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MIS609 Ass 1 Data Management and Analytics Assignent Sample


Task Instructions

1. Please read the attached case scenario.

2. Write a 1500-word data management pre-proposal for the organisation.

3. The pre-proposal should not only discuss the technical but also the managerial aspects (cost, manpower, resources, etc.). Please keep in mind that you are writing a pre-proposal and not a detailed proposal.

4. Please ensure that you remain objective when writing the pre-proposal.

5. Your pre-proposal should ideally answer (but not be limited to) the following questions:

a) What would the data management strategy be?
b) Which kind of data would be managed by your organization and how?
c) How many staff members at your organization would manage data of this retailer; what would be the team hierarchy and what would their expertise be?
d) What resources would be required from the retailer?
e) What deliverables (hard and soft) would be provided to the retailer?
f) What would general data management operations look like?
g) How would data management policy be set and how would it be implemented?
h) How would metadata be managed?
i) How would data quality be managed?
j) How would data management practices be audited and how would quality be assessed?
k) How will user and business requirements be collected from the clients?
l) Which data architectures and platforms would be used?
m) How would legacy data be taken care of?
n) How would risks be managed?
o) What benefits would the retailer have as a result of outsourcing this service to your organisation?
p) Others....

6. The questions mentioned above are written randomly, in no particular sequence. When addressing these questions in your pre-proposal, please ensure that you write in a systematic way. Make use of the web to find out what pre-proposals look like.

7. You are strongly advised to read the rubric, which is an evaluation guide with criteria for grading your assignment. This will give you a clear picture of what a successful pre-proposal looks like.



Data management function is a necessity to operate Slow Fashion Pty Ltd. to process and manage datasets developed from organisational proceedings holding the non-core operational data. The given report addresses a pre-proposal identifying the data management function variabilities and requirements that is to be met by the company.

Benefits of outsourcing the data management function

Outsourcing data management services for assignment help would increase operational efficiency as the non-core executive of the company can be more focused on their performance with easy access to client, customer and employee information as needed with increased accuracy in the data obtained. It will help in easy retrieval of data without need to update information manually as it will ensure auto-update standards while managing the data (Bayrak, 2015). Data loss can be reversed, which is often the most common risk when handling data management and their activities single-handedly by the company executives in Slow Fashion due to changing company production demands.

Resources Needed

The major resources needed from the retailer are based on the following:

- Objective of the company is to establish data management function priorities and the overall objective of each non-core activity to process information focusing on the objective while presenting information during retrieval accordingly.

- Gathering information on external and internal assets of Slow Fashion that will be impacted by the non-core operations of the company.

- Company’s existing IT infrastructure design to develop a clear protocol and data management architecture that aligns with the existing structure

- Budget to proceed with the development and the overall human resource availability to run and maintain the data functions

Deliverables to be provided to the retailer

The deliverables to be provided to Slow Fashion Ltd are stated as follows

Software: A data management system software that will be linked with the non-core operations of the company along with the main database system of the company to retrieve information of the core operations. The software system will be installed with the major hub of the computing devices in the form of a website application form where information regarding company operations, production development, supplier data, and other customer services can be stored and retrieved as needed (Rahul and Banyal, 2020).

Hardware: A pre-installed processor to be provided to the retailer containing four or more 3.3GHz Intel Xeon class servers with an internal memory of terabytes.

Data Management Strategy

The data management strategy is based on the roadmap that Slow Fashion would follow steps and formats identifying the potential effectiveness of the data management function to be developed. The management strategy is to be based on the DAMA framework that involves eleven functions that are to be taken into account by the data management system or function being outsourced for development.

Figure: DAMA Framework
(Source: Damadach.org, 2021)

The DAMA framework further identities the strategies to be present in the form of developing data architecture, modelling and designing of the function system, storage and operation development, maintenance of data security, integration of information regarding governance, documentation and content management, warehousing data, metadata and establishing standards of data quality to be managed.

Data management operations to look like

The general data management operation to be followed is based on the core recruitment for the data management function by Slow Fashion. It should include operations that are focused on the data pipeline for four major functional data, which are sales data, CRM data, Third-party data, and non-core activity data. The data warehouse would be able to conduct three primary activities, which are analytics, business intelligence, and ML modelling through the data obtained.

Types of data to manage and its strategies

There would be three major data types that are to be managed by the data management function system to be developed. The data are based on the non-core operations such as employee performance management and training need updates, everyday employee attendances, workplace equity information, team meeting updates, logistics operations in terms of delivery to customers, and data that include market research and future forecasts for the company growth’s requirements. The strategies to be followed are based on identifying the general objectives of each data type obtained, identifying tools to assess the data and formulating the data retrieved as needed to meet retail goals (Tekinerdogan et al. 2020).

Management teams and their responsibility along with hierarchy pattern

The management team of the data management function would include data scientists, data engineers, and data analysts. Hence, the data management team will be based on a three-level structure that will be following the consulting model (Vassakis et al 2018).It would include the CEO of Slow Fashion on the top, the analytics group, business units and functions at the second level while the data management executives at respective sections to be present at the third level reporting directly to their team leads, which then reports to the managers, present at the second level. The role of data scientists is to analyse, model, process data, and further interpret data as needed. The engineer is to develop the system and maintain them while the data analyst will interpret the data obtained by the data scientists.

User and business requirement collection process

The user and business requirements will be collected from the clients by using email networks. On the other hand, the data management system will be holding a segmented structure to upload requirements of the Slow Fashion clients, which will be analysed and directed to the company executives according to their designations and production responsibilities.

Data architecture and platforms used

The data architecture will be based on three-tier architecture as the given data management function system will be outsourced (Lee et al. 2015).Hence the application of the three-tier architecture would be effective as it will hold the inclusion of a third layer between the client machine and the server machine leading to an indirect communication with the server application that would be acting as the outsourcing team that uses the internal database system of the company provides the necessary information. The platform to be used is SAS Data Management Suite to ensure minute detailing of the information to be obtained by capturing, migration, data mastering, analysis, management, integration, and quality control. Data management policy setting strategies and their implementation

Figure: Data management strategies
(Source: Altexsoft, 2021)

Data management and privacy policy : Slow Fashion Pty Ltd has followed strategies such as defining data architecture by implementing the role of the data architect. The data modeling will be based on key business concepts of clicks and mortar and the role will be implemented by data modeler and data scientist. The database administration is done with database management and ensuring the availability of data (Babar et al. 2019).

Data quality management policy: There has to be quality management by the company's quality data engineer so that the business infrastructure will be governed by data requirements. There will be the management of integration and consolidating data into a single place. This helps in monitoring data analytics.

