcare to develop their system into digital technology. This is based on information system technology and business processing. Different organizations have already developed their own information system, for business management and operation. Royal Perth Hospital or RPH is one of the largest hospitals in Western Australia. They have a huge consumer base in the Australian healthcare system. Approximately 42% of whole healthcare in Australia, is spending for hospitals (Industrial Automation Asia, 2022). The organization is planning to adopt advanced digital technology into their business. In this report, different business processes mapping is discussed with critical analysis. On the other hand, the “as is & to be” model will present a better visual structure of new organizational development plan.
Business or Project Process Briefing
Royal Perth Hospital has developed an efficient system of healthcare in Western Australia. They have implemented four major business processes. These are, customer service, operations processes, management process, and Human resource process. It includes all the essential and secondary stakeholders into the system. They have appointed efficient and experienced engineers to maintain the IT infrastructure. The efficiency and business growth must satisfy that structure through maintenance of infrastructure and IT solutions (Leignel et al., 2016). In Australia, digitalization investments have a grown itself in last few years. The business process with efficient management system will improve overall business growth and sustainability. This has a clear objective of building efficient system with smooth functioning.
Like any business process transformation, Royal Perth Hospital will go through specific risks like poor time and cost efficiency. It can also show further resource requirements as well. In that case the organizational authorities such as project manager must build a proper risk mitigation plan to follow.
Essential most Important Process
Most essential process is operations process. The whole management system in healthcare depends on different operations such as accounting, admitting procedure, etc. It includes different operations to accomplish. By accomplishing those through automation will be effective in further business improvement.
The mentioned process is tasks-based process. It includes different phases like listing all patient details. After that, all the operations and medication procedures are managed accordingly. The major tasks are, listing all operational details, managing operations and organisations, accounting all finances into the system, etc. (Nelson, 2017)
This process is basically included in business management process, that is based on different tasks. That will improve the practical application. In that case, project manager, resource manager and finance managers, are the most essential stakeholders to the project. They will also get better results in terms of project and stakeholders’ engagement with task-based management procedure.
The actual issue is system and business operations. It also maintains the management structure. The main objective of choosing this process, is the significance of healthcare management through updated information system. BPM or busines process management will help in developing an automated business system. This will also imprpve the clrarity into the whole system. This will be profitable and sustainable for the organization.
The major KPI or Key Performance Indicators
These are basically some measuring scales or categories that can determine project progress and success. It also helps to determine the places to improve into the project.
• Time and cost efficiency
• Lower man power
• Better risk management
The IT or technical tea will not only develop the system, but also will help in maintain the whole business system.
Business process Mapping
This section of this report consists the current business idea any procedure of Royal Perth Hospital. The current process involves manual systems and procedures. As the largest and longest-serving hospital in Western Australia, Royal Perth Hospital maintains their healthcare structure for nearly 2 centuries. Primarily, the patient information is listed into existing database. After that, all the reports from the patient are received for further analysis and implementation. This analysis will be evaluated and examined by possessional medical practitioner. Finally, the doctor will prescribe essential medication and further instructions.
The major issue with this procedure is poor management and lack of technology application. In that case, more than required efforts and cost are invested into the project. On the other hand, this process consumes more time. Overall, this procedure is not efficient enough to handle huge management and business system.
Image 1: Current business process
(Source: Developed by Author)
The next phase of digitalization into information management system will go through specific steps and planning call. Primarily, the panel of PCs Will run the Phillips Intellivue XDS application that is totally designed with visual portal. Overall, the visual application in practical cases will be efficient enough (Harmon, 2019). By accessing different records and reports, the application will it organize them for further display via Hospital network. Microsoft Windows 7 OS will be connected to different data networks and system equipment. All IT hardware and software will be integrated to deliver world class healthcare solution to hospital patients. The business automation will help in developing the whole system.
In this new system, the information will go directly to the system database from reception. That will lead to automated doctors’ allotment for the patients. This will not only build and time efficient system, but also will improve the efficiency (Paquette et al., 2016). On the other hand, all the previous reports will automatically be assigned to the specific doctor.
The process is automated and more organized than before. In spite of that, it creates some risks such as cybersecurity. It can affect all the personal and sensitive data of the stakeholders. Proper management and system changes can easily handle or resolve these risks.
Image 2: Proposed business process with Information system
(Source: Developed by author)
Advantages and Disadvantages
In early 2016, 27 Advanced POC-W212 systems were installed into the hospital management process. This is also efficient enough to maintain and analyse all the data into the organisation. In modern healthcare, the hospital is going to adopt new system technology to develop their healthcare system. The new software is more efficient in terms of time management, business sustainability, operational management and other primary and secondary activities (Galletta et al., 2014). On the other hand, the system will allow physicians and medical staff to access updated payment information with patient details such as vital reports and results. This will improve the analysis from the certified medical practitioner.
Another severe advantage is accuracy and financial management. When the whole procedure of management is automated through the information management system, the chances of errors decrease its sales. Overall, the billing procedure and accounts management will be operated and maintained by the system.
Every information system has its own advantages and disadvantages. Their efficiency and appropriateness are calculated through the effective advantages against possible risks. In this case, beside all of the advantages, the system provides a food complexity to the business procedure. This makes it difficult to be operated by all the stakeholders such as business staffs, nurses, doctors and management team members (Urquhart et al., 2018).
It also increases the security issue of sensitive and personal information of patients or management stakeholders. All the information is stored into the system database that can face cyber-attacks and sudden data leaks. In that case, the system will be encrypted through popular planning. In spite of that, the security issue will affect the whole business procedure.
Cost and Benefits
The cost depends on maintenance and technical support in case of information management systems. In this technology, Royal Perth Hospital or RPH must develop a technical team of developers to support and maintain the whole system. This will decrease the overall costing of the hospital in manual processing of admission, organizing reports and other similar activities. On the other hand, the automated process will improve the accuracy of the business system. This will eventually improve the cost efficiency and management into the organisation. Another benefit is financial system which also influences the cost efficiency of the organisation. Starting from billing to tax calculation, all the financial activities will be automated through the hospital management system. IT team will be most significant in this case. They are responsible to develop efficient information system, for the organization. Even in this case study, the new proposed system will be implemented by IT team of RPH. Overall, the organisation will experience cost efficient business procedure and effective finance benefits.
Sensitivity and Feasibility
Sensitivity of a Projects or a business model presents the significance of business procedure steps. On the other hand, feasibility presents the organizational implementation or practicality of the project plan. Overall, Royal Perth Hospital or RPH must develop the advanced digitalization planning by following sensitivity and feasibility of the project.
Primarily, the system will organize and manage all the business procedures and spaces such as finance, accounting, management, report analysis, etc. The whole project is effective in practical scenario. This will not only improve the cost efficiency and time efficiency of the organisation, but also will improve the overall growth and sustainability. On the other hand, the system presents different business automation (Berman, 2014). This will improve the overall service quality and effectiveness of Royal Perth Hospital or RPH.
In this whole report, new development plan and present organizational scenario of Royal Perth Hospital or RPH is evaluated and discussed accordingly. It includes an overview of the organisation and the scenario. In the part of critical analysis, the new project plan or business structure is evaluated in terms of practical application. The project manager and other business stakeholders of Royal Perth Hospital will be able to measure the significance and practicality of advanced information system technology
Berman, P. K. (2014). Successful business process management : what you need to know to get results. American Management Association. https://lesa.on.worldcat.org/oclc/871258284
Galletta, D. F., & Zhang, Y. (2014). Human-computer interaction and management information systems. Taylor and Francis. https://lesa.on.worldcat.org/oclc/898770356
Harmon, P. (2019). Business process change : a business process management guide for managers and process professionals (Fourth). Morgan Kaufmann, an imprint of Elsevier. https://lesa.on.worldcat.org/oclc/1090743692
Industrial Automation Asia, (2022). Superior Care with Automation Solution. https://www.iaasiaonline.com/case-study-royal-perth-hospital-delivers-superior-care-automation-solution/
Leignel, J.-L., Ungaro, T., & Staar, A. (2016). Digital transformation : information systems governance (Ser. Advances in information systems set, volume 6). ISTE, Ltd. https://lesa.on.worldcat.org/oclc/964931733
Nelson, W. D. (Ed.). (2017). Advances in business and management (Vol. Volume 13 /). Nova Science Publishers. https://lesa.on.worldcat.org/oclc/995357856
Paquette, P., & Frankl, M. (2016). Agile project management for business transformation success (First, Ser. Portfolio and project management collection). Business Expert Press. https://lesa.on.worldcat.org/oclc/935736446
Urquhart, C., Hamad, F., Tbaishat, D., & Yeoman, A. (Eds.). (2018). Information systems : process and practice (Ser. Iresearch series). Facet Publishing. https://lesa.on.worldcat.org/oclc/1019668156
PRJ5108 Project Delivery and Procurement Assignment Sample
Word count: 3000 words
Weighting: 30% (20% and 10%)
Unit Learning Outcomes: ULO1, ULO2, ULO3, ULO4
Design of Project Delivery System and contract management influence the success or failure of the Implementation phase of projects. It is not just about selecting a contract model; it provides a framework for procurement of goods and services needed to implement the project. This assessment task is based on the delivery system, procurement and contract management of the “Case project”, where students use real-life project as the vehicle for learning and developing their competencies in this unit of study. The case project should be selected by students in their field of interest. The selected project can be a proposed or an initiated project, but it must not be in the construction phase nor a completed project. Each group should be finalised by 3-4 members within the second week of the Trimester. One member for each group should inform their details (names, Ids and project title) to the class teacher through an email or by using the Discussion Forum .
This assessment task includes the following components:
1. The background and the objectives of the case project.
2. High level WBS and the Statement of Work of the case project.
3. Literature review on the case project, including the typical delivery models, contracting methods and contexts.
4. A brief state of why a particular delivery method is selected for the case project. Provide SWOT analysis of the selected project delivery method.
5. Students will also discuss about suggested implementation plan for the case project. In the implementation plan:
a. Students are required to discuss about the preparation of Request for Proposal (RFP) and biding processes for selecting the contractor.
b. Student is required to discuss about the preferred contract types for the design and construction of the case project.
c. Students are required to discuss about the risk management plan related to the selected project delivery method and contracting.
d. Students are also required to discuss about the administration of the construction management of the case project to ensure that all the deliverables are achieved within the estimated time and cost.
e. Students are required to discuss about the plan of continuous monitoring of seller performance, and the management plan of all changes to the seller’s authorised baseline.
PROJECT MANAGEMENT METHOD ANALYSIS OF HAWSONS IRON PROJECT IN AUSTRALIA
Project management is an essential part of the development phase of a particular project. The main aim of the report is to discuss the various project management steps undertaken by an ongoing project. The project under consideration is Hawson’s Iron Project with an estimated “Bankable Feasibility Study” rate of nearly $12.4 million dollar for additional works and available additional funding of $200 million.
2. Background and Objectives of Case Project
The main aim of developing the project is to make it the producer of the world’s highest-grade iron product. Based on the reports published by the company, it can be stated that the “. Prefeasibility Study (PFS)” has shown that the areas chosen for the project are the world’s leading undeveloped high-quality iron ore concentrate (Hawsons.com.au, 2022). From a report, it has been observed that since the iron ore industry ponders its “green steel future” hence the demand for iron ore is on the rise (Parker, 2022). The Hawsons Iron is recognized as a “state-significant development” by the New South Wales government.
The major objectives of the project have been identified to be as follows:
? To provide premium rates for high-grade products and hence reward the shareholders.
? To expand access to skilled mining workers.
? To focus on rewarding the shareholders and also deliver jobs for Broken Hill, Australia.
? To focus on the development of a 20 million tonne per annum (Mtpa) project for delivering superior economics.
? To improve the existing infrastructure of the planned 20Mtpa production of iron ore by the highly skilled miners of Broken Hill.
3. High-Level WBS and Statement of Work of The Case Project
From the studies of Huda and Berawi (2021), it can be mentioned that the development of a high-level work breakdown structure helps in increasing the accuracy of the project. In the case of the mentioned project, the work breakdown structure has been designed in a manner that helps in identifying the ways in which the project can have a better deliverable. The chronological order of work for the mentioned project is as follows:
? Identification of the regional geology
? Analysis of the property geology
? Implementation of the Mining Lease Application (MLA 460)
? Identification of the reasons for a premium pricing of the iron ore
? Gathering investors and shareholders for funding the project
Based on the identified work breakdown structure it can be mentioned that the mining. The image below has helped in showing the Gantt chart along with the timeline for the project. A detailed digital work breakdown structure has been provided below as well.
The statement of work for the mentioned project involves an important cautionary statement that helps in the development of low-level geological confidence that is associated with the mineral resources (Hawsons.com.au, 2022). A detailed classification of the resources has also been done that helps in the development of an open pit operation. Based on the studies of Gorman and Dzombak (2018), it can be mentioned that the development of the combined total mineral resources helps in extending the mining life in a better manner.
Figure 1: Gantt chart Timeline
(Source: Created by the Author)
Figure 2: Gantt chart
(Source: Derived from Libre)
Figure 3: Work-Breakdown Structure
(Source: Created by the learner)
From the WBS and the statement of work, it can be stated that the PFS has helped in allowing the modification of the mineral resources in a better manner. From the above work breakdown structure, it can be stated that the development of the iron project can be divided into five steps. The work breakdown structure has helped in signifying that the identification of the regional geology as one of the first tasks. This is mainly because identification of the regional geology helps in identifying the minerals present in the area. For the area under consideration the image below has helped in showing the probable reserves that have been found in the
Broken Hill Region.
Figure 4: The Probable Resources in the Broken Hill Hawson’s Iron Project
(Source: Hawsons.com.au, 2022)
4. Literature review
4.1 Delivery Models
Hawson iron project is a project located in the West Part of New South Wales. In order to accomplish the project as a part of project deliverables, the EPCM model has been recognised as the most suitable project deliverable. Therefore the SWOT analysis of EPCM is as follows:
Table 1: SWOT analysis
4.2 Contracting methods and context
In order to accomplish the project, the application of the Lump-Sum contract will be more accurate as it provides the contractors with easier and enough time to secure funds for a project. As per the views of Baek et al. (2022), a project manager or a project contractor can easily identify how much amount of funds will be required to accomplish the project. With the help of this project, before initiating the project, Government Australia and the project contractor calculated information such as Positive Equity Returns and the Net present value of the project. The Positive equity return of the project is 1.1 billion whereas the Net present value of the project is £1.1 billion. The project will give 30% IRR or Internal Rate of return and 14.7% DTR (Farrell et al. 2022). Despite this Lump Sum offers an easier assessment of soil conditions which was quintessential for the project. Despite this, the contract model makes the selection process less tedious. Therefore, the adoption of the Lump sum model helped the contract and the Government of Australia to reduce the overhead expenses of the Hawsons iron project and also allowed the contractors to make stable cash flow.
