PUBH6008 Capstone A Applied Research Project in Public Health Assignment Sample
By the end of module 3, student must provide to their learning facilitator a brief review of the literature on their chosen topic. The literature review must contain key references/theorists/researchers for the public health topic chosen. The literature review assignment must be designed to address the following questions:
• Who are the key theorists/researchers in your public health topic?
• What are the key issues?
• What are the gaps in the existing body of knowledge?
The literature review should provide a basis for justifying a clear research question or hypothesis to be explored further.
You must also indicate the search strategy used for your literature review. For example, what were the key words you searched for, and which key databases or other sources did you use to conduct your literature review? (e.g. CINAHL, Proquest Public Health, Informit, Medline, Google Scholar).
• Critical and comprehensive review of the literature (70%) Clarity of research question/hypothesis (10%) General assessment criteria (20%):
o Provides a lucid introduction
o Shows a sophisticated understanding of the key issues
o Shows ability to interpret relevant information and literature in relation to chosen topic
o Demonstrates a capacity to explain and apply relevant concepts o Shows evidence of reading beyond the required readings
o Justifies any conclusions reached with well-formed arguments and not merely assertions
o Provides a conclusion or summary o Correctly uses academic writing, presentation and grammar:
- Complies with academic standards of legibility, referencing and bibliographical details (including reference list)
- Writes clearly, with accurate spelling and grammar as well as proper sentence and paragraph construction
- Uses appropriate APA style for citing and referencing research
Sexual abuse among children is considered as a widespread public health challenge, acknowledged in all levels of society worldwide. Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a key issue that has been seen to be present in most of the societies in all classes in India. The prevalence is increasing in India at an uncontrolled rate and it is not only affecting health of the victims, but also becoming a public health, social and economic challenge (Srivastava et al., 2017). In this regard, it is the high time to take strong and effective steps to eradicate the issue for safeguarding and securing children’s health. According to WHO, child sexual abuse is referred as the “the involvement of a child in sexual activity that he or she does not fully comprehend, is unable to give informed consent to, or for which the child is not developmentally prepared, or else that violates the laws or social taboos of society” (Behere, 2018). Indian government has implemented a range of preventive activities in the country. The following chapter has been developed for raising significant understanding on the particular issue, by reviewing the existing literatures.
Background of The Study
Violent behavior against women and children is a significantly known public health challenge globally. It includes “physical, psychological, sexual as well as economic violation or maltreatment” against people below 18 years old. CSA or child molestation is a type of child abuse, in which an older adolescent or adult by abusing a child for sexual encouragement (Choudhry et al., 2018). A range of activities includes different types of child sexual abuse, which involves engaging in sexual activities with a non-adult person, child grooming, indecent exposure, as well as child sexual exploitation, involving a child to make child pornography. According to UNICEF, child marriage is “represented perhaps the most prevalent form of sexual abuse and exploitation of girls” (Behere, 2018). The definition by the WHO has been accepted globally that indicates that CSA is the process involving a child through sexual activities, which the victim does not completely comprehend and is incapable to give assent to, or for which the victim is not prepared developmentally and the process that infringes legal and social regulations (Singh et al., 2014). Different types of activities are indicated under this umbrella term, including “attempted intercourse, intercourse, oral-genital contact, exposing children to adult sexual activity or pornography, fondling of genitals directly or through clothing and the abusing the child for pornography or prostitution” (Behere, 2018).
Srivastava et al., (2017) claimed that the dynamics of CSA are dissimilar from adult sexual abuse. It is because; children usually do not disclose the incident of sexual abuse after the occurrence. Thus, the disclosure of the events seems to be a long term procedure, instead of being a single episode, which is usually done in case of adult sexual violence. Thus, it is often started following a physical complaint or behavioral change (Seth, 2015). Instead of such issue, child sexual abuse is a neglected issue. The consequences of the issue are also widespread, including immediate effects like “shock, confusion, fear, guilt, hyper vigilance or dissociation”; to long term effects including “anxiety disorder, depression, suicidal tendency, antisocial personality, substance use, issues in relationship building, interpersonal issues, schizophrenia as well as eating disorder” (Saini, 2013).
The method that has been applied for the purpose of the study includes systematic review of literature in collecting data for the study which will use electronic academic database to find literature for the study. Therefore, the research study has been conducted using articles that have been published in different academic databases such as Google Scholar (Ghosh, 2009).