Metadata management and quality management

Good data is manifested through the implication of metadata management and quality management. The retail company has to look into their SOX for financial data, HIPAA for healthcare data and regulatory compliance of the data program has to be managed with accurate data definitions. Data quality management will be increased so that the affirmativeness of the data error will be increased from 2% to 7%. This will help in the control of data with appropriateness with proper data profiling. This will help in the reduction of time and resources that are manifested within metadata management and data quality management (Anuradha, 2015).

Strategies to Audit data management practices and quality assessment

The strategies to audit data management and quality assessment will be done with a DQA tool that will help in understanding the indicators of problematic data transfer. This will provide agility to the data management system of Slow Fashion Pty Ltd. Integration of the data audit will be done in 19 steps and 6 phases. Access to all the 50 places within the reporting period is required. There will be notification and documentation as per national standards. The audit visits will be taken into consideration and the documents are to be reviewed in all the steps. There will be the inclusion of data management systems review with trace and validity results. Data aggregation and consolidation management will be found with DQA tools.

Figure: Data auditing system
(Source: Measure evaluation, 2021)

Managing legacy data

The management of legacy data will be done with state and federal regulations and this will provide information to all the complex legal issues that are based on data-driven frameworks of Australia and New Zealand where Slow Fashion Pty Ltd is functioning. The cost, analytics, security, and retention of data will be upgraded as per federal government laws and this will help in the understanding of IT resources and budget that is included. The data migration and legacy system had to be made with concise network and security systems (Fan et al. 2015).

Managing Risks

The data risks can be based on the better decision-making process and it should involve the inclusion of information and resource management. The financial health of the organization is to be considered. The management will help in the monitoring and management of data with proper synchronization. The brand reputation is to be measured with the data management systems. Preventive measures are to be taken such as patches, firewall and help in the management of centralized data management. This will help in the management of accessible, searchable, and customizable features.


Thus, the outsourcing of data management functions would be critical to ensure Slow Fashion Pty Ltd attains sufficient information to manage its non-core operations that usually consumes a major performance ability of the employees. The data management function will be following a three-tier architecture using the SAS Data Management platform to increase the efficiency of the data management activities.


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3155IBA Operational Management Assignment Sample


The Research Report should begin with a concise, informed overview of the chosen organisation. Outline what the organization does and how it does it. Mention should be made of the context (e.g. product market and the business environment) that the organization operates in. The core of the report however, should (ideally) focus and describe a particular operational issue and appropriately analyse it. From the analysis practical solutions should then be put forward, stating how well the proposed solution integrates into existing processes. Topics and points that could be considered include:

1. The business environment in which the organisation operates.

2. Background and purpose of the organisation.

3. Organizational structure

4. Organizational strategies (corporate strategy, business strategy, and operations strategy)

5. Products and Services

6. Service system or Production system and job design

7. Process measurement and analysis

8. Aggregate planning, inventory management systems and procedures, revenue management

9. Locational decisions for facilities and operations

10. Sustainability and pollution control programs

It is important that your group not only cover the relevant issues, but also integrate them in an overarching and coherent fashion (reflecting the systemic nature of production processes). The analysis should be critical in nature, and the use of unsupported rhetorical statements should be avoided, (e.g. ‘This organization is devoted to quality’). You should explain and support your recommendations. Look for evidence of support for all such recommendations. The report should identify the important issues and challenges facing operations managers in the organization. Don’t forget to include references and a bibliography. The report should be submitted through the online link found on the Learning@Griffith course website through the Assessment tag.


1. Introduction of the Business Environment

‘P-Bicycle’ is the bicycle manufacturing firm taken into account in this research report. Phil Greene, the owner of the company looking for profitability improvement and management of operations (OM) due to the impact of Covid-19. It's a typical business environment where the organisation takes new orders from respective clients for bicycle making, manufactures them in the garage and finally sends those for the purchasing & selling team.

2. Background and Purpose

Bicycle industry is broadly classified with cycling and bicycles. Generally, it includes bicycle part manufacturing, accessory manufacturing & bicycle manufacturing. At the beginning the design was on paper and then built with raw materials.

The purpose of this research report for assignment help is to identify OM issues for the chosen organisation and then recommending proposed solutions for the same. Understanding the key problem statement, it has been possible for an individual researcher to do product market analysis, looking for practical solutions that integrate with bicycle manufacturing processes.

This report is divided into few sections where inventory management, revenue management, service system design are the key aspects of P-bicycle company’s operations & facility.

3. Identification of Key Issues

3.1. Justification of Problem (OM) issue and rectification

The key issue faced by the P-bicycle manufacturing firm is the ‘workshop OM problem’ and ‘profitability challenges’. Regarding the OM issues in the respective bicycle manufacturing firm, globalization, sustainability, ineffective communication with the workers, system design problems are valuable (Galvin, Burton & Nyuur, 2020, p. 120235). On the other hand, regarding the profitability challenges faced by the P-bicycle firm are: low productivity, high-budgeted bicycles are not profitable, low stock of accessories and other goods, non-availability of bicycle exporters, profit-margin issue etc. Thus, to rectify these two issues, P-bicycle contracts with Oscar Smith, a quality improvement consultant who understands better and solves the problems in the big picture.

- To understand the O&M issue well first need to verify the service and company’s existing product markets.

- Developing a key strategy for profitability and growth is an important rectification aspect (Reyes-Mercado & Berumen-Cantú, 2019, p. 70).

- The impact of work orders, performing services, and responsibility of the sales team is also considered to improve profitability.

- More investment on the bicycle brand manufacturing.

- Innovative warehouses, standard workplace, a work-friendly environment, and suitable employee relationships are the major areas of rectifying those problems.

4. Organisational structure and Strategies

P-bicycle firm consists of three major departments: (i). Manufacturing; (ii). Purchasing, Inventory and Service;

(iii). Distribution. The following relationship map shows the organisational working procedure and the overall process of supplier to customer base.

Figure 1: Departmental structure and their relationships in P-bicycle
(Source: Case Study Relationship Map)

Understanding the organisational structure, relationship with each of the organisational department it has been possible to recommend these organisational strategies:

- Operations Strategy of P-bicycle:

According to Liu et al. (2021, p. 126581), the company, P-bicycle operated through client orders and after getting approval of work orders from the customers. The main objective of operational strategy is to have reliable economic cost, flexible and convenient approach.

- Corporate Strategy of P-bicycle:

In the bigger picture, the company wants to implement the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) framework to improve its profitability and resolve the business problems (Chang, Chen & Huang, 2019, p. 8). Moreover, particularly for this bicycle manufacturing firm, Research & Development (R&D) is considered as the most important aspect for the revolution of corporate strategy.