5. Suggested Implementation Plan of Project
5.1 Preparation of Request for proposal (RFP) and bidding process for selecting a contractor
Based on the studies of Khaderiet al., (2019), it can be mentioned that a “Request for Proposal (RFP)” is referred to as a business document that helps in announcing the project. Furthermore, an RFP helps in soliciting bids from the contractors. From the studies provided, it has been identified that an RFP is a final document that is provided to the prospective suppliers for major complexity procurements. The major components of RFP include the following:
? A proposed “Statement of Work (SOW)”
? All the technical specifications
The RFP of the mentioned project has been provided in the table below:
Table 2: RFP for Project
(Source: Created by the Author)
5.2. Preferred contract types for the design and contract of the project
The most common type of contract employed in the project management process involves the “Firm-fixed-price contracts”. From the studies of Roestamyet al., (2022), it can be stated that the main reason behind the widespread use of the project involves the process of fixing the budget at a certain amount. Moreover, from the studies of Tijan et al., (2019), it has been identified that the implementation of the said contract helps is advantageous since it offers benefits to the company on terminating early. The contracting laws of the country also play an important role in deciding the terms of the contract.
Based on the laws of the contract it is important to focus on the negotiation objectives. It is always suggested that when incorporating the said contract method, it is important to obtain a fair and reasonable price for the deal. The image below has helped in portraying the different forms of the agreement in negotiation.
Figure 5: Contract Negotiation forms
Furthermore, it is highly suggested that while setting the terms of the contract, it is important to focus on the possible areas of conflict in the project life cycle. The possible areas of conflict have been illustrated below.
Figure 6: Areas of conflict in a contract
Based on the above image it can be mentioned that the conflict areas in a project development life cycle include mainly the technical and financial areas. However, the implementation of the said contract method helps in better completion of the project in comparison to the others. As per the research of Polzin et al., (2019), it has been mentioned that a fixed-price contract is most beneficial since it comes with a pricing guarantee. In the case of the mentioned project, since the goal of the project is evolutionary, implementation of the mentioned contract would mean greater areas of funding and hence offer the best solution for the completion of the project. However, it has been observed that the biggest disadvantage of the said method is that it is the least flexible method of contracting. However, this disadvantage seems small in comparison to the strict scope of work that can be predefined with the help of the said contracting method.
5.3 Risk Management Plan of the project delivery method and contracting
Risk Management plan for contracting
Table 3: Risk factors in Contract
Risk factors in Project delivery
Table 4: Risk factors in project delivery
5.4. Administration of the construction management of the case project
The most important factor behind the implementation of the construction management practice in the mentioned project is the better accuracy of the deliverable. From the studies of Calzada Olvera (2022), it has been seen that mining projects such as the mentioned one have certain problems such as the planning and designing phase. In the case of the mentioned project, a possible roadblock in the budgeting system has also been identified. Hence, from the studies of Araba et al., (2021), it can be mentioned that the process of construction management helps in the proper evaluation of the budget for a particular project. Furthermore, taking into account the aspects of construction management it can be stated that the methods of budgeting and project management become quite easy. In a construction project, there are various steps and workforce involved in the development of the project and hence implementing the steps of construction management in the mining project would lead to a better decision-making process.
Thus, it can be mentioned that administering the processes of construction management in the mining project would help in increasing the accuracy of the said deliverable. From the studies of Fobiriet al., (2022), it can be opined that the implementation of various cloud-based systems for construction management helps in gaining real-time insight into various project management sites. Thus, being a mining project, the cloud-management system if incorporated into the mentioned system would lead to tracking the onsite progress of the project as well. Overall, it can be mentioned that the administration of the construction management process in the mining project helps in increasing the success of the project.
5.5. Continuous monitoring of the seller's performance, and management plan of all changes to the seller’s authorized baseline
A constant monitoring of the seller’s performance is important in identifying the areas lacking proper vendor management. From the research of Dutta et al., (2020), it can be mentioned that the development of a proper seller monitoring system is important in a project since it helps in the proper maintenance of the supply chain process as well. From the studies of Koke and Moehler (2019), it can be stated that the principles of value management are the most critical path of time phasing each task. Hence, for the betterment of this phase, it can be mentioned that the process of monitoring the changes to the authorized baseline is important. Moreover, it helps in identifying slippages in the scope of work and helps in the overall management of the project. In other words, it can be stated that the implementation of the seller monitoring process helps in the continuous monitoring of the supply chain aspect of the project management in detail.
Therefore from the above discussion it can be said that project management is an integral part of a project as it helps in creating well-defined goals to improve team effectiveness. The report highlights RPF for the project work where the project discusses various factors such as current roadblocks and barriers of the project and the scope of the project work. Despite this, the project also depicted an in-depth SWOT analysis of the EPCM method where strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the EPCM model in the context of the case study have been delineated in the brief. Notwithstanding it, the project also delineated various risk factors in contract and project deliveries in the context of a given case study.
Albdour, S.A., Haddad, Z., Sharaf, O.Z., Alazzam, A. and Abu-Nada, E., 2022. Micro/nano-encapsulated phase-change materials (ePCMs) for solar photothermal absorption and storage: Fundamentals, recent advances, and future directions. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 93, p.101037.
Araba, A.M., Memon, Z.A., Alhawat, M., Ali, M. and Milad, A., 2021. Estimation at completion in civil engineering projects: review of regression and soft computing models. Knowledge-Based Engineering and Sciences, 2(2), pp.1-12.
Australianresourcesandinvestment.com.au, 2022.Hawsons Iron review to optimise project pathway. Available at: https://www.australianresourcesandinvestment.com.au/2022/10/20/hawsons-iron-review-to-optimise-project-pathway/ [Accessed on 31-10-2022]
Baek, M., Li, M. and Ashuri, B., 2022. Empirical Analysis of Lump Sum Pay Item Prices for Highway Projects. EPiC Series in Built Environment, 3, pp.209-217.
BELDIMAN, C.M., 2021. Planning and Conducting Internal Audit Missions at The Public Procurement Department Level Within a Contracting Authority. Annals of the University Dunarea de Jos of Galati: Fascicle: I, Economics & Applied Informatics, 27(1).
Calzada Olvera, B., 2022. Innovation in mining: what are the challenges and opportunities along the value chain for Latin American suppliers?. Mineral Economics, 35(1), pp.35-51.
Dutta, P., Choi, T.M., Somani, S. and Butala, R., 2020. Blockchain technology in supply chain operations: Applications, challenges and research opportunities. Transportation research part e: Logistics and transportation review, 142, p.102067.
Farrell, A. and Sunindijo, R.Y., 2022. Overcoming challenges of early contractor involvement in local government projects. International Journal of Construction Management, 22(10), pp.1902-1909.
Fobiri, G., Musonda, I. and Muleya, F., 2022. Reality Capture in Construction Project Management: A Review of Opportunities and Challenges. Buildings, 12(9), p.1381.
Gorman, M.R. and Dzombak, D.A., 2018. A review of sustainable mining and resource management: Transitioning from the life cycle of the mine to the life cycle of the mineral. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 137, pp.281-291.
Hawsons.com.au, 2022. Hawson’s Iron: World’s best Iron Ore Product. Available at:https://hawsons.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2022/02/HIO_BFS_Expansion_21022022.pdf [Accessed on 31-10-2022]
Hawsons.com.au, 2022. Hawsons Iron Limited(ASX: HIO). Available at: https://hawsons.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2022/03/Hawsons-Iron-IIR-Research-Note-March-2022.pdf [Accessed on 31-10-2022]
Hawsons.com.au, 2022. HAWSONS IRON PROJECT DETAIL REPORT. Available at: https://hawsons.com.au/hawsons-iron-project-detail-report/ [Accessed on 31-10-2022]
Huda, G. and Berawi, M.A., 2021. Quickly Understanding of Lean Construction to Improve Project Cost Performance: A Literature Review. In ITB Graduate School Conference (Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 61-75).
Khaderi, S.S., Abd Shukor, A.S., Bakri, A.S. and Mahbub, R., 2019. Public infrastructure project tendering through public private partnerships (PPP)–a literature review. In MATEC Web Of Conferences (Vol. 266, p. 01015). EDP Sciences.
Koke, B. and Moehler, R.C., 2019. Earned Green Value management for project management: A systematic review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 230, pp.180-197.
Leftwich, B., Opoku, S.T., Yin, J. and Adhikari, A., 2021. Assessing hotel employee knowledge on risk factors and risk management procedures for microbial contamination of hotel water distribution systems. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(7), p.3539.
Mata, P., Silva, P.F. and Pinho, F.F., 2021. Risk management of bored piling construction on sandy soils with real-time cost control. Infrastructures, 6(5), p.77.
Parker, T., 2022. Why this iron ore stock is rapidly on the rise. Available at: https://www.australianresourcesandinvestment.com.au/2022/04/14/why-this-iron-ore-stock-is-rapidly-on-the-rise/ [Accessed on 31-10-2022]
Polzin, F., Egli, F., Steffen, B. and Schmidt, T.S., 2019. How do policies mobilize private finance for renewable energy?—A systematic review with an investor perspective. Applied Energy, 236, pp.1249-1268.
Roestamy, M., Martin, A.Y., Rusli, R.K. and Fulazzaky, M.A., 2022. A review of the reliability of land bank institution in Indonesia for effective land management of public interest. Land Use Policy, 120, p.106275.
Sun, M., Liu, T., Li, M., Tan, J., Tian, P., Wang, H., Chen, G., Jiang, D. and Liu, X., 2022. A deep supercooling eutectic phase change material for low-temperature battery thermal management. Journal of Energy Storage, 50, p.104240.
Tijan, E., Aksentijevi?, S., Ivani?, K. and Jardas, M., 2019. Blockchain technology implementation in logistics. Sustainability, 11(4), p.1185.
PROJ6002 Project Planning and Budgeting Assignment Sample
TOPIC: OPERATING SYSTEMS AND THE FUTURE OF OS
These assessments are designed to allow you to:
• Demonstrate your capability to carry out a thorough and reliable search for facts regarding a topic in Applied Research Project II where the knowledge is dispersed.
• Clarify what the problem or opportunity actually is and specify the question that must be answered in order to resolve the problem.
• Identify and then develop critical research tools that have the potential to solicit required data to support the analysis of your problem, issue or opportunity. Create and present an ethical and achievable research design based on justifiable and evidence- based methods.
• Demonstrate your capability to test your proposed research method/s by carrying out a pilot and reporting the results of that pilot.
You must tailor the format/layout of your Research Proposal Report according to your target reader/s, research approach and context i.e. whether you are making a business/professional report or an academic paper. You will be guided by your Unit Assessor, Lecturer or Tutor as to the format/layout that achieves the best communication. Do not fail to have timely discussions with your Unit assessor or Tutor.
The Operating System (OS) refers to the program that, after loaded initially into the computer through boot programs, manages other application programs in the computer. It is found that the application programs make effective use of the operating system through the request for services by the "Application Program interface" (API) (Zhang & Huang, 2019). Additionally, the users can communicate with the operating system directly with the help of “Graphical UI” (GUI) and “Command-line-interface” (CLI).
According to the view of Hamdani et al., (2021), cyber threats have been emerging rapidly over the past few years and there are notable advancement can be observed in the threat space. It has led towards the essential requirements for improving digital infrastructure security. The operating system tends to bring significant benefits to software development and computer software. Without the operating system, the application would require to include its UI along with other comprehensive codes to manage low-level functions such as network interfaces, disk storage, and others.
Tsvetkov (2020) have stated that with the development of technologies the future of operating system has been improved. For instance, introduction of Artificial Intelligence acts as the guidance in the operating system. Organisations such as, Google, IBM, Microsoft, Alibaba, Orcale and others are working actively towards this direction.
On the other hand, Kouhoué et al., (2021) have stated that in the contemporary era the operating systems are upside down conceptually. It developed in a hard way which is struggling upwards gradually from machineries such as memory, processors, display, and disk towards the users. It is estimated that in the future, both the information management tools and operating systems will grow top-down and provide better services to users.
Rasheed et al., (2021) have stated that operating system failure can be caused through software crashes and hardware malfunctions. It has resulted in the ineffectiveness of the operating system to boot. It is found that the operating system tends to freeze and reboot repeatedly with the error messages displayed on the monitor. Additionally, it can also stop running completely with no notifications.
On the other hand, Zhang & Huang (2019) have analyzed that the problems related to Operating Systems can be attributed to software, hardware, networks, and other combinations of the three. This type of system error is also known as the "Blue Screen of Death" (BSOD). Considering the issues in the operating system, it is important to focus on the future of the operating system that ensures security and will continue to support the users simultaneously.
Research aim and objectives for online assignment help:
The study will aim to evaluate the operating systems along with the future of operating systems through secondary research
To evaluate the role of the Operating System
To identify the challenges in Operating System
To analyze the potential of future Operating Systems in fashion retail in terms of improving communication
What is the role of Operating Systems in businesses?
What are the key challenges associated with the Operating System?
How does the development of Operating Systems help to improve communication issues in the fashion retail industry?
Significance of the study
This study will shed light on the key aspects of the Operating System including its major benefits, opportunities, and challenges that are associated with the businesses (Rasheed et al., 2021). Additionally, the study will provide deeper insight into the future of Operating Systems that can help organizations to improve their performances in the context of improving communication and business performances.
It is found that the key purpose of the Operating System is to offer security to the users along with support to restrict any kind of unauthorized visit. Zhang & Huang (2019) have analyzed that the basic roles of the operating system are ubiquitous and multiple operating systems serve several user and hardware needs. Therefore, it is important to develop the potential of the Operating System in the future to avoid any kind of miscommunication and other unauthorized activities that can cause harm to the businesses.
The critical role of the Operating System
According to the view of Kulkarni (2020), the Operating System can be considered as one of the most “intricate software” since the time of its existence. It can be simple incredibly as well as easy-to-use at the level of users. It mainly acts as the communication bridge in terms of the interface between the computer hardware and users. The key purpose of the operating system is to offer an effective platform based on which the user can execute their programs efficiently and conveniently.