Search strategy has been formulated by using some keywords for refining the search procedure that includes “child sexual abuse, violence, harassment, prevalence, child safety, consequences, India, globally, factors, prevention, preventive strategies, measures, intervention”. Using these search terms, selected databases have been searched including the “Torrens library” for finding the most appropriate articles in the field of CSA and its preventive measure in India. The researcher mainly gathered data from the articles published in English within the last 10 years. Articles meeting these criteria have been included in the search procedure. The researcher has screened the reference list and relevant reviews of the studies included, along with citation tracking, as required (Tyagi & Karande, 2021).
Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse Worldwide
According to the WHO, it is estimated that about 1 billion children within 2 to 17 years old have experience of abuse or violence from physical, emotional, sexual domain. Experiencing such violence has significant negative impact upon health and wellbeing of these children. Globally, prevalence of CSA is increasingly significant (Behere, 2018). In 2002, the WHO has estimated that 150 million females and 73 million males, who are under 18 years old, have experienced CSA. According to UNICEF, most of the abuses are done by people the child knows and trusts. Around 120 million girls within the age of 20, while 1 in 10 children are forced to involve in sex or perform sexual activities, as per the latest report (UNICEF, 2021). It is also revealed that around 90% teenage girls, reporting forced sex indicate that their first executor was someone they knew. Srivastava et al., (2017) highlighted that in a Meta analysis covering studies from 22 different nations, it is found that child sexual abuse is common in 19.7% girl and 7.9% boys. Prevalence is high in African and Asian countries, compared to America and Europe (Collin-Vézina et al., 2013). For instance, the prevalence found in the analysis was 34.4%, 23.9%, 10.1% and 9.2% in Africa, Asia, America and Europe respectively. The study also revealed highest percentage cases in South Africa, for both boys and girls, i.e. 60.9% and 43.7% respectively (Seth & Srivastava, 2017). Currently, for girls, sexual abuse is highly prevalent in North America and Australia, with 20.4% and 28.8% prevalence. However, in these regions, the rate is significantly low for boys. In case of Asia, the prevalence varies from only 6 per cent in Hong Kong to 41 per cent and 29.5 per cent in China for girls and boys respectively. In a study by UNICEF regarding maltreatment of children in East Asia and Pacific, it is reported that physical contact and sexual abuse is varied and it is from 1.7 per cent in Hong Kong to 11.6 per cent in Pacific Island (Jena, 2013). In a recent study on the street children trafficking and sexual abuse in Nepal, Kathmandu, and the findings revealed that 80% sexual exploitation is among friends and the enhancing tourism business in Asia is putting these children at stake regarding sexual abuse (Srivastava et al., 2017). In this regard, it is noteworthy that according to the World Health Organization, India has been reported to have the maximum number of sexually abused children in the world (Carson et al., 2013).
Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse in India
It is estimated that around 19 per cent of World’s Children resides in India and they are contributing around 42 per cent Indian population (Srivastava et al., 2017). According to a survey by WHO, India has been reported to have the highest number of sexually abused children throughout the world. Tyagi and Karande (2021) highlighted that “Study on Child Abuse India 2007” is among the most known and wide surveys carried out in India by the Ministry of Women and Child Development. In that recent survey, it is revealed that 53.22 per cent children are having sexual abuse, within which, around 21.9 per cent are facing severe outcomes (Srivastava et al., 2017). It is also found from the survey results that the most vulnerable form of sexual abuse among children involves 7 to 13 years old children to adolescent people, including school going children. In India, recent evidences indicate that sexual abuse is faced by every second child in different forms throughout their life, while the severe form of sexual abuse is faced by 1 in every 5 children. Among these child victims, 52.94% have been reported to be boys, while 47.06% are girls (Behere, 2018).
Further, as per the National Crime Record Bureau 2016 statistics, 106 sexual abuse cases are reported daily in India, with highest number of cases in Delhi (1196), then Mumbai (712), Pune (354) and Jaipur (330). The highest sexual abuse cases reported among girls within the age of 0 to 12 years. Madhya Pradesh has reported the highest number of cases yearly, for continuously 6 years, with around 13 cases daily and thus identified as the “rape capital” of India, followed by UP and Maharashtra. In another study including samples from Kerala, it is found among 1614 teenagers, 36% males and 35% females have experience of sexual abuse at some point of their entire life (Choudhry et al., 2018).