- Business Strategy of P-bicycle:

The company wants to implement a ‘Lean mass manufacturing’ business strategy to improve its profitability, logistics performance and supply chain management (Saurabh & Mehta, 2021).

5. Products and Services

P-bicycle manufactures new bicycles and open workshops for its servicing. Generally, product or service starts with written work orders and approved by the customers. The engineering department is engaged to design the product and bicycle specs as per market demand. Based on the conversation between Phil (Owner of P-bicycle) & Oscar (Consultant Management), it is clear that the company focuses on its product as per customer requirement. Bicycle products are in terms of inventory management and each of the orders takes place in a good retail profit margin (Reyes-Mercado & Berumen-Cantú, 2019, p. 80). As mentioned earlier products & services of P-bicycle company depend on its Bicycle component distributors, manufacturers, accessory producers.

6. Service System and Design

6.1. Implementing the solution with existing framework

On the basis of the existing relationship map model, the bicycle production system and design approach has been easy to understand. Following design model is appropriate to solve the OM issues in P-bicycle (Yadav et al. 2020, p. 118276). As a quality improvement consultant, Oscar wants to implement this design framework and understand the workshop operations better. The system design framework is beneficial for: customer categorization, design of a new supply chain, engineering sub-selection, craft workplace design for bicycles, working schemes, designing bicycles, making the bicycles as per customer demand. It is good evidence of lean manufacturing system design for P-bicycle.

Figure 2: P-bicycle system design approach
(Source: Galvin, Burton & Nyuur, 2020, p. 120235)

7. Process Measurement and Analysis

7.1. Customers for the business part

They are the key ‘stakeholders’ for P-bicycle's business. Customers provide the work order to the manufacturing firm and all departments of P-bicycle accept it, review it and work on it.

7.2. What outputs customers received?

Customers get an update on a daily basis when the bicycle manufacturing is going on. As P-bicycle focuses on improved customer service thus customers can expect to meet their requirements in each of the company's bicycles (Fargnoli et al. 2018, p. 395). Customer gets a faster response from the manufacturing team whenever he/she needs P-bicycle’s service. For each of their orders, the customer gets an invoice which has been prepared by the sales & inventory team. Moreover, customers can expect promotions from the P-bicycle manufacturing team and regular basis offer as well. Last, but not the least, customers get quality products from the distribution team and expect after buying assurance from the P-bicycle company.

7.3. Business suppliers

Suppliers of P-bicycle business associated with the purchasing department when a purchasing request is made. As per the customer requirement of bicycles, suppliers export or import products (logistics/supply chain suppliers), accessories and all the relevant components. Moreover, suppliers are also engaged to provide assistance to customer service (Liu et al. 2021, p. 126581). Thus, P-bicycle’s business suppliers are associated with the inventory, manufacturing and purchasing department to deliver a new bicycle as per customers’ demand and support to make profitable business growth.

8. Aggregate Planning, Inventory & Revenue Management

This is the most important part of this business report because the overall profitable growth totally depends on the inventory & revenue cycle of P-bicycle. On the basis of stock orders, the firm creates a revenue cycle to configure its accounting information systems. This cycle works throughout the manufacturing-inventory-purchasing section after an order has been confirmed. As per the guidance of Guo et al. (2018, p. 420), inventory & revenue cycle is good for customized business processes thus when some bicycle parts are bought outside the inventory department, a new request to be filled and sent to the P-bicycle management.

Figure 3: Inventory and Revenue Lifecycle process of P-bicycle
(Source: Self via draw.io)

9. Locational Decisions for Facilities

9.1. Critical connections

Depending on the customers’ delivery location, bicycle distribution and pick-up system set. When a customer makes a service request from this bicycle manufacturing firm then it is necessary to find nearby stores and establish a link with them first. But in case of non-availability of the parts, the service management teams decided to reject customers’ requests. Long-distance product distribution systems are not that profitable after Covid-19. As per the guidance of Bahadori, Gonçalves & Moura, (2021, p. 554), Critical connections between the Oscar, Phil and their employees proposed practical solutions to the existing challenges faced by the P-bicycle company. Moreover, Climate is a major concern for the bicycle manufacturing firm. For new store openings as well as business expansion, the organisation needs to think about the customer base of that particular location, demand of bicycles by the people, service center/garage facilities, and a good operating environment.

10. Sustainability Concern

Operations & Management team (O&M), Production team, Manufacturing team of P-bicycle firm wants to meet the sustainability criteria as well for their new business expansion (Ma et al. 2018, p. 58). The key concerns are as follows:

- Lowering the energy requirements, carbon foot-printing.

- All the materials & accessories used to manufacture bicycles should be recyclable.

- The manufacturing section should be climate friendly and not produce any harmful substances.

- Use of bicycles produced by P-bicycle companies can reduce 53% of carbon dioxide emission.

- Along with the lean manufacturing approach, additive manufacturing strategy should be recommended as a sustainable approach for P-bicycle firms (Ma et a. 2018, p. 68).

- Conducting pollution control event, sustainable promotion is another key aspect.

11. Conclusion

This business report derives the systematic nature of P-bicycle production processes. Based on the critical discussion and review, the identified OM issue can be solved if the firm follows a proper relationship map, inventory lifecycle. Finally, not yet importantly, by fulfilling customer demands, meeting product & service requirements P-bicycle can improve its profitability in the post Covid-19 days.

12. References


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MGT502 Business Communication Assignment Report


1. Write a critical argument up to a page on the topic selected in Assessment 1 Part A.

2. Use the annotated bibliography resources from Assessment 1 Part A for sourcing evidence and ideas for your argument. Review the resources critically and select at least 5 to be used as references for this assessment.

3. Please consider the following factors, when forming the argument:

- A good argument is convincing whereby the premises are acceptable, the supporting evidence is relevant to the claim and provides sufficient grounds for acceptance of the claim.

- You will be expected to form an academic and financial argument in favour, or against, utilizing the communications solution in the modernworkplace.
- Make a clear point and justify it.

4. Please structure your argument as follows:

- Title page
- Introduction: provide a short introduction with a claim.
- Main body: with a logical structure including supporting evidence from academic sources.
- Conclusion: a concise conclusion which restates your claim and summarises your argument.
- References: please provide the reference list on a separate page.

5. Please use at least 5 in-text citations. Indicate logical connections and use connecting words

6. You are strongly advised to read the rubric, which is an evaluation guide with criteria for grading your assignment—this will give you a clear picture of what a successful forming an argument looks like.