Rathor & Saxena (2020) have stated that it manages the allocation of hardware and the coordination of the hardware must be effective to ensure the correct function of the computer. Besides, it presents the user programs from unauthorized activities with the effective function of the system. It is found that the operating system utilizes password protection to provide protection to the information of users along with similar techniques.
Tottadi & Mehar (2022) have analyzed that with the help of an Operating System; the user can monitor the entire health of the system and enhance performance. It is also used to keep track of the resources and time used through several users and activities and detects errors to avoid malfunctions in the system. It is found that the operating system manages the main or primary memory that consists of an array of words and bytes. Therefore, it acts as one of the effective tools for memory management.
Challenges associated with the Operating System
The key challenges that are associated with the Operating System are as follows:
Transparency is one of the key issues that are significantly associated with the Operating System. It is found that operating systems are used by multiple computers; however, the users get only the view of a single system that is being used. It makes the network invisible to the applications or users. The flexible and distinct features of Internet of Things offer the requirements of portable, efficient and lightweight operating system (Patel & Shah, 2022).
Reliability can be considered one of the significant aspects by the end users. It is undeniable that not every organization makes operating systems have similar standards and where reliability is given priority; there is a wide range of quality. In order to improve the efficacy of the operating system it is important to provide design characteristics (Patel & Shah, 2022). Therefore, the operating system can be reliable for specific kinds of tasks and can be unreliable for others. It is found that existing Operating Systems have two features that make them insecure and unreliable for the end users.
Zikria et al., (2018) have stated that new operating systems, frameworks, application programming interfaces along with middleware must be designed with Internet of Things to offer flexibility. Flexible Operating Systems are considered to be those, whose designs have been encouraged to some degree. It allows the system to be tailored either dynamically or statically to the needs of certain application domains or applications.
Technology Acceptance Model
The "Technology Acceptance Model" (TAM) emphasizes the two factors that help to determine whether the computer system will be accepted by potential users such as, "perceived usefulness" and "perceived ease of use" (Sagnier et al., 2020). It is found that one of the significant characteristics of this model is that it greatly relies upon the perspectives of the potential users. Additionally, it helps to improve predictions of the use of resources such as information. Salloum et al., (2019) have stated that confidence in the use of advanced technologies in the form of an Operating System can lead to flexibility, transparency, reliability, and scalability in the system. It further improves the productivity and profitability of the organizations. Therefore, it is required of the organization to evaluate the perceived usefulness of the users in terms of challenges and make changes in its characteristics that can help the users to ease of use and improve performances.
Additionally, it helps organizations to make effective decisions regarding the future development of the Operating system. For instance, fashion retailers used operating systems to make waves in the entire "fashion design zone" which helps them to minimize the demands for manual sketches. It is found that based on the attitude, behavioural, and intentions of the users the organizations have implemented TAM and integrated advanced software programs to minimize manual errors.
Figure 1: Technology Acceptance Model
(Source: Sagnier et al., 2020)
Research philosophy, approach, and design
The study will be conducted using the "positivism research philosophy". It helps to attain factual information regarding the research phenomenon such as, Operating System and the future of the Operating System. On the other hand, the inclusion of realism and interpretivism philosophy will be avoided as per the requirements of the study. Realism emphasizes the immediate reality and ignores the significance of the ultimate reality of the research phenomenon (Park et al., 2020). Additionally, due to the subjective nature of interpretivism, this research philosophy will be excluded from the study.
“Deductive research approach” will be used in the study as it helps to move from a broader perspective to a specific research area and helps to generate desired findings. On the other hand, the inclusion of an inductive approach will be avoided as it may reach inaccurate conclusions.
Apart from that, the study will be conducted using an "explanatory design" that helps to attain deeper insight into the operating system and the associated challenges of OS along with the future context of the Operating System.
Data collection methods and data analysis
The study will be conducted using “secondary data collection methods”. It will help to evaluate the diversified perspectives about the operating system and help to answer the research questions (Sherif, 2018). The secondary data will be collected from existing and authentic sources such as peer-reviewed articles and journals.
The collected secondary data will be analyzed using the "thematic analysis technique”. Different themes will be developed from the keywords to interpret the collected data and generate research findings (Sherif, 2018).
Hamdani, S. W. A., Abbas, H., Janjua, A. R., Shahid, W. B., Amjad, M. F., Malik, J., ... & Khan, A. W. (2021). Cybersecurity Standards in the Context of Operating System: Practical Aspects, Analysis, and Comparisons. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 54(3), 1-36. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Syed-Wasif-Abbas-Hamdani-2/publication/351418658_Cybersecurity_Standards_in_the_Context_of_Operating_System_Practical_Aspects_Analysis_and_Comparisons/links/6203b0ebc8b46c1ad976a972/Cybersecurity-Standards-in-the-Context-of-Operating-System-Practical-Aspects-Analysis-and-Comparisons.pdf
Kouhoué, A. W., Bonavero, Y., Bouétou Bouétou, T., & Huchard, M. (2021). Exploring Variability of Visual Accessibility Options in Operating Systems. Future internet, 13(9), 230. https://www.mdpi.com/1999-5903/13/9/230/htm
Kulkarni, M. (2020). Analysis of Process Structure in Windows Operating System. https://www.academia.edu/download/64624264/IRJET-V7I601.pdf
Park, Y. S., Konge, L., & Artino, A. R. (2020). The positivism paradigm of research. Academic Medicine, 95(5), 690-694. https://hsrc.himmelfarb.gwu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1075&context=smhs_hs_facpubs
Patel, B., & Shah, P. (2022). Operating system support, protocol stack with key concerns and testbed facilities for IoT: A case study perspective. Journal of King Saud University-Computer and Information Sciences, 34(8), 5420-5434. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1319157821000021
Rasheed, S., Mazhar, S., & Naqvi, M. R. (2021, October). Highlighting Demanding Aspects of Operating Systems for Improved Efficiency. In 2021 International Conference on Data Analytics for Business and Industry (ICDABI) (pp. 599-603). IEEE. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Muhammad-Raza-Naqvi/publication/357422296_Highlighting_Demanding_Aspects_of_Operating_Systems_for_Improved_Efficiency/links/61eab5bdc5e3103375ae51c0/Highlighting-Demanding-Aspects-of-Operating-Systems-for-Improved-Efficiency.pdf
Rathor, S. K., & Saxena, D. (2020). Energy management system for smart grid: An overview and key issues. International Journal of Energy Research, 44(6), 4067-4109. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sumit-Rathor/publication/338916892_Energy_management_system_for_smart_grid_An_overview_and_key_issues/links/5ed69a9092851c9c5e7484ef/Energy-management-system-for-smart-grid-An-overview-and-key-issues.pdf
Sagnier, C., Loup-Escande, E., Lourdeaux, D., Thouvenin, I., & Valléry, G. (2020). User acceptance of virtual reality: an extended technology acceptance model. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 36(11), 993-1007. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02446117/document
Salloum, S. A., Alhamad, A. Q. M., Al-Emran, M., Monem, A. A., & Shaalan, K. (2019). Exploring students’ acceptance of e-learning through the development of a comprehensive technology acceptance model. IEEE access, 7, 128445-128462. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel7/6287639/8600701/08825866.pdf
Sherif, V. (2018, May). Evaluating preexisting qualitative research data for secondary analysis. In Forum: qualitative social research (Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 26-42). Freie Universität Berlin. https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/download/2821/4211?inline=1
Tottadi, K. K., & Mehar, A. (2022). Operating speed: review and recommendations for future research. Innovative Infrastructure Solutions, 7(1), 1-13. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Arpan-Mehar/publication/355410119_Operating_speed_review_and_recommendations_for_future_research/links/62cbf5a1d7bd92231faa3bd7/Operating-speed-review-and-recommendations-for-future-research.pdf
Tsvetkov, K. (2020). OPERATING SYSTEMS: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE. New knowledge Journal of science, 9(2), 167-175. http://www.science.uard.bg/index.php/newknowledge/article/viewFile/692/pdf_227
Zhang, Y., & Huang, Y. (2019). " Learned" Operating Systems. ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review, 53(1), 40-45. https://cseweb.ucsd.edu/~yiying/LearnedOS-OSR19.pdf
Zikria, Y. B., Yu, H., Afzal, M. K., Rehmani, M. H., & Hahm, O. (2018). Internet of things (IoT): Operating system, applications and protocols design, and validation techniques. Future Generation Computer Systems, 88, 699-706. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Yousaf-
MBA642 Project Initiation, Planning and Execution Assignment Sample
Length: 2000 words (+/- 10% allowable range)
Individually, you are required to prepare a 2000-word report in which you are to analyse the success and failure factors of a major Australian project by considering its ethical compromises.
In this individual assessment, students will be given an opportunity to analyse the organisational factors that promote effective project management. The success and failure factors and ethical considerations for each of the 5 IPECC phases will need to be considered.
Please choose one of the following projects as the basis for your research (Based on your choice, you are to focus on the construction and implementation of the project, following the IPECC phases, and not its current operations beyond what is required in closure).
Melbourne Metro Tunnel Project
Hornsdale Power Reserve and Upgrade
Adelaide Oval Upgrade
Please note that the above links give only an initial outline of the project’s delivery, and substantial additional research will be required to complete your assessment successfully.
Once you have conducted thorough research about your chosen project, you are then required to prepare a 2000-word report in which you are to:
• Analyse in detail both the steps critical for your chosen project’s success and the critical pitfalls that could have led to its failure. Relate the specific success and fail factors to your nominated project, and do not just describe a generic theory or simple definitions.
• For each of the 5 IPECC stages, you are to analyse the success and failure factors for each of those stages. You are required to analyse at least one success criteria and at least one failure criteria for each stage. If you are unable to identify success or failure criteria for a particular stage, you are required to postulate at least one criteria. Still, it must be based on sound theory and your knowledge of the case study.
• Integrate the ethical considerations into each of these steps and show how ethical considerations may impact the success or failure of the chosen project.
In preparing this report, you will need to use at least 10 sources of information and reference these in accordance with the Kaplan Harvard Referencing Style. These may include websites, government publications, industry reports, census data, journal articles, and newspaper articles. These references should be presented as in-text citations and a reference list at the end of your proposal. Wikipedia and other ‘popular’ sites are not to be used.
The Melbourne Tunnel Project is an underground project in Australia and is also considered the biggest project of Melbourne railways. This metro project is regarded as one of the most important railways projects that are responsible for more suburbs with more train line services as well as reducing travel times for the citizens.
This assignment talks about the 5 stages of IPECC phases: initiation, planning, executing, controlling, and closing along with at least one success and failure criteria as well as some ethical approach towards the ethical consideration. This assignment is fully responsible for showing these approaches along with an analytical point of view for assignment help.
The initiation phase refers to the starting time of the project when the ideas regarding the project are designed and defined as well as evaluating the project getting permission from the authorization along with deciding on the project sponsor and the other important works. Thus the initiation phase can be considered one of the important phases of a project. The Melbourne Metro Tunnel project is built by John Holland, AECOM, and CPB Contractors in partnership with Rail Project Victoria and the Metro Train Melbourne.
Regarding the success factor of the Metro Tunnel project initiation phase in Australia, several factors can be counted in this case. The approach of getting the statutory assessment and approval along with taking a serious attempt towards the environment that are effected statement, environment management framework along with sufficient planning scheme amendment. Other success factors lead to the success of the project such as giving sufficient effort towards making the project area along with the proper alignment, making proper development plans as well as the designing and development overlay (Melo Zurita 2020). The Metro Tunnel project focuses on sustainability strategies along with the approach towards the heritage permit which gives a huge benefit regarding the success factor of the project. Overall it can be said that the Metro Tunnel project of Australia has been assessed through a well-tested method along with the robust and transparent planning that gives it the related boost that is needed for success factor.
There are failure factors regarding this initiation project that can be recognized. However, this can be assumed that if the project does not follow the statutory assessment and criteria and also does not maintain the sustainability approach as well as the environmental effort statement the project could have been a failure (Victoria's big build 2022). There is also an approach towards the planning scheme management that can be found regarding this Metro Tunnel project that also can be considered as the crucial factor regarding the initiation process.
Regarding ethical consideration, the approach of sustainability regarding the initiation process and making it one of the parts of the project can be considered as one. There is also the approach of saving the heritage along with making the metro tunnel that also shows its ethical approach.
Figure 1: Metro Tunnel
(Source: Victoria's big build 2022)
Through the help of the planning process, it helps to easily manage this plan that helps to achieve all those goals of these projects. It also identifies all the scopes of this project plan and also makes a proper schedule that helps to identify all the resources such as time management, roles and responsibility, performance measurements, and also other risks and resources that impact the planning process of these projects (Manawadu 2021). It also helps to make a strong communication plan to increase this project's effectiveness and helps to develop the planning process.
Through the help of this proper planning, these projects try to make 5 new underground stations their planning and this team of Metro Tunnel also takes more initiative for this project. AS their proper planning with sufficient team, resources, and time management, they easily increase this planning process as success. The help of all these resources properly also impacts this project and makes it more successful in this stage and helps to move further steps on completion.
If the team of Melbourne metro tunnel does not manage their plan properly at the time and also use all their resources to achieve their set goals accurately, then it also hits their planning process. It also negatively impacts these projects and also makes failure in this stage. So, all those factors that are essential for making a potential plan for this project and the lack of any one fact easily reduce this stage's impact on this project.
Some ethics are maintained for completing this stage of planning according to these projects. Those ensure all the facts about the planning that easily make a proper alignment and through the help of these ethics, it also increases the project's importance and also the value (Ozcelik & Aydemir 2021). For this reason, all the team members also take it seriously that they easily increase their performance. It also helps to manage the truth and honest relations among the team members by managing their communication so that they can easily lead this project in a professional view that helps to make success.
After making proper planning of these projects it comes to the next step which is executing. This stage also reflects the plan that comes into action and helps to start this project enthusiastically among all the members. It also maintains all the tasks according to the plan that make them properly deliverable. Through the help of this stage, also makes communication among all the stakeholders that helps to increase the initiative and also maintain the budget and resources that are planned for completing this project.
As per this project of the Metro tunnel in Melbourne, this execution process also completes with success and this project also goes positively. This project of the metro tunnel will open soon in 2025 and for this reason; the team executes the plan more encouragingly. This stage also comes as a success because there is strong communication among the stakeholders and also they easily manage and use all the resources as per their budget that cannot hurt or make any barriers to its completion process.