Child Sexual Abuse: A Hidden Issue
Chopra et al. (2020), child sex abuse is one of the most prevalent issues in the world and the society, economic status, culture, awareness and other factors are predominantly involved in this issue. In terms of India, the child sex abuse is very much an issue and it is mostly covered, polished or neglected in the country due to the norm of accusing the victim for the situation It has been seen that in India the social structure has changed with time and the situation of joint family to the nuclear families are comprising of parents who are earning both for the family (Tomori et al., 2016). However, Joseph and Bance (2019), when the changes in the attitude or physical conditions develop among these children the parents or other individuals try to hide it to reduce the media exposure or social exposure as the victims are mostly accused in this country or the development of a situation where the child or the victim is stigmatized or unnecessarily harassed by different questions of people (Agarwal et al., 2013). Thus, the situation of awareness is still lacking in the country which develops a huge gap in the process of the reduction of the negative situations for people. However, it is necessary to highlight that the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences 2012 act has been put forward by the government of India and cases after this act have been considered with priority and a number of cases were properly registered under this act and awareness of people has also been changed (indiacode.nic.in, 2021). Though, the covering of these incidents and lack of access in the remote places let the issues run as the past (Edwards et al., 2020). Hence, in India child sexual abuse is prominent though action against these issues have not been properly considered yet and people try to hide it with proper knowledge to maintain the social reputation which ignites the crime ore and more in the country.
Factors Influencing The Issue of Child Sexual Abuse in India
Child sexual abuse in India is a predominant issue and it should be considered for the change in the society. It has been seen that the numbers of child sexual abuse cases in India is high and it is very much concerning for the society as well (Nebhinani et al., 2019). The factors involved in the child sexual abuse are not strictly confined in the psychological abnormality of people. The issues of lack of awareness and proper social functioning can also be marked as the factors that influence the issue (Cockbain & Reynald, 2016). It should be highlighted that the lack of awareness among people about the negative consequences of the post abusive activity is one of the most impacting factors in this process (Seth & Srivastava, 2017). On the other hand, the issue of the patriarchal societal culture developed the situation of hiding and covering the sexual abuse incidents in a higher magnitude. This issue lingers the consideration of not acknowledging human rights and not following the legal and social rules and regulations (Dhawan et al., 2016). Though, the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences 2012 act is present in India, the implementation of the act is very less impactful and the issues are not reducing as well (Indiacode.nic.in, 2021). Moreover, the reporting or registering the child sexual abuse cases are very less as hiding the incidents are the common norm in the country along with the accusation towards the victims. On the other hand, the consideration of the remote places and lack of awareness among people to report the incidents are also prominent factors that let the people who are actively abusing the children roam freely (Sowmya et al., 2016). This is a social issue along with an economic issue as well (Sharma, Bhattacharya & Singh, 2018). The economic instability and imbalance in the society, the child labor is one of the prominent issues of the country and the children working for money are also vulnerable to the child sexual abuse situations (Malhotra & Biswas, 2005).
Moreover, these children are threatened to their lives and the power of the economic support let people influence society. There are different corruptions and legal issues also present which induces the child sexual abuse along other abusive activities to be increased in the country. It is necessary to highlight that despite of a large amount of media exposure and awareness build up processes the abnormal fetish of people and negligence to the social structure or function induces the negative activities of people (Seth & Srivastava, 2017). Thus, it is necessary to highlight that the development of positive awareness among people and strict legal actions can change the situation along with changing the norm of hiding the incidents as well (Chattoraj, 2006). Other than all these, political factors are also involved in this factor as the political leaders linger these issues according to their need and these incidents and legal actions remained inactive when the political leaders are not interested anymore to these incidents and justice for the victims (Tiwari et al., 2018). Thus, the mental support to the victims is not there and people will harass them in a higher magnitude which is also humiliating. All these factors, involve in the negative consequences and people hiding after being abused let the criminal roam freely and the increase in this social crime is also prominent due to this situation (Sharma, 2007).