The purpose of the study is to explore how communication in the context of business environments influences profitability. Communication is considered to be a great tool for improving business performance and bridging the gap between the different stakeholders. There is a strong link between business profitability and business communication. Communication for assignment help is the main driver of growth or development in a profit-making company. Employee management and client management are performed using balanced and effective communication.


Communication is a method or process that develops a proper and effective resolution. It enables the transfer of the opinion from one person to another person within the organizational task leading the worker towards productivity and performance to approach the organizational objective or goal. Intelligent leaders value prosperity as an ultimate straightforwardness. As expressed by Kim 2019, the effective communication of corporate social responsibility helps to improve brand reputation and enhance customer trust in the business leading to the reduction of customer acquisition cost and improvement of the organizational market share and customer loyalty. Nayati et al (2019) further revealed that marketing communication in the context of the business helps to improve organizational effectiveness and efficiency within the business context.

Small and medium enterprises focus on expanding their network using the mobile communication system for marketing purposes. Zhu et al 2020 believe that the organization considers the referral process as a means of communication that helps to improve the business network and enhances the firm's profitability in the context of the market. This process of referral reduces the competition and increases the market share with the profit-sharing process. According to Sanina et al (2017), the good relationship between the stakeholders especially the Government and the management of the organization is largely dependent on proper communication and transparent reporting of the financial transaction of the organization. Lucas & Rawlins (2015) found that the company reports transparently to the government regarding the profitability income and also depicts the taxation process of the organization leading to better compliance. An employee with a good and effective ability for communication increases the firm's profitability and enhances its effectiveness within the context of the organization.


It can be said that the argument that has been developed in favour of the business communication positively influencing the business is justified as the proper communication and effective approach of the organization provides a high degree of profitability to the business protecting it from compliance and enhancing customer loyalty to the businesses. It is the proper and effective communication within the organizational culture that helps to improve the productivity and performance of the organization with a high degree of profitability among the stakeholders.


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BIS2005 Enterprise architecture Assignment Report

Assessment Details:

This assessment is designed to assess develop your skills in Enterprise Architecture (EA). You are required to develop knowledge on EA methodology, EA Framework, data model and emerging EA. In completing this assessment successfully, you will be able to know major widely accepted Enterprise Architecture (EA) domains, layers, frameworks and governance, which will help in achieving ULO-3, ULO-4, and ULO-5.

Report: Part-I (Case Study)

Techbank is a mid-size financial company. A couple of years ago Techbank decided to establish a full- fledged EA practice to accommodate with the growing problems around non-transparency of its IT investments and poor business and IT alignment in general. To boost its EA initiative, the company decided to purchase a specialized software tool for enterprise architecture. For this purpose, its IT leaders studied the available offerings on the EA tool market, contacted most promising vendors, organized meetings with vendor representatives and listened to their presentations. As a result, Techbank had selected and acquired a rather powerful and expensive tool for enterprise architecture from a well-known vendor. Then, the company had installed and configured the tool, established a central repository for storing architectural information and sent its architecture team to a special training supplied by the tool vendor. After the training, architects had documented most areas of the organizational IT landscape and associated business processes in the EA repository and started to update this information to keep it current. Architects were also impressed with the modeling, visualization and analytical capabilities offered by their new EA tool.

However, Techbank’s CIO is sceptical towards the chosen EA tool. He believes that the company is only wasting money on the tool as it is essentially nothing more than a sophisticated repository of current-state information. Furthermore, the tool is used by only 4-5 people in the entire organization (all architects), does not facilitate informed decision-making among business stakeholders in any sense and does not contribute to achieving the original objectives of the EA initiative to improve business and IT alignment.

As a newly manager at Techbank, Techbank’s CIO has asked you to provide a report that addresses the following:

1. Discuss 5 reasons why the implementation of the EA tools at Techbank is NOT a waste of money.

2. Discuss the five key difference between EA Tools and CMDBs(Configuration Management Databases)

3. Based on your lecture notes, discuss 4 archetypes of architects that would be employed at


Report: Part-II

Data#7 is a diversified, multi-profile company. Essentially, it is a conglomerate company consisting of three diverse strategic units acting as independent businesses under separate brands in different industry sectors: Unit Alpha, Unit Beta and Unit Gamma. Data#7 is governed from the central head office, which oversights the three subsidiary business units and their financial performance indicators, though without any operational interventions. Each strategic business unit has its own managing director with full discretion and responsibility over its competitive strategy, investment priorities, budget allocation and ensuing yearly profits.

Unit Alpha is in the food manufacturing business. The unit produces and distributes a variety of goods including, but not limited to, vegetables, groceries, meat and dairy products. Each of these product lines requires unique production processes, storage arrangements, transportation approaches and underlying equipment and is organizationally implemented by a separate specialized product department. However, these products are delivered largely to the same circle of customers, including both major retailers and local food shops. All product lines are also served by a number of common unit-wide functions, e.g. HR, finance, accounting, logistics, legal, marketing and sales support.

Unit Beta competes in the restaurant business with 450 IT staff. Specifically, the unit controls a chain of small fast-food restaurants occupying the low-cost market niche. In total, the chain includes more than 159 restaurants located in different geographies and more restaurants are planned to be opened in the foreseeable future. All restaurants offer same interiors, menus, prices, meals and services to their customers and imply standardized policies, working procedures and supporting equipment. However, each restaurant is run separately by a chief manager responsible for its overall financial well-being and all necessary business processes, e.g. recruiting, training, procurement, cooking, servicing, cleaning and complaints management. With the exception of Unit Beta’s lean central office, where chain-wide branding, marketing and other strategic decisions are made, the restaurants operate independently from each other and even have their own profit and loss statements.

Finally, Unit Gamma runs a chain of resort hotels. These hotels gravitate towards the high-end price segment and offer premium-quality services to their customers. Unit Gamma’s competitive strategy implies improving its brand recognition and achieving consistent customer experience. For this purpose, the unit’s leadership plans to standardize all customer-facing and, to a lesser extent, back- office processes across all hotels of the chain as well as all its suppliers and service providers.

Moreover, Unit Gamma also intends to become “closer” to its customers and build lifelong customer relationships. This strategy requires collecting more information about customers, their individual preferences and transaction histories, aggregating this information globally and leveraging it for providing customized services, launching loyalty programs, developing special offers and promoting personalized discounts.
As an EA manager at Data#7, you are required to write a report that discusses the following:

1. Describe five major roles that OUTLINE as EA Artifacts will play in Data#7.

2. Discuss four reasons why outsourcing of EA practice is NOT a good option for Data#7

3. Discuss three type of consulting engagement that Data#7 would consider and; recommend consulting engagement that would be approved by Data#7’s CIO

4. Discuss 5 reason why implementation of Architecture Debt is very important in Data#7

5. Based on IT staff ratio model and degree of decentralization as a factor, name and discuss architects positions that would be required in Unit Beta.