There is also a chance for this project to become a failure of this management team and other members of this project cannot manage all the facts that are essential to complete it. They break their communication with stakeholders, use all those resources without any planning and also lack decision-making skills to use innovative ideas in this project (Ninan et al. 2019). For this reason, it also increases their expenses as per their planning budget that needs for completing this. It also negatively impacts this project and also makes it a failure process.
In this process of completing this stage positively, some ethics helps the management team to easily complete these projects. Those factors are always making a decision after discussion with other members and stakeholders that helps to maintain a strong bonding in the team (Drouin et al. 2021). Always plan for further steps and then take any steps that help to maintain all the risk factors about this plan. Through the help of all those ethics, they easily reflect a positive outcome from these projects and make them successful.
Figure 2: Project execution according Planning
(Source: Victoria's big build 2022)
The controlling phase of a project is mainly regarded as the time when the project is managed appropriately and also on track according to the project plan. There are also some other areas in the controlling phase that can be identified such as the on-schedule program along with the monitoring approach regarding plan and adjustment (Mottee et al. 2020). Regarding the Melbourne Metro project, the controlling factors are also considered as successful as it specifies some areas that are also crucial areas regarding the project. At present, the project is one the way and the 9 km tunnel is being made and the others are also in the scope of the construction process.
Regarding the success factors the main thing that can be identified is the speed of completing the tunnel-making process without any mistakes or casualties. The completion of the 9 KM tunnel along with the high-quality signaling system that enables the passengers to turn up and go services can be counted as one of the success factors. There are also several scopes apart from these that enable this phase to be successful in the whole project such as the up gradation of the suburban rail lines as well as proving safety features and the work is going well regarding these categories.
Regarding the failure factors, it is generally not identified such failures this in phase. However, there are also some approaches such as making delays in the construction process that may cause some casualties that put the project in an ultimately negative way. It not only slows the overall process of the project but also there are also some losses of funds can also be noticed (Murakami et al. 2021). There is also the approach of high-quality capacity signaling that can also be regarded as the vulnerable factor that can make the project to its failure because the whole base of the metro tunnel is dependent on the signaling system.
As for the ethical consideration part, the approach of this project towards joining several underground stations and also providing several signaling capacities along with the interchange of the stations and domain interchange can be considered as the ethical consideration.
After completing all those stages, this stage comes as the last one that is closing, and through the help of this stage, it maintains all the processes of these projects and also helps to come into the last stage of completion (Olugbenga et al. 2019). It also easily describes the final point of this project that comes after the completion of all the stages successfully also delivers the project as their commitment and also releases all the staff and resources that reflects it as a complete one throughout this project.
This stage also reflects as a success factor after completing all the stages of this complete planning project for making these stage as a success on there are some basic facts are without cancelation of any contract, make a proper and final budget as per the start project budget, after completion handover this project to the authority and make a complete view that easily make it as a deliverable. The help of this procedure easily reflects this project as a success at this stage.
After completion of all those stages of this project, it comes on this stage and it also reflects some basic factors that make it a failure. If the team management cannot control all the processes such as the exact budget, and resources such as employee involvement, and cancel any contract in a way that easily impacts this project negatively. This team is unable to deliver this project completely to the authority and has issues with this metro tunnel project. Then, this project was presented as a failure after the completion of all the stages.
Throughout the process of this stage, some ethics also helps to increase its importance and also make it a much more positive stage. They always try to manage a healthy workplace culture in the project that also helps all those employees to easily maintain an encouraging culture through the project (Qiu et al. 2022). Always try to maintain the health and safety of the employees and workers who take part in this project and also contribute to the project and also take responsibility to complete this as a success.
From the above assignment, the discussion is based on the Metro tunnel in Melbourne and through the help of this metro tunnel; it implements five new stations in the twin 9 km rain tunnel that is new Sunbury to Cranbourne. In this assignment, the discussion is based on this project and also discusses the 5 initial stages of this project that helps to make this project complete as a successful one. After that explain all the stages with their success and failure factor and also discuss the ethical consideration to maintain through completing this project. All those impact this project to make it a successful project.
Build, V.B. (2022) Victoria's big build, bigbuild.vic.gov.au. Victoria's Big Build. Available at: https://bigbuild.vic.gov.au/ (Accessed: November 26, 2022).
Drouin, N., van Marrewijk, A., Sankaran, S. & Müller, R., 2021. What is done through the lens of megaproject leaders life stories. In Megaproject Leaders (pp. 2-11). Edward Elgar Publishing.
Manawadu, N., 2021. Melbourne metro 2: A boon for eastern Melbourne's public transport connectivity. Chain Reaction, (139), p.33. https://search.informit.org/doi/pdf/10.3316/informit.900047061816884
Melo Zurita, M.D.L., 2020. Challenging sub terra nullius: a critical underground urbanism project. Australian Geographer, 51(3), pp.269-282. https://doi.org/10.1080/00049182.2020.1723829
Mottee, L.K., Arts, J., Vanclay, F., Miller, F. & Howitt, R., 2020. Reflecting on how social impacts are considered in transport infrastructure project planning: looking beyond the claimed success of sydney’s South West rail link. Urban Policy and Research, 38(3), pp.185-198. https://doi.org/10.1080/08111146.2020.1730787
Murakami, J., Villani, C. & Talamini, G., 2021. The capital value of pedestrianization in Asia's commercial cityscape: Evidence from office towers and retail streets. Transport policy, 107, pp.72-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2021.04.017
Ninan, J., Clegg, S. & Mahalingam, A., 2019. Branding and governmentality for infrastructure megaprojects: The role of social media. International Journal of Project Management, 37(1), pp.59-72. https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10080650/3/Ninan%20Manuscript_UCL%20Deposit.pdf
Olugbenga, O., Kalyviotis, N. & Saxe, S., 2019. Embodied emissions in rail infrastructure: a critical literature review. Environmental Research Letters, 14(12), p.123002. https://doi.org.10.1088/1748-9326/ab442f
Ozcelik, M. & Aydemir, M.C., 2021. Evaluation of uncertainties in travertine rock mass for the Antalya (Turkey) Metro tunnel excavation. Journal of Taibah University for Science, 15(1), pp.295-302. https://doi.org/10.1080/16583655.2021.1978832
Qiu, J., Fan, F., Zhang, C., Lai, J., Wang, K. & Niu, F., 2022. Response mechanism of metro tunnel structure under local collapse in loess strata. Environmental Earth Sciences, 81(5), pp.1-18. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-387129/v1
PRJM6003 Project Risk Management Assignment Sample
Aim of Assessment
General - To apply risk analysis quantitative techniques to projects
Apply quantitative risk analysis using specialist software to create a cost model, and evaluate and analyse the results Select a project. The project can be from your work experience, or a soci project (could be the same project as Part A of Assessment 1, but best for learning purposes if the project should be a real future project. Students may use the project from Time Management or Cost Management units). Produce a Budget Report: The document is designed to be given to the Project Sponsor for approval. The sponsor is not knowledgeable about the cost estimating process or Monte Carlo simulation. The report must contain the following five sections:
1. Introduction (25%)
a. Executive Summary: This section establishes the key elements within the report, including project scope, budget, recommendations, and any other relevant information. Appropriate context must be provided when describing the project, this includes background information on the organization, the intended goals/benefits of the project, and the project and product scope.
b. Recommended Baseline Budget: Provide a baseline budget composed of 10-30 cost variables (This is a deterministic estimate based on the most likely value for each cost variable, excluding risk events and contingency). You must structure the budget in a manner consistent with industry best practices. Furthermore, you must explain the source of information used to produce the estimate for each item in the budget (i.e. suppliers, subcontractors, historical costs, etc.).
i. Justification of Probability Distribution for One Cost Variable – Explain and justify the selected values (minimum, most likely, and maximum) in the probability distributions for at least one of the cost variables in your Table
NOTE: Once you have completed the above deterministic baseline budget, then conduct Monte
Carlo Simulation (including correlations). In your cost model for Monte Carlo Simulation you will:
• Replace deterministic values in the Recommended Baseline Budget with probability distributions; and • Add two (2) specific risk events to the model.
2. Explanation of Two Risk Events (20%): Provide a brief paragraph or two for each risk event that covers the following key points:
-briefly explain what the risk event is and what are the risk key causes.
- justify the Probability and Consequences of the risk event in terms of your selected probability distribution values for minimum, most likely, and maximum.
3. Contingency & Risk Management (35%)
a. Recommendation for Contingency: Recommend a contingency amount. Explain why you are recommending the contingency that you have selected.
b. Risk Management: based on the Tornado Chart, explain to the sponsor how you will control and minimise the following to ensure that your contingency is sufficient:
i. Most sensitive cost variable (use sensitivity analysis to determine)
ii. Most sensitive risk event (use sensitivity analysis to determine)
c. Correlation Matrix: Select two correlated variables (i.e. one correlation) from your cost model. Explain why they might be correlated. And the likely nature and strength of this correlation
4. Organisational Policy (15%): Compare and comment on your cost results against the organisational policy that states “it is expected that the Baseline Budget (i.e. excluding contingency) should have an 80% probability of being with a range of -5/+10%.”
a. Executive Summary
This section of the report for online assignment help is going to include the project scope, budget and recommendation for the risk management of marriage functions in the specific country. After this, it will also justify and recommend a budget and the probability distribution for one cost variable in the marriage function. This has further described the two risk events and the consequences of the risk in the wedding function, and initially, it is also going to provide information about the project. The risk can impact the overall structure of the wedding functions. The management has also created an estimated value to control the risks. These values can give the idea for event management (VanDerhei, 2019). At last, this will evaluate the wedding policy. There can be several risk managements associated with the wedding ceremony, such as the travelling of wedding guests, the best way of food and catering services, accommodation for the guests, selecting a unique venue, etc.
b. Recommended Baseline Budget
The baseline budget could be estimated on each of the cost variables associated with the wedding function, which is done by the event management. A certain amount of $750,000 can establish the budget line for the wedding function in the country. For wedding venues, the budget could be set by $80,000; for resources required at $30,000, wedding decor could be developed by $25,000. For food and catering services it could be charged with $40,000, accommodation for the wedding guests is $30,000, transportation such as $10,000, and for wedding planner cost it should be done with $20,000, and at last for venue lighting and wedding attire cost, it could be done within $540,000.
i. Justification of Probability Distribution for One Cost Variable
The assumptions do the justification of probability distribution for wedding venues. Sometimes, the justified probability distributions can be done in a theoretical way which is related to wedding functions. This will assume and simulate the expected guests in the wedding performance. The event manager manages the probability distribution for the wedding venue to estimate the number of guests who are able to attend the wedding function. After this, it simulates the correct probability to create a decision for the event. This could be related to the cost variable of an event. For each simulation, the event management set the record of the guest. For example, the total number of guests has been estimated as 10,000, which will help the event organisers or management to plot the seating arrangement.
2. Explanation of Two Risk Events
Primarily a risk event in marriage function is the probability of an unforeseen event that can affect the process and so on. Risk events can cause unexpected consequences to family members linked with the marriage, and these can become individual moments or circumstances and quickly impact the operation's marriage function (Chiappori, 2020). For example, a supplier is late for delivering some goods that are needed on an urgent basis or a key supplier is unavailable in an emergency situation. These risks can adversely affect the management of the marriage function in the United Kingdom. Hence, these two risk events will be evaluated in terms of the selected probability distribution values for minimum, most likely or maximum.
Performance Risk: This is a potential limitation that a marriage program fails to deliver. This possible limit is often less than expected (Prakken, 2018). This is called performance risk, which can be applied to outsourced & internal situations. Performance risk has some illustrative examples, which are:
• Requirements shortfall: The probability of failure of a marriage ceremony or program by failing to meet the requirement (Fenoaltea et al., 2021). Any requirement in scope can be identified as a risk if there is a probability of not completing it.
• Product Value: Suppose a seating arrangement supplier claims that it will reduce the overall cost by 25% by utilising their service. But the decoration team identifies that this particular supply will have usability issues or durability problems that can increase the price rather than decrease it.
Marriage function is dependent on the decorators, furniture suppliers, event management teams, catering services and many more (Chen, Zhang and Wu, 2020). All of these departments should be competent enough to execute the function effectively, and the effectiveness of their services and offerings are based on their performances. Moreover, managing guests and arranging proper transport service for them is another challenge that is equally dependent on the management team's performance.
Market Risk: When the marriage functions fail to meet the fixed results, the market risk is most likely to occur. Market risk events affect the performance of the whole market altogether (Shephard, 2019). The word market risk is also defined as the systematic risk, which refers to the variability which is associated with any financial decision of any marriage function in the country. The risk management process can include the evaluation of several ways to identify the marriage function related risks, such as the religious background of an individual. Market risk in marriage function has initially had an impact on the financial risk. The consequences of the market risk in the marriage function in the country (Zhang and Zou, 2021)). These factors have affected the overall performance of the financial market of marriage function. The exchanging of money can also be an emerging factor in marriage functions. The budget for venues has put stiff competition on market risk, but it can also increase the revenue of the events. The marketing of the wedding venue needs to be targeted.
The consequences of risk events in marriage functions
Both the consequences have effectively impacted the marriage functions in the specific society (Nie and Xing, 2019). These consequences can bring risks to the overall management system, such as insufficient facilities for the wedding guests. The performance risk in marriage functions is most likely to affect the process. The probability of failure in a marriage function or program in the country by being unable to meet the requirements of the process. This creates competition in the overall structure of the ceremony.
On the other hand, the marketing risk has also had an impact on the marriage function. Market risk in marriage function initially impacted the financial risk (Xing et al., 2020). It can be affected in the marriage ceremony such as lack of travelling facilities, improper food and catering services, wasting of money that is miscellaneous and so on.
Performance and market risks must be adequately assessed to avoid unexpected consequences during the marriage function. Requirements for accommodation, hotel rooms and so on are essential for executing a marriage function (Klonecki, 2020). If the wedding planner fails to deliver appropriate rooms and comfortable accommodation for the guests, the overall outcome will be terrible. As marriage is a significant activity, everyone will remember the malfunction for a long time. It is imperative for every department to work accordingly as per the requirements. Every cost variable should be adequate for delivering efficient services to the guests.