Health Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse in India
Child sexual abuse can be seen in India in an extensive amount on the remote area population and even in the urban population along with the rural people as well. The age of the victims are mostly around 3 to 12 years and under the age of 18 years. Thus, it is visible that the inhumanity and cruelness among people to abuse a child below the age of puberty even. However, the health outcome of the children being abused is different (Gaidhane et al., 2016). In most of the cases due to the hiding and covering on the incidents the sexual trauma is developed in case of girls and also the impact of the negative physical pain the trauma regarding intercourse would develop as well. It has also been seen that the impact of the negative physical and mental trauma due to the abusive incidents the children also develop negative abusive behaviors and this impacts on the mental and social activities as well (Dayal et al., 2018). The substance abuse cases increase due to the negative impact of the sexual abuse among the adolescent population as well. In this manner, it is necessary to highlight that the mental impact is more than the physical impacts among the children who are affected with these abusive incidents. On the other hand, the physical trauma and pain is also very much prevalent as there are multiple cases of STDs and pain or other issues regarding the reproductive system among both girls and boys who are affected with any kind of sexual abuse (Roy & Madiki, 2020). Moreover, it is necessary to highlight that the lack of awareness and hiding the incidents lead to other physical issues which can be chronic and develop severe health issues as well. Most importantly, the children under the age of puberty can die as well due to the child sexual abuse cases (Joseph & Patel, 2020). Hence, it is necessary to state that the awareness development and strict legal actions should be considered to improve the situation. However, a large number of cases of child sexual abuse in India are found among the adolescent population and the impact found to be mostly on the mental health state such as depression, anxiety, trauma regarding sexual intercourse and relation development issues along with a higher magnitude of social isolation (Chandran, Bhargava & Kishor, 2018). Thus, the health outcomes of child sexual abuse can be different for different age groups and the awareness regarding all these issues should be considered with higher priority.
Child sexual abuse in India is mostly increased due to the silence and the negative social norms of accusing the victim and their family. It is necessary to state that the consideration of the change in the situation is very much required (Damodaran et al., 2014). The aspect of the awareness among the family members and the society needed to be expanded and the government of India is developing different awareness programs to improve the education and responsibilities of people regarding the prevention of the child sexual abuse cases. The awareness to people to provide support to the family of the victims and also helping them to find justice and voice against this kind of cruel activity (Ramaswamy & Seshadri, 2020). Thus, it is necessary to state that the preventive measures of awareness development can be effective and it is impacting as well. On the other hand, the Children’s Homes, work places and schools are other institutions are the places where the children are being abused mostly and thus the respective institution authorities are provided with the regulations of proper supervision and reduction of these activities as well. Finally, the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012 is developed to penalize the abuser with appropriate process (Indiacode.nic.in, 2021). Furthermore, 1098 is the Childline telephone number for the Indian citizens to inform any kind of child abuse activities to the government and the necessary actions will be taken by the government officials if required. All these preventive measures are now carried to reduce the number of child sexual abuse cases in India and make the country healthy (Neherta et al., 2015).
Role of Health Promotion
Child sexual abuse I India is dominant due to the silence and covering up the incidents. In this context, it can be stated that the social norm and culture regarding not speaking about sexual intercourse and these are taboo. Thus, the lack of communication and education among people from the childhood develop the gap and impact negatively on the behavioral and psychological point of view of people. Thus, the health promotion considering the awareness development and providing the social structural and functional factors to the people would be effective in reduction of these malpractices. Thus, the whole idea of health promotion in this context is to develop awareness and educate people to reduce the malpractices and take responsibilities of their actions (Ramaswamy & Seshadri, 2020). It should be highlighted that the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012 will be effective on any kind of child sexual abuse case (Indiacode.nic.in, 2021). Furthermore, the people should be aware regarding the reporting of these kinds of activities or incidents to reduce the criminal offense. Thus, the health promotion play the role in awareness and education development regarding the activities, behaviors, legal and regulatory along with reporting related factors. Hence, the health promotion for the reduction of child sexual abuse can be effective.
Legal and Regulatory Interventions
Child sexual abuse is very much prominent in India and it should be controlled properly through legal interventions. In terms of the legal regulations for the child sexual abuse or any kind of child rights are comprehended by the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012 (indiacode.nic.in, 2021). However, in terms of cultural and social norms of India the reporting of child sexual abuse have not been done in most of the cases. Thus, the awareness and regulatory mandate should be considered for the improvement in the reporting rate. However, the reported or registered cases are very much effectively considered for the legal actions and the victims would be provided with justice in many cases. However, the legal intervention can provide justice to the victims in terms of legal factors, though the mental and physical trauma due to the abusive incident cannot be healed through this (Seth & Srivastava, 2017).