Report: Part-III

Yepstock is a large financial and stockbroker company. 8 years ago Yepstock decided to establish a full-fledged EA practice to accommodate with the growing problems around non-transparency of its IT investments and poor business and IT alignment in general. The establishment of EA practice was successful, and it was completed last 1 year. Due to recent advancement in technologies, Yepstock wants to implement Cloud Computing technologies that would empower their staff and customers for example, implementation of analytical Cloud Computing Technologies that would enable Yepstock staff to approve credit card application within 30 minutes of the submission of the application.

However, Yepstock’s CEO is sceptical towards the implementation of cloud computing technologies. He believes that the company is only wasting money on the cloud computing technologies as it is essentially nothing more than a sophisticated collection of data.

As a newly promoted IT manager at Yepstock, you are required to write a report that discusses the following:

1. Four (4) types of cloud computing that Yepstock could use or implement.

2. Five (5) challenges that Yepstock may have with implementation of Cloud Computing Technologies and how the challenges should be resolved.

3. Five (5) characteristics of cloud computing and explain 4 major cloud computing services that you would recommend to Yepstock.

4. Five (5) IT Governance and IT Service Management, recommend with 5 reasons if COIB or ITIL framework should be implement in Yepstock organization



This is a report for assignment help containing three parts that are all geared toward providing a reflection of an individual’s capability in interpreting and handling Enterprise Architecture(EA). The first part of the report focuses on establishing Enterprise Architecture(EA) practices in Techbank, a medium-scale finance organisation. This part of the report focuses on describing the benefits of Enterprise Architecture(EA) practices on Techbank’s goals and operation, along with the attributes that differentiate it from CMDBs. It also describes the architect archetypes that will be implemented in Techbank. The second part of the report focuses on Data#7, an amalgamation of three strategic units operating in different industries. How can OUTLINE, an enterprise artifact that can help Data#7 improve its functionalities, negative implications of Enterprise Architecture practices, and other elements of Enterprise Architecture will be discussed. The third part of the report will focus on factors and aspects of cloud computing such as perceived challenges, beneficial types of cloud computing, attributes of cloud computing, and others on the operations of Yepstock, a large company that operates in the finance sector.
Report Part I

1. Discussing the five reasons for implementing the and seeking benefits of EA

Techbank can be benefited from the use of enterprise architecture in many ways, shapes, or forms. The infrastructural changes that have been taken up by Techbank, since when it decided to design and adapt a complete set of Enterprise Architectural methods, must have had a severe impact on the foundational information systems. EA has been proven beneficial for companies. Enterprise architecture can allow Techbank to achieve prosperity by making sure that the operations taken up by the bank are coherent and adaptable. Utilising Enterprise Architecture framework and techniques allows the bank to incorporate modern and updated technologies which are being invented continuously. It allows the company to develop its organisational goals, organisational performance, and organisational operations in such a way so that it can keep up with the continually changing market. Enterprise Architecture (EA) can also be beneficial for the company by providing the company with control over its investments. Cost-effectiveness is the main focal benefit of the Enterprise Architecture (EA) framework, which is why the integration of the Enterprise Architecture (EA) framework is not a waste of money. Enterprise Architecture (EA) helps Techbank focus on Enhancing the ways that the company uses to communicate with its customers. The creation of customer journey maps and Customer Satisfaction Index, a major element of the Enterprise Architecture (EA) framework, can be beneficial in making sure that the company is maximising the experience of its customers while interacting with or utilising its products and services. It can also help the company to gain a competitive advantage over its competitors in the international and domestic market by letting the company be more aware of trends and shifts in the market along with new technical requirements by successful analysis provided to the company by the usage of Enterprise Architecture (EA). Enterprise Architecture (EA) frameworks also help companies such as Techbank to analyse, organise and categorise huge volumes of digital information that is being created each second. Techbank can also use various services data provided by Enterprise Architecture (EA) frameworks such as data modelling, application linkage, detail image, and others to make sure that it is abiding by various governmental regulatory acts while collecting and analysing personal information. Visibility and transparency are associated features of incorporating Enterprise Architecture (EA) practices. So it can be said that Enterprise Architecture (EA) is a beneficial addition to Techbank’s technological arsenal. The perception of the CIO of Techbank is inaccurate.

2. Key differences between Enterprise Architecture (EA) tools and CMDBs (Configuration Management Databases)

- Configuration Management Databases (CMDBs) and Enterprise Architecture (EA) tools are extremely distinct. A configuration management database (CMDB) is a normalised database that can withhold various pertinent datasets regarding organisational information technology facilities and the link between various parts, such as hardware and software parts. It is essential for making sure that company representatives can easily access the configuration of the facility and can analyse the saved information. On the other hand, enterprise architecture is a guide that helps company representatives shape and leads the changes that the organisation is adapting to keep up with an evolving market.

- Even though both EA tools and CMDBs help companies accelerate their response to any sudden shifts in the business climate, increase the visibility of the system and improve the customer experience, they are significantly different in their usage and utilisation.CMDBs help the organisation by providing an all-around view of the core assets supporting its IT infrastructure. It facilitates metadata transfer (Oberhauser, 2018). Enterprise Architecture tools are lacking in this regard as the visibility provided by CMDB is unparalleled by the capabilities of any Enterprise Architecture tools.

- Enterprise Architecture tools, on the other hand, are fully focused on providing a seamless connection between business strategy and IT strategy. The linkage between these two strategies is beneficial as it helps organisations understand how to properly utilise and apply their IT capabilities in such a way that can boost profitability. However, CMDBs are not equipped to do this task, as figuring out the applicability of IT systems is not their forte.

- CMDBs are beneficial for highlighting the interconnectedness of various components of the IT infrastructure, which is not a task that Enterprise Architecture tools can handle.Enterprise Architecture tools are more apt for handling situations and point out a way to reduce managerial issues, which are not the main focus of CMDBs.

- The main purpose of CMDBs is to optimise IT activities by reducing errors, providing better access to IT configuration, and recognising the correct occasion for change. On the other hand, the main purpose of AE tools is to provide company representatives in scheming, evaluation, plotting, and performance enhancement of operations.

3. Archetypes of architechts

There are four types of archetypes which are mentioned below.