3. Contingency & Risk Management
a. Recommendation for Contingency:
The total amount that is allocated for the contingency plan regarding marriage function is €800,000. The total contingency amount is divided into two divisions, a performance-related project has been earmarked with $400,000, and the other half of $400,00 has been reserved for market-oriented risk events (Hazée et al., 2020).
From the context of the marriage function, performance-related risk events can hamper the program's overall structure, such as poor transportation service for guests, improper seating arrangement, low quality of foods that are served, and so on (Allison, 2018). Event management related to the marriage program needs to spend a sufficient amount of money on the improvement of transportation services (ex- $85000). A certain amount of money should be allocated to the overall arrangement for seating (ex $50000). The event team can give $85000 on safety measures for all people who will be present at the marriage ceremony (Hazée et al., 2020). For providing quality food to guests, $75000 is more than enough. Decoration should be efficient and durable for preventing damage in case of a storm or heavy rainfall; a sum of $50000 can be allocated for supporting this. An additional sum of $55000 can be saved for future emergencies.
The marketing management of a marriage function estimates an overall amount of $400,000 in the performance. In marriage functions or ceremonies in the country, the contingency plan has been initiated to overcome the possibilities in terms of market risk. Eventually, based on the marriage function, the marketing management can be done in several ways in terms of various categories of the venue, such as it could be a destination, any high profile wedding, etc. The market risk in marriage events can help understand the clients' money mindset (Pan et al., 2020). The event management should fix an appropriate amount for the program, which includes an approx amount for fixing up the venue that, is $80,000 for a local wedding, to create an attractive wedding card that is $25,000, the booking of the hotel can be estimated that is $30,000 and the overall transportation system for the wedding guests can be done in $55,000 and the remaining $210,000 for the miscellaneous purpose.
b. Risk Management:
The risk management could be evaluated based on the overall ceremony of the wedding in the country. This risk can be estimated on a specific value by the event management. This risk management system is the process of identifying and controlling the issues associated with a wedding ceremony. The event manager needs to modify the proper management system (Shortland, and Perkins, 2019). There can be several issues which can be most sensitive in the wedding function, such risks which are related to the cost of wedding venue charge, resources that are required, wedding decor, food and catering, accommodations for the wedding guest, transportation system, invitation cards and miscellaneous cost and so on.
i. Most sensitive cost variable
The most significant and sensitive cost variable in the marriage ceremony could be wedding attire cost, wedding venue charge and lastly, resources required. This risk has an impact on the overall event, where it will affect the attractiveness of the event. These three cost variables could adversely affect the management as well as the wedding functions. The risk management of the wedding function could be controlled by estimating an approx amount for the event. There can be several activities which are somewhere related to the cost variable (Barman and Potsangbam, 2018). The amount has to be set by the event management, such as approx $7,00,000. The amount could justify the cost variable of an event.
ii. Most sensitive risk event
The most sensitive risk event in the wedding ceremony, moreover both the risk has a practical impact on the event, but eventually most likely to occur is the marketing risk. Numerous costs of estimation have been identified during the process. Hence, without setting a market price for the wedding, the performance would not happen. The risk or event management needs to provide essential and productive equipment to control the market risks in wedding functions. There can be numerous miscellaneous activities that indirectly impact the wedding function's cost variable. To overcome the chance, they can also provide sufficient resources for the clients to understand the wedding cost.
c. Correlation Matrix:
Food catering and accommodation for guests are correlated. Guests will only enjoy the food when they are able to rest appropriately. Though the food distribution will be based on the buffet method, the guests are likely to enjoy the food only when they are sitting in a comfortable position. The food services provide an impact on the guest. Proper seating positions can increase the overall satisfaction while eating food. Catering should divide their food offerings into both pure veg, veg and non-veg segments. Healthier alternatives should be present for health-conscious people. If fragmented flowers surround the seating arrangement, the experience will be more satisfying. Marriage function will be more excellent if food catering members serve the old people who are unable to walk correctly. A special seating arrangement for kids will be great. All of the above conditions will definitely strengthen the correlation between food catering and accommodation. This correlation defines that food catering and accommodation can be improved if these two departments work collaboratively.
4. Organisational Policy
Several cost results have been found based on the marriage function. Food catering and accommodation are correlated with each other. It is pretty hard to estimate the budget of a marriage ceremony without a decent idea. The costs associated with marriage function come from different places. The overall cost for the marriage function is $750,000. The on-site expenses for the resources required are enormous. It is the most expensive segment of the process. These include the overall costs that are charged by event venues and wedding planners. It is worth identifying that the cost variables can be changed based on the total attendance of the guests (Pedersen et al., 2021). Food catering is an example of variable expenses as the number of food guests need is subsequently changed according to the number of guests, which costs around one-sixth of the total budget. On-site fees for the marriage function include a security deposit for venue booking, insurance coverage for the venue, room rental for relatives and parking lots for vehicles. Food and catering include costs of beverages, meals, labour fees, gratuity fees and so on.
As per the cost results, accommodation of guests carried more cost than wedding venue decoration. Naturally, guests' accommodation should be comfortable, clean and spacious. This is more important than the decoration, so the price allocated for the housing is justified. Several resources like doctors' support and emergency transport support are arranged and cost more than wedding attire costs (VanDerhei, 2019). This is also justified considering the safety and reliability of the marriage function. Transportation cost is entirely above the bar considering the current rates of the private rental cars. The car service provider charged 30% more than the regular rate. It is unethical and results in a fall in the overall budget. The wedding planner's cost is justified as they provided a perfect catering service that complies with the accommodation of the guests. This also created a perfect correlation between these two cost variables. Venue lighting and wedding attire cost are quite the same. But the attire cost should be less as per their worth. Lighting design and usage of various kinds of lighting are appropriate for creating a vibe in the marriage function.
Venue acquisition and invitation costs are inevitable because these costs can not be avoided. These two types of fees are the base of the whole marriage function. To maintain a respective formal form of invitation, invitation cards are much better than today's digital invitation process. There are many other miscellaneous costs associated with this marriage function. It is expected that the baseline budget should have an 80% probability with a range of -5/+10%.
Allison, P.D., (2018). Event history and survival analysis. The reviewer’s guide to quantitative methods in the social sciences, pp.86-97. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=cDZ7DwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT149&dq=most+sensitive+risk+event+in+marriage+functions&ots=G-AxhuZbMp&sig=IS-88OC9oI2UDdf4axUphgCjqSU
Barman, A. and Potsangbam, C., (2018). Marriage of Human Resource to Data Science: A Narrative. Studies, 7, p.1. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Arup-Barman/publication/323118812_Marriage_of_Human_Resource_to_Data_Science-_-A_Narrative/links/5eead0ff458515814a67507e/Marriage-of-Human-Resource-to-Data-Science--A-Narrative.pdf
Chen, H., Zhang, L. and Wu, X., (2020). Performance risk assessment in public-private partnership projects based on the adaptive fuzzy cognitive map. Applied Soft Computing, 93, p.106413. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1568494620303537
Chiappori, P.A., (2020). The theory and empirics of the marriage market. Annual Review of Economics, 12, pp.547-578. https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-economics-012320-121610
Fenoaltea, E.M., Baybusinov, I.B., Zhao, J., Zhou, L. and Zhang, Y.C., (2021). The Stable Marriage Problem: An interdisciplinary review from the physicist’s perspective. Physics Reports, 917, pp.1-79. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0370157321000843
Hazée, S., Van Vaerenbergh, Y., Delcourt, C. and Kabadayi, S., (2020). Service delivery system design for risk management in sharing-based product-service systems: a customer-oriented approach. International Journal of Operations & Production Management. https://lirias.kuleuven.be/retrieve/574744
Klonecki, T.J., (2020). Cost-sensitive feature selection-information theoretic approach (Doctoral dissertation, Wydzia?MatematykiiNaukInformacyjnych). https://repo.pw.edu.pl/info/master/WUTec972ddbe83f4e469e28b77b4beb4a0f/
Nie, H. and Xing, C., (2019). Education expansion, assortative marriage, and income inequality in China. China Economic Review, 55, pp.37-51. https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/180591/1/dp11573.pdf
Pan, Y., Zhang, L., Wu, X. and Skibniewski, M.J., (2020). Multi-classifier information fusion in risk analysis. Information Fusion, 60, pp.121-136. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1566253519304622
Pedersen, S.G., Friborg, O., Heiberg, G.A., Arntzen, C., Stabel, H.H., Thrane, G., Nielsen, J.F. and Anke, A., (2021). Stroke-Specific Quality of Life one-year post-stroke in two Scandinavian country-regions with different organisations of rehabilitation services: a prospective study. Disability and Rehabilitation, 43(26), pp.3810-3820. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/09638288.2020.1753830
Prakken, H., (2018), September. Probabilistic strength of arguments with structure. In Sixteenth International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning. https://www.aaai.org/ocs/index.php/KR/KR18/paper/viewPDFInterstitial/17978/17139
Shephard, A., (2019). Marriage market dynamics, gender, and the age gap. https://economics.sas.upenn.edu/system/files/working-papers/19-003%20PIER%20Paper%20Submission.pdf
Shortland, S. and Perkins, S.J., (2019). Great expectations? Female expatriates’ perceptions of organisational performance and development reviews in supporting access to international assignments. Career Development International. https://westminsterresearch.westminster.ac.uk/download/7ed149bc943f8856b690b54aac7eca7914bcda34b2a22e2341a68d6c5067f3af/603361/Great%20expectations%20main%20document%20accepted.pdf
VanDerhei, J., (2019). How Retirement Readiness Varies by Gender and Family Status: A Retirement Savings Shortfall Assessment of Gen Xers. Available at SSRN 3318534. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3318534
VanDerhei, J., (2019). Retirement Savings Shortfalls: Evidence From EBRI’s 2019 Retirement Security Projection Model®. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3348718
Xing, L., Campbell, C., Li, X., Noellert, M. and Lee, J., (2020). Education, class and assortative marriage in rural Shanxi, China, in the mid-twentieth century. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 66, p.100460. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0276562419302367
Zhang, H. and Zou, B., (2021). A Marriage-Market Perspective on Risk-Taking and Career Choices. Available at SSRN 3069013. http://econ.msu.edu/repec/wp/1702MarriageCareer.pdf
Zhu, C.W., Ornstein, K.A., Cosentino, S., Gu, Y., Andrews, H. and Stern, Y., (2019). Misidentification of dementia in Medicare claims and related costs. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 67(2), pp.269-276. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6429550/
PROJ6003 Risk and Communication Management Assignment Sample
Learning Outcomes The Subject Learning Outcomes demonstrated by successful completion of the task below include:
a) Critically analyse and assess project risks and develop strategies using theoretical frameworks to justify decision making for successful project outcomes.
b) Critically evaluate and develop communication strategies to engage diverse stakeholders.
This assessment consists of a Group Report to demonstrate your understanding of risk and communication management. In groups, you will critically reflect and identify the risks in the Case Study provided using a probability and impact matrix for assessment of these risks. You will also assess and evaluate the impacts, propose response strategies and actions, and indicate how communication with stakeholders will be conducted regarding the risk management strategy. A complete Risk register should be provided as a Team output.
The rationale of this assessment is that you undertake a practical and value adding approach by considering that this risk report will be presented to key stakeholders. Team responsibilities and negotiation skills within the group are an important part of this assessment.
A. Risk Identification and Impact Assessment
Risk is an unknown occurrence that, when it does, may have a positive or negative impact on the goals of a project. It consists of three parts: 1. the likelihood of occurrence; 2. the effect on the project; and 3. the potential time frame if risk is not reduced. Any type of task or project for assignment help is vulnerable to a variety of dangers. Without careful planning, Project will inevitably get overwhelmed when various threats are presented (Project Management Institute, 2017). Project management includes risk management as a key component. In the current task, risk management is carried out by considering case study of The Boeing Dreamliner that is facing some of the risk and is required to be managed.
a) Identify possible risks for the Case Study and critically analyse the impact of these risks.
Technological risks: The 787 Dreamliner used cutting-edge and untested technology. Instead of increasing its involvement in the technology's design and testing, Boeing outsourced the majority of the work without the necessary coordination.
Security issue: Since various unresolved and dangerous issues, like as the stability of the composite material, the interchangeability of the engines, and the security of the flight computer systems, were uncovered much later, the actual launch date had to be rescheduled (Calleam Consulting, 2013).
Supply Risks: Boeing used a programme named Exostar to synchronise the efforts and advancements of numerous suppliers. However, this approach assumed that the providers would enter the required information on time and accurately. However, this didn't happen. As an example, Vought, a Tier 1 supplier, worked with its Tier 2 and Tier 3 suppliers using AIT as a system integrator. Due to cultural differences and a lack of control from Boeing, several of the lower Tier suppliers frequently failed to submit accurate and timely information, which ultimately led to a breakdown in the supply chain (Gregory, 2013).
Labor Risks: Since Boeing had a significant outsourcing policy, a walkout by about 25000 employees in 2008 delayed production. This showed how clearly Boeing had understated the effects of their outsourcing practises.
Management Risks: Despite the complexity of the project, the leadership team at Boeing lacked subject-matter experts in SCM. This was a risky move that didn't work out in the end.
Absence of monitoring team: the project observed the lack of absence of attention of the project manager and deputy manager that slowed down the decision making.
b) Use a Risk Probability and Impact (P&I) matrix to rate and prioritise risks.
1. Considering the likelihood of needing more workforce hours (Labour issue)
2. Possibility of wrong design (technological risk)
3. A delay as a result of judgments that were approved too slowly (Management risk)
4. No project manager and sole deputy manager missing due to illness (Absence of monitoring team)
5. Supply chain problems
6. Security issue
As per the risk analysis, the probability of different risk occurence is as follows:
Figure 1: Criteria for risk analysis
(Source: ProjectManager, 2018)
c) Develop appropriate response strategies, including a proposed course of action, to effectively manage each identified risk.
Analysis has identified six challenges that Boeing is currently facing as a result of the case study: (1) an unexpected fastener shortage; (2) an underestimate of the work involved in producing the flight codes; Problem of design (3); a management issue; (4) a need for immediate supply chain revival; and (5) labour issues (P6).
Lean, Six Sigma, and the Supply Chain Operation Reference Model are the three main approaches that are frequently employed in the industry to solve challenges (SCOR). The examination of how well each of the six concerns are resolved using the aforementioned models, analysis discover that none of them, by themselves, are sufficient.