Gap in Literature
In terms of the child sexual abuse in India there are many data regarding the cases and statistical factors as well. However, in case of the preventive measures, it has been seen that the preventive possible strategies have been identified in several literatures through the impacts of the preventive measures have not been identified in the literatures. It should be stated that the impacts of the preventive measures should be evaluated considering the awareness regarding the issues and also the reporting about the child sexual abuse should be considered as well. The impacts of the cultural and social impacts should be prevented as well. Moreover, sometimes the victims also die due lack of capability to withstand against the incident and the impacts or health issues and thee cases cannot be justified with only legal interventions as the loss cannot be repaid. On the other hand, the legal regulations also included with the reporting facility through telephone as well. Though, the rate of reporting from the victim’s end is very low in India due to social taboo and negative impacts on the mental and social factors. Thus it should be stated that the further researches should be conducted to properly evaluate the preventive factors and their possibilities in reduction of the child sexual abuse in India. The health promotion can develop awareness regarding the consequences of the malpractice among people. The school based health promotions can provide the idea of ‘good touch’, ‘bad touch’ and the private body parts among the children and they can act appropriately. Moreover, teaching the children of different age according to their need of knowledge regarding the abuse related activity, their rights and required activity from their end. Moreover, the parents should focus on supervising their children considering their safety and communicate with them and teach them appropriately to reduce the victimization of the child sexual abuse issues.
Brief Recap of What We Know About the Topic and What We Don’t
The literature review provided a deep understanding regarding the statistical factors of India considering the child sexual abuse. On the other hand, it should be stated that the literature review also effectively highlighted the social impacts on the child sexual abuse cases and also helped in the understanding about the negative impacts on the life style. It should also be highlighted that the preventive measures and the ideas regarding prevention and awareness development have been discussed in the literatures as well. However, the impacts of the preventive measures have not been properly highlighted in the studies. The literatures effectively pointed out the influencing factors of the child sexual abuse and the possible processes that can change the situation for the country has been identified in this review. However, the in depth research should be conducted for better understanding. Thus, in this situation the children needed to be take care of themselves or they are put under some known people to be taken care of. In this situation, the lack of awareness regarding the consequences and psychological issues of some people makes the children vulnerable and the negative sexual or other kinds of abusive situation develop for these children.
Summary of Key Points
The urbanization and the unstable economic flow in India still encouraging the child labor situations and these children who are working in different shops or other places far from their home or the orphan children as well are vulnerable to the physical and mental along with sexual abusive situations. Furthermore, in India the norms of accusing the victim and also developing a negative impact of neglecting or covering the sexual abuse incidents lead to the non-reporting of the child sexual abuse incidents immediately. The children who are abused mostly hide the incidents and bear with the trauma of mental and physical burden.
• How economic inequality as well as rapid urbanization contributes towards child sexual abuse in India?
• What preventive strategies have been implemented in India for preventing incidence of child sexual abuse?
PUBH6005 Epidemiology Assignment Sample
Part A: covering modules 1 to 3 (due at the end of each modules, 1, 2, 3)
Part B: covering modules 4 to 6 (due at the end of each modules 4, 5, 6)
Step 1: In the Assessment 3 Discussion Forum nursing assignment help, post a comment in regard to ONE discussion topic related to EACH module (Refer to module discussion topics provided by your lecturer).
Discussion Topic 1: Observational Study Designs
What study designs could be used to explore the relationships between work-related factors and mental health?
Different designs might be more useful for exploring different relationships. Please suggest a proposed observational study design for a study which considers the relationship between work overload and mental health.
Why did you choose this study design?
Discussion Topic 2: Experimental Study Design
When would the use of a randomised controlled trial be inappropriate? Give a public health example and outline the reasons why conclusion randomised control trial would not be appropriate in this context.
Discussion Topic 1: Comparing Screening and Surveillance
Apart from prostate cancer, are there any other conditions for which the benefits of screening may not outweigh the risks? If you have been involved with any screening or surveillance initiatives, you are encouraged to share your experiences and perspectives
Discussion Topic 2: Comparing Screening and Surveillance
Considering the methods by which surveillance data are collected, what elements of the social context or community in which you live create barriers to or facilitate effective disease surveillance? Feel free to draw from your personal and professional experiences.
Discussion Topic 1
How does systematic review differ from the critical appraisal task set for assessment 3? How is it similar?
Discussion Topic 2
How are you going with your critical appraisal? Take this opportunity to compare notes with the other students about what you’ve struggled with and what you feel confident with.