Solution archetypes

It is seen that the solution archetypes are one of the most narrow architects that help to focus non-planning the IT initiatives. The methods of this process help to specialise the concrete technologies that help align the specific technical EA domains. The idea behind this process is straightforward, which helps to find the problems. It also helps the person to figure out the way so that they can immediately solve the situation. The process is based on the different arrangements made by the individual companies.

Domain archetypes

The process of the domain architect helps to focus on the comprehensive planning of the companies, which are based on the specific EA domains on the data or the business (Haki &Legner 2021). The processes are responsible for the adjacent domains based on infrastructure and security. The employee can work on high-level projects so that they can make sure that the process has fallen in line with the business.

Business unit architects

This method helps the employee focus on the IT planning for the separate business unit. The formal title of this business helps to reflect the business areas. This helps the employees to find out the problems so that they can solve them immediately. The unit can carry out the strategic planning so that the company can participate in the initiative delivery process.

Enterprise architects

The process of the enterprise architects can help to focus on the IT planning of the companies based on the EA domains. The formal positions of this method help to title the enterprise appropriately.

Report Part II

1. Roles concerning OUTLINE as EA artifacts in Data#7

Enterprise architecture artifacts are defined as distinct documents that contribute to forming Enterprise Architecture. As its definition suggests, architecture artifacts are the cornerstones of enterprise architecture practices that enable companies to make accurate decisions and form proper plans regarding information technology implementation. OUTLINE is one of these artifacts that can enable Data#7 to properly implement and execute information technology-related operations that will help each of the three strategic units of Data#7 to achieve success. It is one of the six EA artifacts.

- OUTLINE can be utilised by Data#7 and its strategic units by making sure that superior quality representation of certain information technology-related processes that were taken up by the independent strategic units such as Unit Alpha, Unit Beta, and Unit Gamma is provided to the central head office which will help the head office to assess the performance of these independent units.

- The head office and the strategic units can also utilise OUTLINEs to make sure that fund requests for implementing novel information technology-related processes and procedures are justified by evaluating Certain relevant elements of these projects.

- EA artifacts related to OUTLINE can help Data#7 ensure that the strategic units are performing as expected and are creating the maximum amount of value for Data#7 stakeholders.

- OUTLINE can also be useful in making sure that the investments that are being made by the company's strategic units are fruitful and efficient.

- Data#7 can also utilise OUTLINE as a tool for evaluating the progress and success rate of certain projects.

2. Disadvantages of outsourcing EA practices for Data#7

Even though outsourcing of information technology services is being opted for by many companies because of the cost-efficiency of the process and the benefits this provides to the companies regarding decluttering operations, outsourcing of enterprise architecture cannot be recommended to Data#7. There are many reasons why outsourcing cannot be recommended to Data#7. the most important reasons are recorded below.

- Outsourcing can only work If the existing enterprise architecture has core parts that can be separated from each other without causing damage to the entire structure. This is not possible for Data#7 as it is an amalgamation of three separate and independent business units. This complexity in organisation structure can severely impact the outsourcing of EA practices.

- The processes that are a part of the entire EA structure of Data#7 are severely dependent on each other. For example, for providing customer service and loyalty programs, Unit Gamma, the resort hotel chain, needs to acquire information regarding its customers, such as their preferences and transactional histories. Outsourcing a singular part of this entire EA structure cannot be possible because of the horizontal entanglement of these kinds of processes in the operations of the company's strategic units.

- Outsourcing is not optimal because of how outsourced parts of EA structures communicate with other parts. As parts of many Data#7 communicate with each other by using communicational standards only seen in Data#7, outsourcing will make for increased chances of miscommunication.

- Because of the severe emphasis on standardisation which improves the ability of a company to outsource parts of its enterprise architecture, Data#7 is encouraged to standardise its information technology-related processes. However, standardisation limits the scope of the enterprise architecture structure to be updated with new technology. This is also not advisable to Data#7.

3. Recommendation of consulting engagement will be approved by Data#7

There are four major types of consulting engagements practised by various reputed consultancy firms. The three possible consulting engagement types that can be suggested to Data#7 are; Consulting engagement focused on business strategy, consulting engagement focused on Information Technology implementation, and consulting engagement focused on proper management of Human resources.

Consultancy engagements focused on organisational strategy can help Data#7 improve the accuracy of its decision-making process regarding evaluating the sectors each strategic unit operates in, evaluating the performance of the competitors of the units in those sectors, along with other elements of operational strategy design. For example, it can help unit alpha better its product inauguration strategy, marketing, and logistics-related strategies. Information technology-related consultancies focus on improving IT-related infrastructure and services, which can also be beneficial for Data#7. For example, it can help in assessing the capability of unit gamma to provide loyalty programs and personal discounts by taking a look at the amount of personal information that is acquired by the unit and help with the implementation and infrastructure of the project. Human resources consultancy can benefit Data#7 by optimising and increasing the amount of value that the employee of the organisation creates. It can suggest enhancement approaches that can be taken up by Data#7 in order to manage human resources properly and maximise employee engagement. Employee engagement increases productivity (Agarwal 2017).

The chief information officer of Data#7 monitors the human resources, technological infrastructures, and operational processes part of Data#7. information technology-related consultancy engagement can be recommended to the CIO as various Data#7 require information technology-related enhancements.

4. Implemeentation of Architecture Debt

Architectural debt is essential as it allows to avoid myopic thinking and irresponsible architectural borrowing. It also helps to implement tactical IT solutions so that the company can undermine the future strategic positioning. The entire process can also help the company stay on their track so that the employees can maintain the quality of their IT landscapes. It is seen that the architectural debt is also based on the measurements of the coupling based on the different approaches (MacCormac& Sturtevant 2016). This helps to note the various perspectives which can produce the complementary insights. It can also help the company to build a positive development. The process of the architectural debt can also help the company to represent a step in the architectural direction which can give a great benefit. It can also create a distance for the company from its ultimate design. The managers can assess the cost of the efforts after accessing the process of the architectural debt. It can also help to combine the data on the costs of the components in the architectural categories.

5. Discussing the architects position

The IT service desk staff has become swamped after working for long hours and trying to keep the IT infrastructure functioning for a period. It is crucial to determine the staffing levels for the IT, which can also help the company solve their complicating factors. This ratio is based on dividing the number of managers in an organisation by the number of employees working on a particular project. Technically complicated processes may require a smaller management ratio (Weiss 2018). It has become more significant for the interaction and coaching so that the employees follow the rules correctly. The larger ratio for the managers is best as they are already experienced in their skills and knowledge. This helps them train the employees in the technical systems so that they can also achieve success. The employees with the smaller ratios try to support the new managers so that they can gain experience in their roles. The smaller ratios help the employees to enhance their effectiveness by making sure that the managers are not too pulled in critical situations.