As can be observed from the table above, Lean approach cannot resolve problems P2 and P6, Six Sigma cannot resolve problems P2, P4, and P6, and SCOR cannot resolve problems P1, P3, and P6. However, the Convergence model, which combines these three strategies, is effective in resolving all six problems. For instance, implementing six sigma standards at the supplier's facility or effective lean production procedures could very well alleviate the issue of a fastener shortage during the assembly phase. SCOR, which provides a top down analysis and incorporates the well-known concepts of business, process, and benchmarking into a cross functional framework, can address the issue of underestimating of the work content in the flight codes (Shenhar et al., 2016). Lean and Six Sigma can both help with the body structure issue by assuring improved production methods and higher quality requirements at the supplier end. The SCOR method would address the issue of Management expertise (Slayton & Spinardi, 2016). Boeing were guilty of using the three strategies inconsistently to address the labour issue, which ultimately resulted in employee dissatisfaction. Therefore, in this instance, the converging model that creates better synergy would be successful.
Strategies for managing risk in context of case study
In order to reduce the cost of the 787 project from $10 billion to $ billion and the timeline from 6 years to 4 years, Boeing devised an unconventional supply chain where approximately 70% of the whole work was outsourced. The objective was to maintain low manufacturing and assembly costs while dividing the financial risks associated with advances among the suppliers. Some of the primary traits of the unconventional supply chain include the following:
Outsourcing: Boeing developed ties with 50 crucial Tier-1 vendors as part of the establishment of a tier-based supply chain system. These vendors then acted as integrators, assembling various parts and component parts produced by Tier 2 and Tier 3 suppliers. Boeing reasoned that by doing this, the development period would be cut in half because numerous vendors would build parts simultaneously, reducing lead time and cost (Moll & Harrigan, 2018). In order to collaborate with the suppliers, Boeing used Exostar, a web-based platform created to improve supply chain visibility and bring all the key business functions together.
Reduced Financial Risks: As part of a risk-sharing agreement that Boeing mandated, suppliers consented to withhold payment until the first 787 was shipped to customers. The purpose of this clause was to support the Tier-1 suppliers who were awarded larger contracts for the production of aircraft and to improve relations between Boeing and the suppliers (Paul, 2018).
• Increasing Production Capacity without Increasing Costs: Due to Boeing's decentralized production strategy, 787 projects didn't necessitate additional capital investment, and the Dreamliner could be assembled at the factory in a world-record-breaking 3 days (Paul, 2018). The manufacturing capacity will rise as a result of the large cycle time reduction.
d) Create a complete Risk Register for the Case Study.
On the basis of risk register, suitable explanation is given below:
1. Potential for extra man hours: Preventing this danger from happening is the greatest line of action to take. This risk must be reduced from the start because it is one of the biggest dangers. The chance requiring more man hours should be considered from the start of the project, and cash should be allocated in case it happens (Project Management Institute, 2021).
Additional work should be done, such as double-checking all variables and periodically updating project information, to stay up to date on the project's development. This can give a head start on the requirement for more man hours and give time to take the necessary measures. Since the event in the case study has already occurred, a mitigation strategy must be employed to weigh all available options and select the best course of action to minimize the risk's potential effects.
2. Incorrect Design: The case study also raised the issue of incorrect design. Unfortunately, it seems that the main reason for this was that the design team wasn't included in earlier stages of Dreamliner project. This type of risk only frequently materializes if the team is not responsive from the beginning of the project. Although the risk is categorised as "may occur," if it does, it might lead to high cost overruns and schedule delays, which would not be appropriate for the organisation in charge of the project (Association for Project Management, 2020). The wisest line of action in this situation is to be avoided.
With reference to the case study, no option is available than to adhere to the Accept method. In addition, accept that it has occurred, and manage this risk.
3. Approval was time consuming: This risk can be easily addressed by utilizing the Transfer technique. A contingency provision can be introduced to the contract to ensure that the client offers their approval immediately or to provide compensation for delays that have a detrimental impact on the project since the client's consent is essential to the success of this project.
4. In the case study, the project was overseen by an assistant project manager because the project manager was not available. Workforce might become ill, leave their employment, or be unable to work, all of which are possibilities (Leroux, 2019). In any case, it could impede the project but is not expected to really hurt it. They should have a backup strategy in place though, just in case.
5. A policy of acceptance should be utilised if there are no supplies or equipment available, even though this is a rare occurrence. Project managers employ this technique when they are aware of the threat and wait to act until it manifests. It is necessary to take steps to make up the difference if this risk comes to pass.
6. The security risk is required to be avoided by having the technical expert that will handle down the issues in the system if it occurs. Investment is required to be made on the advanced system that has less threat of technical errors
Project management entails risk by nature. Risk can either be beneficial or harmful. Negative risks and their effects might hurt a project even as positive risks are beneficial for projects. For this reason, the project's risk management should be handled very seriously. Steps should be taken to limit or avoid negative risks and to develop plans for dealing with positive risk occurrences.
Negative risks were not adequately monitored in the case study. Because of this, they were surprised when it occurred, which caused stakeholder unhappiness and further slowed down the project. The situation would be very different if appropriate risk management measures had been taken from the start and these risks had been effectively disclosed among stakeholders. This instance demonstrated the value of risk management and gave project managers the chance to plan risk management procedures.
Heldman, K. (2013). PMP project management professional exam study guide (7th ed.). John Wiley & Sons. http://think.eblib.com.torrens.idm.oclc.org/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=1215813
Project Management Institute. (2017). A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) (6th ed.). https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.torrens.idm.oclc.org/lib/think/reader.action?docID=5180849
Project Management Institute. (2021). A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) and The Standard for Project Management (7th ed.). https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.torrens.idm.oclc.org/lib/think/reader.action?docID=6636132
Shenhar, A. J., Holzmann, V., Melamed, B., & Zhao, Y. (2016). The challenge of innovation in highly complex projects: What can we learn from Boeing's Dreamliner experience?. Project Management Journal, 47(2), 62-78.
Slayton, R., & Spinardi, G. (2016). Radical innovation in scaling up: Boeing’s Dreamliner and the challenge of socio-technical transitions. Technovation, 47, 47-58.
Moll, J., & Harrigan, F. (2018). We Went Too Far, and We Learnt From It: Management Control in the Development of the Boeing Dreamliner. In Accounting, Innovation and Inter-Organisational Relationships (pp. 104-129). Routledge.
Paul, S. (2018). Crisis in Boeing 787 Dreamliner: An Investigation from Project Management Control Perspective. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 8(4), 242251-242251.
Gregory, M. (January, 2013). Boeing 787: Dreamliner's lithium ion batteries probed. BBC News. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/business-21059605
Calleam Consulting (February, 2013). Boeing Commercial Aeroplanes. Why do Projects Fail? Retrieved from https://calleam.com/WTPF/?p=4617
ProjectManager. (2018, July 3). Risk analysis how to analyze risks on your project - project management training [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r5ZrPeQW8HQ
Leroux, A. (2019, August 3). A risk management plan in 6 easy steps [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l2Sp-U3nZ6o
Association for Project Management. (2020, December 10). Project management: risk management | what is risk in project management? [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G3_gBFFPQWY
BS7993 Fundamentals of Project Management Assignment Sample
‘Critical thinking is a complex and dynamic process that encourages different thinking skills, all of which can inform deep learning (Biggs 2003; Ramsden 2003) and complex learning (Elander et al. 2006). Both, deep and complex learning, reflect a learning process where a deep approach intends to understand the topic or subject matter is taken through questioning, researching, comparing and contrasting of the familiar and unfamiliar (Biggs 2003; Ramsden 2003). Thinking skills form the basis for developing critical subject content knowledge as, regardless of the actual subject areas, the development and furthering of thinking skills lead to a more critical and thus advanced understanding of one’s subject (Van den Brink-Budgen 2000). In other words, critical thinking is a continued questioning of one’s own understanding of what to believe and do (Ennis 1987; Tierney et al. 1989). (Excerpt: Leopold 2010).
‘Reflective learning helps to develop critical thinking, self-awareness and analytical skills and is important to staff and students. It involves an involvement by an individual in a reflective process. This can help to inform about what worked or didn't work, what might need to be done differently, or how individuals may need to develop their behaviour or practice. For students it may help them to understand better how theory can be applied in practice or where practice is consistent with concepts and theories’ (HEA 2012).
The rationale therefore of reflective learning and critical thinking is that these key and highly transferable skills work towards creating and developing your reflective practice and in turn, your abilities in project management.
Both critical thinking and reflective learning contribute to a key learning outcome of the overall MSc Project Management programme. This expects that you have an individual responsibility for advancing your own learning and your own abilities to engage and research the subject areas required. This assignment supports the development of your reflective practice.
• In the format of a report, you are required to critically reflect upon the practice and theory of projects, providing narrative based on your learning.
Key points of coverage could include:
• Your engagement with your student peers;
• How you deal with the dynamics of your group and team(s);
• Your approach to and the development of your assignments and research required;
• Your engagement with the course and any material provided, (inclusive of feedback on your assignments and practice in class), or that you have sourced;
• what learning objectives you feel you have achieved as a result of your participation in this assignment in particular and the module in general.
• What steps you can and will take to correct or improve upon objectives that have not yet been achieved.
• How your knowledge on this module has complemented the knowledge you have acquired to date on project management;
• In turn, consider how the skills and knowledge you are acquiring and/or enhancing can be transferred into your working roles;
• The importance of reflective learning in the sphere of project management.
Whilst some aspects of this course will be of particular importance or relevance to you personally, the nature of this reflective assignment means that you should review your development weekly.
This is an individual activity to create a reflective report which demonstrates the development of your knowledge and understanding of project principles.
In the first week of teaching you will complete a self-assessment worksheet based on the APM Body of Knowledge (6th Ed.). In the last two weeks of the module you will complete the same self-assessment. This is to help you know what you know and just as importantly to let you know what you don’t know about project management in order that you can construct a continuing personal development plan. You must include the completed assessment sheet showing the two sets of marks.
As such a log/diary of your development should also be provided as an appendix to your report. You are not expected to review in a diary format the content of your report. However, you are expected to be selective in your reflection highlighting key points you wish to convey. It is important to highlight that the key emphasis on this report is your personal, honest and critical reflection on your development: the report should not result as your review of this module. In terms of your approach to the compilation of your report and the writing style warranted, this is a highly qualitative assignment and as the core of the text is of a personal nature, the use of the first person ‘I’ rather than the passive and third person will be required. However, this style and approach should not be confused as to providing a descriptive report; rather the key aim is to provide a critique.
Further information as to how to approach this assignment will be provided on Canvas, introduced during Week 1 lecture and discussed in detail during the
Total Word Count: 2,500 maximum 2,250 minimum excluding citations, references, figures, diagrams, tables and appendices.
This assignment should include academic references, in terms of literature concerning reflective learning or as to the importance of this skill in project management, all citations and references must be fully presented according to Harvard Conventions. (Refer to Harvard Reference Guide on CANVAS).
In summary reflect on your experiences, on the development of your knowledge, skills and practice in a project management/leadership capacity.
A project has been managed by the efficient performance of every participant. The leaders, workers, project manager and other stakeholders must have focused on their performance developmental procedure for delivering more effective performance and developing the present status of the project. I have played an important role in the project and performed well that has made the project more beneficial. The issue factors have also been raised in the project and this reflective study has also covered the problems of the project. The regular improvement process of a work has needed regular training that has made the team performance better. This reflective study has also provided the related situations experienced in this project lifecycle.
Engagement with team members
Completing the long-term project, continuing the performance with the team is necessary. As per the views of Daemi et al. (2021), effective communication management has developed relationships among the team members that has improved the team performance management procedure. The engaged employees can boost up the productivity level of the project and it has assisted to complete the project work in the proper time. The engagement development process has delivered a better and safe work environment to the employees. An accurate example of this situation can be determined through the situational issues that I have experienced in managing cross-cultural team. In my experience, communication gap was a prime challenge for me with my team members. Circumstances based on managing projects and dealing with workplace management regarding job-distribution resulted in missing deadlines and emergence of risks like conflict of interest. On the other hand, in the statement of Noguera et al. (2018), the team members do not have sufficient knowledge about their team members' problems in the time of not engaging with them. I have realised that maintaining a good relationship among teammates has developed the work ability and performance level of the overall team. The substitute strategies must have been found for minimising the issue factors of the team engagement and management process for best assignment help.
Process of dealing with dynamics of the team
Managing the team is not an easy thing that I have realised in the project management and development time. In the opinion of Cooper and Sommer (2018), there are different types of members in a single team and every person is from a different culture and environment. Applying some different strategies, the issue factors of a team can be managed.
? The problem factors must be minimised quickly is the best option for dealing with team problems. I have noticed that not expressing the problem in an early stage has developed complexity in the process. The factor has developed the issue in management and delayed the process more.
? Making the daily time table of a team and implementing the chart in an efficient way has made the team more productive (Putri and Mahmudah, 2021). I have experienced that in the time of not maintaining the time table, the efficiency level of my team was declining. This experience suggests to me that I should be more responsible about project development.
In my experience, I have dealt with issues in managing work distribution process as indicated earlier. This aspect imposed viable challenges for me to manage time due to my inefficiencies in strategic thinking that can be highlighted as a viable example in issues based on dealing with team dynamics. It can be observed that I have failed to apply the above-mentioned solutions to enhance my team performance.
Performance for work development
Delivering the project, identified the clear goal and objectives is needed for managing the future performance of the project. According to the views of Martinsuo (2020), not having a clear idea about project outcomes, the risk factors have increased in the process. The data have also been collected focusing on the main objectives and outcomes of the project. Some steps can be followed for work development of the project by managing the team performance level. At first, defining the project goals and objectives clearly, the project manager has instructed the participants to collect data in a systematic way that has assisted the participants to touch the project milestones. Contradictorily, I have encountered problems with my forward-planning skills in mitigating the risk factors. Determining short-term and long-term goals has been a challenge for me in my projects that can be determined as an example of lacking forward-planning skills. This scenario has resulted in the emergence of discrepancies among my team members based on decision-making.
Learning objectives, I have achieved as my result of participation
? To complete the project in a proper time range.
? To use the authentic data set for analysing data of project management.
? To conduct proper team management for delivering efficient work development.
? To recommend some effective solutions for minimising the issues of project management.