For exploring the relationships between work-related factors and mental health the case-control study design is used. In this type of observational study design researchers select the respondents for the study. With the help of this study, the design researcher gets appropriate data for the subject and helps in developing the best outcomes (Cahill et al., 2021). The case-control design helps in developing the data which is related to the real-life cases and can also observe the respondents behaviour and use it as data. In this design, the participants referred to as control who have no outcome of interest whereas participants referred to as cases who have the outcome of interest. At first, the pollution is defined and studied, cases are defined and selected, controls are defined and selected and exposure is measured. Lastly, the results are analyzed and calculated and link it with the objectives to draw the final conclusion.
For the questions which are related to health promotion research, randomized controlled trials are inappropriate. In the health promotion field, certain questions are developed through research methodologies that are more appropriate than random appropriate trials (Finkelstein et al., 2020). This trial is inappropriate because the test for efficiency is not conducted effectively and results developed from this test are not appropriate. Also, test effectiveness is larger and not cost-effective. The results are not related to real-life treatment. The hypothesis and objectives involved in the RTC are unclear, endpoints have poor selection, selected subject criteria is inappropriate and information provided is not relevant.
Cahill, J., Cullen, P., Anwer, S., Wilson, S. & Gaynor, K. (2021). Pilot Work Related Stress (WRS), Effects on Wellbeing and Mental Health, and Coping Methods. The International Journal of Aerospace Psychology, 1-23.
Finkelstein, A., Zhou, A., Taubman, S., & Doyle, J. (2020). Health care hotspotting—a randomized, controlled trial. New England Journal of Medicine, 382(2), 152-162.
Fulmer, R., Joerin, A., Gentile, B., Lakerink, L., & Rauws, M. (2018). Using psychological artificial intelligence (Tess) to relieve symptoms of depression and anxiety: randomized controlled trial. JMIR mental health, 5(4), e9782.
Screening has become a very regular practice in the health and medication field. Most of the healthcare professionals are of the opinion that the benefits of screening outweigh the cons. Apart from prostate cancer, ovarian cancer is another condition in which the risks of screening outweighs its benefits. The reason is that the ovarian cancer screening might provide false positive-screening tests (Carlson, 2020). False positive might end up as women having surgery when they do not need any. Surgery also leads to anxiety, incurrence of additional costs, loss of work and might even lead to serious complications for many healthy women.
Carlson, K. (2020). Patient education: Ovarian cancer screening. Retrieved on 25th March, 2021, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/ovarian-cancer-screening-beyond-the-basics#H5
Surveillance of public health is essentially important and compulsory in almost all the countries across the world. However, despite the benefits that it casts in the society in context to keeping the spread of diseases in check, it is faced with a lot of challenges (World Health Organization, 2017). The inadequacy in the number of health professions is the most serious barrier which is faced at the time of surveillance of public health. Apart from this, lack of proper diagnostic centres for the detection of diseases is another challenge that the regulatory bodies face in keeping the spread of diseases in check by using the instrument of surveillance.
World Health Organization. (2017). WHO guidelines on ethical issues in public health surveillance. Retrieved on 25th March, 2021, from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/255721/9789241512657-eng.pdf
Discussion Topic 1
In general the genre of systemic review is following a chronological format and the main foundation of this style of review is referring to dates of publications. The critical styled tasks for appraisals are those which also make use of data of publication but these are descending order. Critical appraisal studies make extensive investigation about LR or literature review so that they can come in a conclusion of their quality parameters (Li, 2020, p. 87). All components which exists internally, their important, validation as well general approach is reviewing. Review here focuses over the work and discuses whether researcher has developed a neutral work or not. Critical appraisal is somewhat similar as the aim is to make in-depth analysis in both cases. Secondly both might make use of grey material as references.
Discussion Topic 2
My critical appraisal is going in a positive direction. Using this organised process i am finding out strength and weakness of the research study. I have however struggled to find the weaknesses of this research. Hence to solve it I have compared notes with other fellow students and checked out varied unpolished gray materials as well on the internet. This has helped me develop crucial understanding of the subject from different perspectives. This has also helped me make my own conclusion with a clear approach (Gundogan, Fowler & Agha, 2018, p. 1). A critical thinking approach is as per me helpful in making the study analysis become effective.