Report Part III

1. Four Types of cloud computing

Yepstock can use various types of cloud computing to optimise its operations. Four major types of cloud computing platforms are- Public, Private, Hybrid, and Community (Bokhari, Makki, & Tamandani 2018). Public clouds refer to the complete computing system on the server-side, which is the cloud computing service provider. Public clouds are known for their higher scalability and zero upkeep cost, which makes this type of cloud rather lucrative. However, various security risks plague the benefits of the public cloud because of its utilisation of shared resources to provide service to multiple parties. Private clouds share some similarities with public clouds. However, a private cloud dedicates resources to entertain the requests of a singular entity that is the owner of the private cloud. Private clouds are known for their enhanced security measures and offering far more control over resources than what public clouds provide. Hybrid clouds are clouds that share some characteristics of public and private clouds. In a hybrid cloud, arrangement companies use the facilities of public and private clouds to some extent. The public cloud facilities are used for processes that require less security, while storing and handling private information is done through private clouds. Hybrid clouds are known for heightened security measures and the flexibility it provides to their users. However, the usage of hybrid cloud requires being adaptive and being able to segregate components of certain tasks from others. Community cloud is another type of cloud that resembles public clouds but is only used by a select number of entities. These clouds are cost-effective but provide far less flexibility and safety than private clouds. All of these clouds can be used by Yepstocks and come with their particular advantages and disadvantages.

2. Five Challenges of implementing cloud computing

Various challenges come with implementing cloud computing technologies which can obstruct the progress of YepStock. These challenges are important to handle efficiently. Some of the highly important challenges are-

- Security issues that rear its head while implementing cloud services. In recent years, the rate of cybercrime has increased heavily (Bossler & Berenblum 2019). Breaching cloud databases to access information has become a serious concern for companies. YepStock must make sure that the cloud services that they will use are as secure as possible. Security features such as safe management of identity, proper verification, and authentication processes must be considered while choosing to incorporate cloud computing.

- Even though cloud computing helps companies with saving a fortune by not having to invest in maintaining relevant technological tools, there are some significant costs associated with scaling cloud computing facilities. Access to a lesser amount of information regarding the facility can create obstacles in predicting the amount of financial investment needed for seamless operation. However, YepStock can incorporate enhanced analytical capabilities to evaluate the investments that are needed properly.

- Cloud computing also needs to be done by capable individuals that have significant knowledge regarding how the whole system operates. Utilising cloud computing services leaves YepStock open to risks of employee discontentment and the lack of skilled individuals that can increase the efficiency of the cloud computing system.

- Utilising cloud computing can often mean relinquishing control over the operations. Without pre-established stringent governance policies, YepStock will be heavily inconvenienced by the lack of control over information technology-related assets.

- YepStock has to make sure that it abides by the government regulations and data protection acts while implementing cloud computing. If these regulations are not complied with, YepStock can face serious legal actions from the regulatory authorities.

3. Five Characteristics of cloud computing and recommendations for Yepstock

Cloud computing services can often be identified by the unique characteristics and attributes linked to such facilities.

- Cloud computing can grant companies access to on-demand self-services (Ali 2019). The facilities that provide the cloud computing services provide complete control of the digital assets to the users so that they can overview, handle, and process information as they see fit.

- It also has the characteristics of being accessible from different devices anywhere in the world. It is accessible through the internet (Alshammari et al. 2017). Reputed large-scale cloud computing services provide significant accessibility options which can enhance the convenience of the users.

- Because of no requirements of upgrading hardware and software on the user side, cloud computing is hugely scalable, which is a significant attribute.

- Cloud computing also uses a huge centralised system to provide its users.

- Unlike traditional computing facilities, cloud computing services only charge an entity based on how much of the resources were used by said entity. This makes cloud computing services more affordable than traditional services.

Many IT giants such as Microsoft, Google and others have committed to providing improved cloud computing services. Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud, and IBM cloud are some of the cloud computing services that are known for their service integrity and security. Google Cloud has its advantages (Dutta & Dutta 2019).

The four major cloud computing services

The IaaS mainly functions on a specific pay-as-you-go model where it accepts payment from the user to give services, which includes basic services of cloud infrastructure like networking services, renting IT infrastructure and others. IaaS could help to the company to gain and hold a upgraded networking system in a profound manner.

PaaS provides a suitable infrastructure for the IT development works which includes tools for testing, developing, delivering and others. It could help company to do projects without taking headaches of setting and maintaining infrastructure, servers, storage and others.

SaaS offers on demand software for various IT works on a subscription through cloud which help the user to get access on a variety of softwares at a rate and on multiple devices. It could help the company by providing a profound reach of the software easily and it also helps to be a flexible user.
FaaS offers the concept of serverless computing, where the client company or user will be able to do the stuffs without the worry of virtual servers. It reduces the hassles of maintaining and working on a virtual server which can be an easy going for a company.

4. Recommending five IT governance and service management concerning ITIL framework

Implementation of ITIL framework can be recommended to the company over COIB framework for various reasons. ITIL has an extensive model for procedures (Lopes 2021). This can be usable by Yepstock to improve process management. Some of the other reasons are-

- ITIL has been proven and tested regarding its capability to meet the continual shifts in the digital landscape that surrounds the company.

- ITIL framework has a flexible structure that can be utilised by the company to foster enhancements of certain services.

- ITIL framework is merged with every relevant operation of the company, which can enable better coordination and lessen chances of miscommunication.

- ITIL framework focuses on innovation and novelty, which enforces effective service through creative ideas.

- ITIL framework has been developed for international usage, which means that it can satisfy the demands of a large-scale financial company such as Yepstock.


Usage of Enterprise Archetype frameworks and cloud computing in businesses of different sectors is the main theme of this report. The first part of the report describes how the utilisation of EA tools by Techbank can improve its operations and provides a distinction between CMDBs and EA tools. After rigorous evaluation, the benefits that can be achieved using EA tools are established to be beneficial for Techbank. The second part of the report describes how OUTLINE enhances Data#7's capabilities. It provides necessary information that establishes that the company should not outsource its EA structural components because of the dependence and interconnection of processes in many of its strategic business units. The third part of the report identifies various types of cloud computing. The identification along with advantages and disadvantages of cloud computing are described. Major attributes and challenges of cloud computing implementation are discussed, along with recommendations of industry leaders to Yepstock to incorporate cloud computing. Reasons are also provided why the ITIL framework can be more beneficial than the COIB framework for Yepstock.