The learning objectives of the project have mainly focused on the delivery of valuable work for delivering quality work to the future. Apart from this, the project has also focused on the customers’ needs and it has planned to change its plans for achieving more satisfaction from the customers. Conducting the work process in an effective way, managing the team is needed. My team has faced some cross-cultural issues in the initial stage and then I have tried to minimise the issues by implementing the problem-solving strategies. The process is one of the most important success factors in the entire project management. In the opinion of Salman et al. (2018), understanding others’ problems and delivering the problem-solving behaviour to the person, a soulful relationship has been maintained. The project has not been completed in a proper time range for the issues faced in the initial stage of the project management time. I can’t manage that risk as the delay was done in the initial stage. Apart from this, another success factor of this project is that the authentic data set has been used by every participant that has affected the data analysis procedure.
Steps for correcting the mistakes of learning objectives
The specific objectives that had been achieved by me were able to expand greatly upon my theoretical and practical knowledge. However, there are certain learning objectives that require modification and have also been identified in order to ensure that my project management and leadership abilities are being developed effectively. As per the words of Rengamani (2018), project management can be critical with a limited amount of experience. Gaining experiences may thus be linked to the necessity of acquiring practical knowledge. Furthermore, the practical knowledge is required to be rooted in various theoretical frameworks that ensures that strategic management of the project is being conducted.
I had not been able to develop a complete fluency in linking the theoretical knowledge with practical experiences that I will correct in the future. According to Biesenthal et al. (2018), theoretical frameworks, methodologies and models help in developing a logical and scientific perspective upon project management. Successful project management requires strategic and systematic management of various parts that constitutes the entire project. Facing difficulty in managing different aspects of a singular project has pointed to my urgent need to gain in-depth knowledge of theoretical frameworks and concepts that can be utilised practically.
The most important step to mitigate the knowledge gap is to take active participation in various learning programmes and participating in workshops. It will assist me to gain both comprehensive knowledge and further experience in project management. As demonstrated by Geraldi and Söderlund (2018), knowledge creates a solid foundation for excellence that is achieved through active learning. I have understood the importance of considering the process of learning as a dynamic process. Hence, this step for correction will further help in maintaining the dynamic nature of learning.
I have recognised that the objective concerning the conduction of proper team management in order to enhance work efficiency had required further improvement. In this regard, the step taken by me will be to seek apprenticeship in various companies to gain further practical and professional knowledge and experiences. As per the statement of Hidalgo (2019), team efficiency is highly dependent upon the development of effective and collaborative leadership. In order to enhance team efficiency in project management, gaining practical knowledge through internship will be highly beneficial.
Understanding the necessity of ethical conduct in project management and conducting operations for fulfilling various corporate social responsibilities requires further correction. I had made the mistake of not providing it with its due importance as I had been focused on fulfilling the core project management operations. According to Uribe et al. (2018), an organization is required to conduct operations in a strategic manner that can contribute significantly to society, environment, and the world at large. Hence, the required step for improvement will be to educate on the topic. I will also seek practical experiences by volunteering in various CSR projects to ensure that I am able to expand my understanding holistically. These steps will thus be taken to correct mistakes and improve upon various learning objectives that had not been achieved properly.
Sufficient knowledge and its implementation process
As per the learning objective that has been mentioned, I have gained a wide range of knowledge regarding various aspects of project management. In this regard, I have gained key understanding regarding aspects based on the five core stages that are required to be followed within any project management procedure. As per the learnings that have been provided in this module, I have derived that my knowledge regarding certain aspects was improved, while I gained completely new insight regarding other important aspects. For instance, I had existing knowledge regarding project management aspects based on initiation, planning and execution, while moderate knowledge regarding appropriate monitoring and project closure procedures.
In terms of the initiation process, I have developed further insight regarding methods to be undertaken for establishing a more enhanced project scope, with such allowing every key project stakeholder to be highly engaged. Besides providing proper project statements, key insight was also gained regarding various improved processes based on scheduling and timing of respective project stages (Dasovi? et al. 2020). On the contrary, I had extensive knowledge based on risk management and resource management and hence, no specific improvement in my existing knowledge base regarding such aspects was provided through this module. I also had a definite idea regarding the key deliverables that are to be considered in accordance to respective project operations and related outcomes.
Nevertheless, in terms of monitoring, I gained extensive knowledge regarding the overall importance of checking every key project stage at regular intervals for ensuring appropriate results are being provided (Kaiser et al. 2019). Accordingly, the core aspects related to monitoring, that were provided in this module, involved quality management and change management. I understood the methods to be undertaken in order to establish a robust quality management framework, thus allowing the effectiveness of key project outcomes to be maintained (Liu et al. 2019). This in turn would ensure that a significant level of value is being maintained across respective project stages, thus allowing a higher degree of success to be achieved for the project.
Recommendations for enhancing knowledge and skills
Recommendations can be made to ensure that my areas of development are being addressed properly. Mitigating the gap in both theoretical and practical knowledge in project management is my main aim for constructing certain recommendations. As per the words of Mandi?ák et al. (2020), specific skill sets are required for project management in an efficient manner such as data analysis, risk analysis, communication, coordination, dynamic project development and so on. I have identified three specific skills and knowledge areas that require enhancement.
Enhancement of systematic management of tasks is an important skill that can be achieved by developing self-awareness as well as understanding the importance of task prioritization. According to Ahmed (2018), prioritizing various tasks and constructing a schedule for completion helps in meeting the agenda of the project within a given timeframe. Hence, enhancing time management is also recommended. Technological skills and knowledge are essential to conduct sustainable and digitally enhanced project management. As stated by Zaman et al. (2019), nowadays, various project management software is being used to reduce the stress of work management and enhance efficiency. Gathering knowledge regarding these latest and innovative project management software are thus recommended to enhance technological skills and increase efficiency.
Effective communication skills are important to ensure that each part of a large-scale project is coordinated efficiently. As stated by Lauren and Schreiber (2018), effective leadership cannot be achieved without effective communication. Thus, developing current communication skills is recommended that will help in creating balanced and healthy inter-relationships among various team members. It will further enhance my capacity as a leader as I will be able to gather innovative ideas from others as well mitigate any grievances. In essence, developing these three specific skills and knowledge will ensure that I am able to achieve personal and professional development.
Importance of reflective learning in the light of project management
Reflective learning aids in gaining a deep understanding regarding personal development, strengths, weaknesses, and requirements for development. According to Daniel and Daniel (2018), project management skills are multidimensional and require comprehensive knowledge and understanding. Reflecting upon my project management experience has helped me to understand my strengths that may aid my future development. It has also aided in identifying my areas of weaknesses, based on which recommendations and action plans have been made.
Reflective learning in project management is important for developing self-awareness. Self-awareness and critical thinking are two essential skills for development. As stated by Cicmil and Gaggiotti (2018), through reflective learning, self-awareness is enhanced that helps in developing a learner mindset. Continuous learning and applying critical thinking skills to newly gathered knowledge is important in successful project management. Through reflective learning, I have been able to develop a learner mindset that will help in continual growth. In essence, the importance of reflective learning is multifarious as through reflective learning, the practical aspects of individual learning can be assessed without judgement of others. Hence, as a subjective learning process, reflective learning is beneficial for developing practical project management skills and knowledge sustainably.
In view of this reflective account, I have provided the key aspects based on project management upon which an extensive degree of insight has been gained through the provided module. Accordingly, key focus has been presented upon implementation of appropriate project stakeholder management and ensuring a proper communication protocol for ensuring greater outcome effectiveness. Accordingly, a reflective account based on the learnings related to core aspects of team management has also been provided. A definite learning related to work performance development and various related aspects has also been gained. In comparison with my existing knowledge regarding project management, I provided a reflective discussion regarding the core module learning that was provided. Through my participation in this module, I was also able to gain insight regarding the ways in which my personal learning objectives were fulfilled. Furthermore, based on the learnings that were received, I was also able to develop an acute understanding of the core factors to consider while undertaking respective procedures related to project management. This allowed me to develop a number of effective recommendations for further enhancing the project management procedures that can be ensured during future project ventures.
Ahmed, S., 2018. A review on using opportunities of augmented reality and virtual reality in construction project management. Organization, technology & management in construction: an international journal, 10(1), pp.1839-1852. Available at: https://hrcak.srce.hr/file/314906 [Accessed on 11 December 2021].
Biesenthal, C., Clegg, S., Mahalingam, A. and Sankaran, S., 2018. Applying institutional theories to managing megaprojects. International Journal of Project Management, 36(1), pp.43-54. Available at: https://opus.lib.uts.edu.au/bitstream/10453/128176/4/A51AA89B-6F78-4956-AD13-81221C9131FB%20am.pdf [Accessed on 11 December 2021].
Cicmil, S. and Gaggiotti, H., 2018. Responsible forms of project management education: Theoretical plurality and reflective pedagogies. International Journal of Project Management, 36(1), pp.208-218. Available at: https://uwe-repository.worktribe.com/preview/872693/Responsible_PM_Education-%20repository.pdf [Accessed on 11 December 2021].
Cooper, R.G. and Sommer, A.F., 2018. Agile–Stage-Gate for Manufacturers: Changing the Way New Products Are Developed Integrating Agile project management methods into a Stage-Gate system offers both opportunities and challenges. Research-Technology Management, 61(2), pp.17-26. Available at: https://www.stage-gate.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/13-Agile-Stage-Gate-for-Manufacturers-in-RTM1.pdf [Accessed on 11 December 2021].
Daemi, A., Chugh, R. and Kanagarajoo, M.V., 2021. Social media in project management: A systematic narrative literature review. International Journal of Information Systems and Project Management, 8(4), pp.5-21. Available at: https://revistas.uminho.pt/index.php/ijispm/article/download/3551/3586 [Accessed on 11 December 2021].
Daniel, P.A. and Daniel, C., 2018. Complexity, uncertainty and mental models: From a paradigm of regulation to a paradigm of emergence in project management. International journal of project management, 36(1), pp.184-197. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Carole-
Daniel/publication/319149612_Complexity_uncertainty_and_mental_models_From_a_paradigm_of_regulation_to_a_paradigm_of_emergence_in_project_management/links/5f1699e94585151299ad5c9f/Complexity-uncertainty-and-mental-models-From-a-paradigm-of-regulation-to-a-paradigm-of-emergence-in-project-management.pdf [Accessed on 11 December 2021].
Dasovi?, B., Gali?, M. and Klanšek, U., 2020. A survey on integration of optimization and project management tools for sustainable construction scheduling. Sustainability, 12(8), p.3405. Available at: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/12/8/3405/pdf [Accessed on 11 December 2021].
Geraldi, J. and Söderlund, J., 2018. Project studies: What it is, where it is going. International journal of project management, 36(1), pp.55-70. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jonas-Soederlund/publication/327287953_Geraldi_and_Soderlund_2018_IJPM/data/5b86d2ec299bf1d5a7310d25/Geraldi-and-Soederlund-2018-IJPM.pdf [Accessed on 11 December 2021].
Hidalgo, E.S., 2019. Adapting the scrum framework for agile project management in science: case study of a distributed research initiative. Heliyon, 5(3), p.e01447. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2405844018340635 [Accessed on 11 December 2021].
Kaiser, B.A., Hoeberechts, M., Maxwell, K.H., Eerkes-Medrano, L., Hilmi, N., Safa, A., Horbel, C., Juniper, S.K., Roughan, M., Theux Lowen, N. and Short, K., 2019. The importance of connected ocean monitoring knowledge systems and communities. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, p.309. Available at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00309/full [Accessed on 11 December 2021].
Lauren, B. and Schreiber, J., 2018. An integrative literature review of project management in technical and professional communication. Technical Communication, 65(1), pp.85-106. Available at: https://www.allen-berry-phd.com/_files/ugd/006fd8_ca7d49cfba8143fb80ad692c42be10c4.pdf#page=91 [Accessed on 11 December 2021].
Liu, G., Chen, L., Shen, Z., Xiao, Y. and Wei, G., 2019. A fast and robust simulation-optimization methodology for stormwater quality management. Journal of Hydrology, 576, pp.520-527. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022169419306213 [Accessed on 11 December 2021].
Mandi?ák, T., Mésároš, P., Behún, M. and Behúnová, A., 2020. Development of Digital and Managerial Competencies and BIM Technology Skills in Construction Project Management. In New Approaches in Management of Smart Manufacturing Systems (pp. 159-175). Springer: Cham. Available at: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-40176-4_10 [Accessed on 11 December 2021].
Martinsuo, M., 2020. The management of values in project business: Adjusting beliefs to transform project practices and outcomes. Project Management Journal, 51(4), pp.389-399. Available at: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/8756972820927890 [Accessed on 11 December 2021].
Noguera, I., Guerrero-Roldán, A.E. and Masó, R., 2018. Collaborative agile learning in online environments: Strategies for improving team regulation and project management. Computers & Education, 116, pp.110-129. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Bulcsu-Szekely/post/What_tools_can_be_deployed_to_manage_and_measure_learning_outcomes_in_a_digital_environment_in_the_field_of_higher_education/attachment/5a461f924cde266d587e8cf5/AS%3A576857873813504%401514545042772/download/CollaborativeAgileLearning2018.pdf [Accessed on 11 December 2021].
Putri, S.A. and Mahmudah, F.N., 2021. Time management skills: completion of student final project during the covid-19 pandemic. JHSS (JOURNAL OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL STUDIES), 5(3), pp.232-236. Available at: https://journal.unpak.ac.id/index.php/jhss/article/viewFile/3992/2517 [Accessed on 11 December 2021].
Rengamani, J., 2018. Achieving project success for construction professionals to categorize significant project management innovations and expertise. International Journal of Supply Chain Management, 7(3), pp.196-198. Available at: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/230749411.pdf [Accessed on 11 December 2021].
Salman, R., Daim, T., Raffo, D. and Dabic, M., 2018. Exploring capability maturity models and relevant practices as solutions addressing information technology service offshoring project issues. International Journal of Management Science and Engineering Management, 13(3), pp.147-157. Available at: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/35908/1/13470_Dabic.pdf [Accessed on 11 December 2021].
Uribe, D.F., Ortiz-Marcos, I. and Uruburu, Á., 2018. What is going on with stakeholder theory in project management literature? A symbiotic relationship for sustainability. Sustainability, 10(4), p.1300. Available at: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/10/4/1300/pdf [Accessed on 11 December 2021].
Zaman, U., Jabbar, Z., Nawaz, S. and Abbas, M., 2019. Understanding the soft side of software projects: An empirical study on the interactive effects of social skills and political skills on complexity–performance relationship. International Journal of Project Management, 37(3), pp.444-460. Available at: https://e-tarjome.com/storage/panel/fileuploads/2019-04-09/1554791353_E11976-e-tarjome.pdf [Accessed on 11 December 2021].