Gundogan, B., Fowler, A., & Agha, R. (2018). Assessing the compliance of systematic review articles published in leading dermatology journals with the prisma statement guidelines: a systematic review protocol. International Journal of Surgery Protocols, 10-12, 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isjp.2018.11.001
Li, S. (2020). Quality control of the peer-review process by forensic sciences research. Forensic Sciences Research, 5(1), 87–88. https://doi.org/10.1080/20961790.2019.1700886
MET414 Applied Epidemiology Assignment Sample
To be submitted via Turnitin by 14.00 on 15 March 2021
Using a public health or healthcare service that is currently being delivered in a population of your choice, prepare a written assignment describing how you would assess whether the service is meeting the health needs of its target population.
The service may be based in any specified patient population, neighborhood, city, or country. Please be very specific about the population. It is recommended that this should be a population and service that you are relatively familiar with.
The assignment should cover the following points:
1. Description of the service, including:
• If you find a strategy with many components, just choose one intervention to evaluate;
• Service aims and objectives;
• Target service users;
• How service is being delivered;
• Underlying evidence-base and guidelines that relate to the service, including evaluation of both clinical and cost-effectiveness.
2. Use a health needs assessment (HNA) approach to assess the:
• Health needs of the target service users;
• What indicators would you include to measure their health status?
• What sources would you use to find data on your chosen indicators?
• The HNA section should include scoping of the epidemiological, corporate and comparative parts.
3. Service evaluation; i.e.:
• Present a logic model to include structural, process and outcome indicators that would allow you to assess the performance of the service;
• Are there any gaps in services?
• Is the service meeting the health needs of the population?
• Are there any associated inequalities?
• Are there any members of the target service users who are not benefiting from the service?
• What would happen if the service was removed?
You are not expected to carry out the HNA itself. However, you are expected to describe your methods and potential sources of data, knowledge and intelligence.
The completed assignment should be type-written with a word limit of 2,000 words, excluding your logic model, tables, figures, and references.
References should be in Harvard style.
This assignment carries 50% of the marks for the MET414 Applied Epidemiology module.
For assignment help you prepare and practice a HNA, you will receive teaching about the principles. As part of your formative assessment, you will be asked to work in small groups to design and present an outline for a HNA. These presentations will offer you the opportunity to work through the design of a HNA and receive feedback.
Please note: whilst the oral presentations are based on group work, your summative assignments writing should be submitted individually, and not be related to the topic of the group oral presentation.
Email the module lead / MPH Office if any questions
EVALUATING TOBACCO CONTROL ‘STOP SMOKING’ HEALTHCARE SERVICES IN THE UK
SECTION 1: DESCRIPTION OF THE SERVICE
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE SERVICE:
There have been considerable advances in health with advancements in research and up-gradation in technology. There is a considerable increase in tobacco smoker worldwide which leads to more than more preventable deaths than ever before. This creates a greater need for health care policy on the prevention of smoking leading to a considerable challenge for the NHS. NHS England partners with various organizations for the prevention of smoking amongst people in England. The Tobacco control healthcare delivery plan aims at a Smoke Free Generation (Wee et al., 2020). The Tobacco Control Plan for England was developed by the Government in 2017-22 as a nationwide initiative to provide support towards tobacco control. The aim of this plan was to focus on reducing the rate of smoking amongst 15-year-olds, who are smokers. Reducing the rate of adult smokers in England and reducing gaps existing in inequalities prevalent amongst routine and manual occupations across England. The policy also aims at reducing the prevalence of smoking amongst pregnant mothers. The Government prepared a delivery plan that engaged inter-departmental collaborations also local partnerships such that appropriate governance regarding the delivery of the plan could be easily achieved. The Government in the UK has high ambitious targets for making England smoke free even with the threats of budget cuts being prominent (Beard et al., 2014, p 280). The Government of England offers specialized services to stop smoking. Though there has been a significant reduction in funds available to stop smoking yet the Government continues their undeterred efforts to prevent smoking services in the entire nation. Thus, the service of the Stop Smoking plan aims at prevention or reducing smoking amongst varied age groups and amongst members of the population.
1.2 SERVICE AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:
The government’s plan of Stop Smoking aims at controlling the use of tobacco in England. Some of the specific aims regarding the service include;
o Prevention of smoking at the national level.
o Supporting smokers to quit their habit of smoking
o Reducing the variations in rates of smoking
o Effective application of the policy of smoking control
This service aims to reduce the overall rate of smokers prevalent in the UK (Department of Health & Social Care, 2018). With the present service being built on the foundations of past successes in tobacco control efforts in local areas. With the support and vision of the NHS, there is a long term plan developed for pursing approaches to adopt a sustainable care system that can bring about significant effects of tobacco prevention and control.