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BRH606 Business Research for Hoteliers Assignment Report

For this assessment, students are required to revise the research context, literature review and methodology sections of their research proposal, taking into account the feedback received in Assessment 1 and 3. To do this, students will be required to address the following:

- Research context: Describe the research problem with evidence from industry report(s), Identify the aims/objectives of the proposed research, and stage 1-3 research questions and/or hypotheses with appropriate scope

- Literature review summary: Present a conceptual map OR present a summary of the overall literature reviewed with an explanation of key concepts relevant to the proposed research AND identify the gap in literature AND how your proposed study will contribute to this gap.

- Method: Define, justify and apply research design choices. Definitions and justifications should be supported by academic references. This section will include:

The research approach to be applied: Specify whether the proposed study will be designed as an exploratory, explanatory, descriptive or causal research.

Details of methodology to be applied: For example: qualitative, quantitative or mixed-methods. Include a justification as to why this method would be appropriate and aligned with the overall research approach.

The population of the study, including a discussion on the overall population size.

The proposed sampling method including where (the sampling frame) and how (sampling technique) the sample will be obtained, estimates of sample size, etc.

The proposed data collection method(s) – For example: focus groups, interviews, surveys, experiments and/or observation


 Research context

COVID-19 has impacted every region throughout the world, and the hotel business is amongst the hardest hit. Study advocates that healing to pre-COVID-19 might take till 2023—or more. The hospitality business is considered as the most impacted by the outcomes of the pandemic. The undetermined perseverance of the plague increases anxiety about the ability to get over these dramatic situations (Davahli et al., 2020). Incidentally, the cause for this proposal is to explain the COVID-19 risk care of the hospitality sector. The impact is massive and not so far conventional on both income and supply chains. Based on a story printed by the American Hotel and Lodging Association, the predictable US lodges defeats are almost eighty three billion dollars in room profits in 2020, evaluated with 2019, whilst work losses in 2020 are predicted to be almost sixty three thousand. Additionally, approximately half of hotel marketplaces, on behalf of seventy-two per cent of hotel accommodation in the US, are yet in a slump or depression (Giousmpasoglou et al., 2021). Choices being taken to close hotels, eateries, theme parks, cinemas, not to cite the complete disrupting outcome of the travel system, all have a major impact on global tourism.

This study for assignment help has the aim to examine the effect of the coronavirus on the hospitality sector in numerous aspects like social, economic, service, efficiency and so on.

• “What are the concerns and disputes met by the hospitality sector because of Covid-19?”
• “What are the chief aspects in organizations impacted with the plague in the hospitality industry?”
• “What are the chief approaches that can be organized by the business to lessen the impact of covid-19 competently?”

The scope of the research is to shed light on the concerns experienced by the hospitality sector due tpo the pandemic.

Literature Review Summary

The negative effect of the COVID-19 catastrophe is mostly impacting service-oriented segments like the hospitality business. It is directly and indirectly accountable for local growth, several types of work, businesses and sub-sections, increasing several economic actions. Throughout the COVID-19 disaster, governments have undertaken diverse actions in the wellbeing, community and financial areas (Jones & Comfort, 2020). These interferences were intended to enclose the virus's multiplication to reduce the unfavourable effects of the pandemic on the fitness and financial areas. A concise evaluation of such invasion discloses that governments forced diverse actions, like abandoning public meetings, shutting down offices and schools. Also, social distancing, offering financial support, generating contact tracking, and presenting COVID-19 testing plans were done (Antón & Almeida, 2020).

COVID-19’s Effect on The Hospitality Business

The plague had an unparalleled pessimistic effect on the hospitality business. The broad condition of the travel and tourism business is moreover under immense danger. Based on the financial effect account by the World Travel and Tourism Council, before the plague, the journey and tourism divisions, both straight and circuitously, comprised one in four of all novel work produced around the globe, ten per cent of all work, and ten per cent of worldwide GDP. In 2020, sixty-two million occupations were lost, symbolizing a fall of eighteen per cent (Ntounis et al., 2021). Insight regarding the brutality of the risk and the vulnerability to it can cause “travel fear,” which causes suspicious behaviours regarding travel preferences. Also, “travel fright” can remind diverse approaches that boost people’s emotional pliability and acceptance of careful travel actions (Fu, 2020). Significantly, the pandemic has not just impacted the hospitality business operations but moreover formed collateral damage which may implicitly harm it. The text proposes many potential added features behind the unfortunate action of the hospitality business that may hinder its potential renewal (Huang et al., 2020).

Impacts of Government Interference Throughout COVID-19

The consequence of government interference is restricted in degree and range. The closing of offices and schools lessened liquidity stages in rising marketplaces, whilst COVID-19 data operations encouraged trading action (Knight et al., 2020). It is observed that the rising figure of lockdown times, financial rule results and global journey limitations brutally impacted the stage of general financial action and the concluding, opening, lowly and maximum stock prices of the chief stock marketplace directory (Alonso et al., 2020). Policies lessening interpersonal links like shutting schools and community transport considerably lessened the increase of sickness, though they were not money-making (Baum, 2020).

Literature Gap

The area of the research is vast, and therefore the literature review might have missed out on some areas because of the time constraint and limited research done. There was also not enough research done on the particular hospitality sector present in the libraries searched, which narrowed the literature. There were issues with budget for which only secondary data was collected and primary data collection was avoided. This also limited the literature gathered.


Research approach

Research design has a chain of procedures or actions that can be employed for data collection and analysis. Explanatory research design aids in knowing diverse motives, sources, and general effects. It moreover assists in uniting diverse thoughts and its centre over the reason of an event.
For this research, the researcher has used an explanatory design. The explanatory design offers thorough data on pandemic and its result on the hospitality sector.

Research method

To fulfil the study objectives, the qualitative research method has been taken under deliberation. The chief cause for utilizing a qualitative method is, it can be utilized for a small sample size (Kothari, 2004). Here, the researcher utilizes this method as it offers an overall study and report of the effect of the pandemic on hospitality sector and does not limit the extent and nature of this study. The researcher has utilized secondary data with the help of online articles, journals, books.

Data collection method

For conducting this research, information will be gathered from the research and certified papers that were available on the covid-19 effect on the hospitality business. Therefore, different recognized libraries like science direct, semantics scholar, IEEE, Mdpi, and Springer etc., will be utilized (Kothari, 2004). To assemble only appropriate proof, keywords like “Hospitality business”, “employment market in covid-19”, “effect of covid on hospitality" will be used. This kind of data collection plan can be considered to be suitable because it helps in increasing the visibility of the supportive evidence.

Reference list

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