MANU2123 External Project Proposal Assignment Sample
Please identify and choose one of the tender calls available for tender - these could be Australian or international (in English only) .
Your Assignment 2 Tender Project Proposal should contain all required key aspects as per structure below.
Six A4 pages maximum, use Times New Roman, font 12 with standard margins (2.5 cm from each side) and single line spacing with 6-point gap between paragraphs. If you need additional tables/charts, please add as Appendix.
Submit to Canvas as a PDF document.
Materials presented beyond 6 pages will not be marked.
External Project Proposal Structure – Tender
1. Project Title
1. Tender selection (include on-line link) – Opportunity identification and assessment for your team to be submitting a proposal to this particular call. Optional Australian sites for tender calls selection: https://www.tenders.gov.au/, (Links to an external site.) https://www.australiantenders.com.au/ (Links to an external site.) .
2. Identification of needs in tender request
3. Identification of evaluation criteria
4. Taking opportunity, needs and evaluation criteria - Your Strategy for winning a selected Tender
5. Response to tender – Proposal:
1. Description of the aim, objectives and results that will be achieved.
2. Description of Proposed Services.
3. Budgetary considerations, competitive costs consideration.
4. Completion timing and terms.
5. Location of work.
6. Measurement of performance, risks and risk management
6. References (additional to 6 pages if needed).
7. Appendix, if needed (in addition to 6 pages).
Please use headings in your proposal to match the required structure.
There are different sources to find an active tender in Australia location; however, in this proposal, chosen tender can be found in this following link;
Currumbin Valley Ecovillage has released this tender and it have not yet become active for people to participate. The tender will open on 30th of May and will close on 24th of June. However, in the 2nd week of May, it has already got 94 views from potential service providers; hence, it can be either a convenient work for applying or in this tender website, this service is mostly available for taking or people likes to work in Currumbin Valley Ecovillage for its natural beauty.
Opportunity Assessment: The tender clearly mentions about its location, service category and quality of work required. The Currumbin Valley Ecovillage requires ground and garden maintenance services, lawn mowing, maintenance activities along with caretaker services, facilities maintenance services as well.
Assessment for Our Team: Our team of workers can provide coordinated help to Currumbin Valley Ecovillage for assisting with eco-friendly maintenance services. Our team is highly experienced with gardening and open space maintenance activities. We have people who are encouraged to take care of Currumbin Valley Ecovillage gardens and greenery. We have independent caretaking contractors who provides caretaking services for facilities such as greenhouse gardens, small farms, and botanical gardens. Therefore, this tender would be a best fit for our services.
Identification of Needs in Tender Request
The tender mentioned some requirements from the applications; that is summarized in this section as following. The tender mentions the authority name as Currumbin Valley Ecovillage and location as South East Queensland. The tender provides small introduction about Currumbin Valley Ecovillage and its area dimensions with certain places (Barani, Alibeygi and Papzan 2018). For convenience of visiting the Ecovillage, the tender includes detailed location address. The description includes service requirements over two broad categories that are maintenance and caretaker services.
Maintenance service includes the need of gardening, ground maintenance, and lawn mowing, and taking care of the greenery.
Caretaker service include independent facility management and caretaking services for the area.
Moreover, the tender mentions specific objectives of the contract along with their service requirements (“Tenders - Facilities and Grounds Management Opportunity at Award Winning Ecovillage in the Beautiful Currumbin Valley - Australian Tenders”, 2022). The contract should fulfil management plans, satisfactory experience to the residents, and affordable service quality. The tender encourages people who have experience with eco-friendly works and who are motivated to take care of the nature around Currumbin Valley Ecovillage.
Identification of Evaluation Criteria
The tender provides a very compact description of the entire work requirements and contract objectives. The evaluation criteria for assignment help can be derived from the contract objectives as identified in the tender. The contract objectives clearly identified three major factors as evaluation criteria of the tender.
The tender service providers should ensure development work with detailed management plans. The Currumbin Valley Ecovillage is 270 acres place with natural and regenerated forest with several open places along with others. There is a community hall, freehold lots, community facilities such as library, commercial kitchen, recreation center and others (Barlow 2022). Therefore, Currumbin Valley Ecovillage would require a development team equipped with phased management plans for different places inside the residential area and open spaces as well.
Residents should have high expectations from the tender service and authority should monitor the service in terms of eco-friendly quotient and environmentally balanced services. The tender service providers should employ workers who are efficient in handling nature and maintaining sustainability in gardening are mainly considered for offering the contract.
Authority requires that the tender service should provide best service quality at their investment amount. Tender service providers should have positive reviews from previous clients and the tender service providers should maintain their service quality at the Currumbin Valley Ecovillage as well.
Taking Opportunity, Needs and Evaluation Criteria
The selection of tender depends on opportunity assessment, requirements for the authority, and evaluation criteria for the tender. These considerations are mentioned to emphasize on a strategy for selecting a tender for the Currumbin Valley Ecovillage.
Opportunity for Selection: The tender service provider should assess the opportunity before sending bids or applying to the work. The opportunity assessment should involve amount of work, availability of workers, work management plan, and resource allocation. For instance, the tender company should visit the site, communicate with the site owner, estimate the workload and conduct some research into the work before bidding. The workers association should have positive opinion with tender authority before bidding (Egereret al. 2019). It is essential for the tender company and company workers to coincide their views and considering the tender as a huge opportunity before they start bidding. This mentality helps tender authority to work effectively and ensure their efforts are well invested towards a good outcome to the society and environment.
Needs for Selection: Thetender company should attend briefing sessions with the project authority; that is managing authority of Currumbin Valley Ecovillage. They should be clarifying about the needs in the tender document. The needs and project requirements should be clearly described in briefing sessions and tenderers should be offered site visits whenever they feel it necessary. The briefing sessions should mention the maintenance work requirements, development work contracts, and management planning steps. The authority of Currumbin Valley Ecovillage should ensure tenderers are transparent about their work requirements, rules and regulations along with work ethics. Moreover, the tenderers should address the work requirements as part of project objectives (McKinnon, Kennedy and De Cotta 2021). The objectives should be met in order to ensure project success. Therefore, the tenderer should represent their previous projects and outcomes from the projects. In this scenario of Currumbin Valley Ecovillage, tenderers should represent their previous works related to environmental works such as natural maintenance and development works. The tenderers should provide clients’ comments or feedback on their project outcomes. Currumbin Valley Ecovillage authority would be clear about tenderer performance from previous works.
Evaluation Criteria for Selection: The evaluation criteria would be the key selection factor for any tender. The evaluation criteria can be determined based on several different factors however, in this tender case, the evaluation criteria is determined based on contract objectives. Contract should be prepared once, the evaluation criteria is to be approved from authority and tender side. When both parties are on-board with the contract objectives, the contract would be prepared and signed in presence of each other. The evaluation criteria from the contract should be ensured from tender side. The service provider needs to provide necessary examples of their work so that conducting authority can examine the work quality.
Response to Tender – Proposal
The section includes a proposal to the tender as a response to the online tender advertisement. The tender details were clearly mentioned and there was no communication gap in the tender document. However, before finalizing the tender, the tenderer should research on the work requirements and survey the workplace thoroughly. This proposal includes some sub-sections such as aim, objectives of the proposal, proposed service description, budget considerations, timeline, work location, and performance assessment.
Description of the Aim, Objectives and Achieved Results
The aim of the proposal is to allocate a suitable tender service provider to Currumbin Valley Ecovillage so that the place can sustain for years. In current state, the Currumbin Valley Ecovillage requires maintenance and development planning. Existing workforce is not getting proper assistance with maintenance and development work for Currumbin Valley Ecovillage. Therefore, the authority has planned to hire tender service providers for Currumbin Valley Ecovillage management.
The objectives of the tender are;
1. To maintain the open spaces in Currumbin Valley Ecovillage and conduct management planning for the places within residential areas as well
2. To provide proper maintenance support to manage grounds and grass; mowing lawns and maintenance as well
3. To help with detailed management plans for supporting authority of Currumbin Valley Ecovillage
4. To provide caretaking service in Currumbin Valley Ecovillage as independent body
The tender expects result to be satisfactory for the residents and the Currumbin Valley Ecovillage should reach the quality of service quotient with maintenance work. The natural environment and greenery should be maintained with good development planning as well.
Description of Proposed Services
The proposed services would be as follows;
Development Plan for Currumbin Valley Ecovillage: The tender service provider should develop a plan for Currumbin Valley Ecovillage so that the Ecovillage can sustain environmental balance along with natural beauty. The natural beauty and eco-friendly development would follow sustainable development goals as well. The development plan should address the objectives in form of activities and milestones during the project timeline. The development plan should be approved from Currumbin Valley Ecovillage authority.
Ground and Greenery Maintenance Plan: The tender service provider should provide quality service on maintenance of greenery and ground in Currumbin Valley Ecovillage. The authority primarily require the tender to serve the purpose of handling the ground; such as layering the open space, landscaping the places, taking care of plants, sidewalks, and taking away litters. People and crowd have the tendency to dump litter in a place while visiting; however, the management authority should hire this tender to avoid situation like this. Besides, the gardening work, the maintenance of lawns, and aesthetics should be managed with new tender service.
Caretaking Service: The tender should provide an independent caretaking service for Currumbin Valley Ecovillage. The caretaking service would be necessary for supervising the entire facility at least two times per day. The caretaker should be responsible for visiting the entire facility from one end to another. During the visit, the caretaker should keep a note to list out different aspects, the Currumbin Valley Ecovillage authority should be informed about. The caretaker would be responsible for collecting individual residents’ complaints or issues in Currumbin Valley Ecovillage. The caretaker should be responsible to come up with the solution or provide relevant support to the residents for keeping their experience at peak standard.
Budgetary Considerations andCompetitive Costs Consideration
The tender should be developed within an initial investment of $2 million for the work. This investment would be utilized for assisting the development team for preparing management plan. There would be a steady wage to the gardeners and another wage would be going to the caretaker. Moreover, the development and planning work should be handled with someone else. The budget allocation should be around $3 million whereas, $800,000 should be allocated as contingency capital whereas, rest $2.2 million would be allocated as main budget of the project.
Completion Timing and Terms
The project behind the tender should be estimated in terms of outcomes and effective completion within the timeline. The project terms generally involve the budget and time-constraint for the project to complete. The authority allocates time and budget and keeps the constraint strict for making the project complete within the timeline. However, due to inconvenience of work, the conducting authority can provide adjustment in the budget and timeline if required. In this project of Currumbin Valley Ecovillage, the timeline is chosen to be completed within six weeks. The timeline is shown as follows;
Table 1: Project Timeline
(Source: Created by author)
Location of Work
Currumbin Valley Ecovillage is a modern and award-winning sustainable community located near southeast Queensland, Australia. It has received ‘The World’s Best Environmental Development’ in 2008 and this place can accommodate over 450 residents in 120 homes. The Ecovillage entrance is near 639 Currumbin Creek Road, Currumbin Valley QLD 4223, Australia. The entrance is at the corner of Village Way and there is ample space for cars and buses to park. The Ecovillage is located on south of Brisbane and it is 94 kilometer away from Brisbane. From Brisbane City, it would take 1.2 hours to drive and traffic during morning and afternoon make it 1.3 hours’ drive(“The Ecovillage at Currumbin”, 2022). No connecting public transport service is available however, Translink Train stops at Varsity Lakes that is 15 minutes’ drive north of the Ecovillage and visitor or worker can take cab service to reach there.
Measurement of Performance, Risks and Risk Management
The project performance and outcome would be evaluated in terms of project value. The conducting authority Currumbin Valley Ecovillage should estimate the value of the project as per the project performance. The performance should be measured based on stakeholders’ responsibilities completion, each task completion per day or weeks, each activities are completed without failing to complete within deadline of the project. Moreover, the project performance should be estimated in terms of ROI (Return on Investment), customer satisfaction, cost of quality, schedule performance and others.
The project and activity performance management and measuring would be considered as part of adding value to the project goal. The ROI (Return on Investment) is estimated based on the initial investment and gaining value from customers’ reviews and gaining positive revenue due to the project investment. Cost of quality can be estimated as the allocated budget that is to be used to maintain quality in Currumbin Valley Ecovillage and associating the service quality with the same amount of money. Therefore, based on customers’ reviews and positive revenue gain from the quality services, this aspect can be estimated to the value of the project. Customer satisfaction can be estimated based on customers’ sentiment, positive reviews, negative reviews, necessary feedbacks and supportive comments on social media. Customer satisfaction should be collected from social media or feedback discussion forum for understanding their sentiment towards the project outcomes. The project development can highlight customer satisfaction or not.
Risk Management is another aspect of the project; where the project stakeholders should address the potential issues in the project and state the issues that can turn the project success into a failure. Potential risks in this project are environmental imbalance, negligence of greenery, lack of maintenance performance, overlooking caretaker works due to piled up works, and violation of wildlife refuge. The tender workers should be aware about the wildlife refuge law and they are prohibitedto violate it.
Barani, S., Alibeygi, A.H. and Papzan, A., 2018. A framework to identify and develop potential ecovillages: Meta-analysis from the studies of world's ecovillages. Sustainable cities and society, 43, pp.275-289.
Barlow, R., 2022. Botanical pursuits. Landscape Architecture Australia, (173), pp.63-72.
Egerer, M.H., Lin, B.B., Threlfall, C.G. and Kendal, D., 2019. Temperature variability influences urban garden plant richness and gardener water use behavior, but not planting decisions. Science of the Total Environment, 646, pp.111-120.
McKinnon, K., Kennedy, M. and De Cotta, T., 2021. Social enterprises and community wellbeing in regional Australia. Journal of Sociology, p.14407833211035839.
Tenders - Facilities and Grounds Management Opportunity at Award Winning Ecovillage in the Beautiful Currumbin Valley - Australian Tenders. Australiantenders.com.au. (2022). Retrieved 12 May 2022, from https://www.australiantenders.com.au/tenders/493260/facilities-and-grounds-management-opportunity-at-award-winning-ecovillage-in-the-beautiful-currumbin-valley/.
The Ecovillage at Currumbin. The Ecovillage at Currumbin. (2022). Retrieved 12 May 2022, from https://theecovillage.com.au/.
Whitworth, D. and Snape, D., 2019. Clifftop garden. Landscape Architecture Australia, (163), pp.42-50.