1.3 TARGET SERVICE USERS:
Priority in tobacco control has been given in England due to the high rates of prevalence along with increasing rates of smokers in the nation. A survey conducted by the NHS found a considerable rise in the number of smokers since 2013. There has been given considerable importance on controlling the use of tobacco not only from the national levels but also from local authorities. There remain high rates of prevalence of smokers in England (Bauld et al., 2016, p 1165).
A survey conducted by the Government depicts reveals that the targeted population of smokers in England constitutes young people age 15 years and above, the adult population also pregnant women. There has been a significant rise in the number of smokers at the school level. The ease of availability of tobacco makes them susceptible to becoming smokers early in their lives. 87% were seen to be pregnant women who were using tobacco. Pregnant women seemed unaware of the effects of smoking during their pregnancy period hence there was seen extensive use of tobacco amongst them. 70% had some kind of mental health conditions associated, 67% people were in some routine and manual occupations with low levels of incomes and 60% of smokers were seen to be with acute long-term conditions (Office for National Statistics, 2021). People with mental conditions or with low levels of incomes were seen to be using tobacco greater than people with middle to high levels of income. These high prevalence groups have been the key target population for the Government of England.
The targeted service aims at bringing about considerable effectiveness in either reducing or preventing smokers from their smoking-related habits. Through effective intervention from the NHS along with local authorities, the specialized services will be provided for long-term efforts (Pirie et al., 2013, p 140). Most of the targeted users and participants for the services include those who are taking up services such that they can avoid smoking also it includes those who are yet to adopt but intends to adopt services aimed at preventing or reduction in the incidence of smoking.
1.4 SERVICE BEING DELIVERED:
Prevention and reducing tobacco smoking services in England is adopted by the NHS along with local authorities. The targeted population for the purpose of this service delivery has been adequately identified, also the Government has adopted tremendous efforts with suitable budgetary allocations by setting different levels of priorities for the delivery of tobacco smoking control services (Smith et al., 2020, p 42). Methodology for service delivery aimed at prevention or reduction in tobacco smoking includes the NHS coordinating with local authorities to delivery intervention programs aimed at desired outcomes.
Services targeted at prevention or reduction in tobacco control practices has mainly been delivered through local healthcare authorities rendering healthcare services. They set-up training centers also programs frequently for different targeted groups of the population at different locations to bring about effectiveness in the services (Beard et al., 2016, p 354). Community settings were primarily selected for the purpose of service delivery aimed at tobacco control and prevention methods.
There are varied services that are adopted as a part of this service. There are programs aimed at prevention and reduction which includes interacting with patients, providing them strategies that might be adopted for preventing smoking and so on. Training is provided by healthcare professionals for smoking cessation. Recording outcomes for smoking prevention also assists in accurately measuring smoking beyond self-reporting (Hollingworth et al., 2012, p 165). Through Carbon Monoxide resting, there are programs developed for the prevention of smoking amongst pregnant women. The services also aim at promoting self-care and prevention amongst individuals.
The targeted users are actively invited and referred to this service such that they can accommodate them and prevent or reduce their smoking-related habits. Targeted users are required to attend programs also training sessions such that they are able to take up the course and prevent smoking altogether (Richardson et al., 2014, p 45). Targeted users are contacted by the community such that they can take part in sessions, programs, training and activities aimed at promoting cessation of smoking.
1.5 UNDERLYING EVIDENCE-BASE AND GUIDELINES THAT RELATE TO THE SERVICE, INCLUDING EVALUATION OF BOTH CLINICAL AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS:
The Government publishes reports that include data and statistics of adult smoking in the UK. In the year 2019, it was found that 14.1% of individuals in the age group above 18 years smoked tobacco, accounting for 6.9 million people, as reflected in the Annual Population Survey (APS). Though there has been a considerable decline in the proportion of smokers from 2018 amounting to 14.7% to 14.1% in the year 2019. The highest proportion of current smokers were in the age bracket of 25 to 34 years accounting for almost 19.0% of the population (Office for National Statistics, 2021). There was also 23.4% people in routine and manual occupations who smoked amounting to 2.5 times greater than people who were engaged in managerial and professional occupations, amounting to 9.3%. the NHS aims to adopt tobacco control services as per the WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control to be followed at all levels of the nation.
Evidence of the cost-effectiveness of the service can be ascertained by the limited budget and spending undertaken by the government in curbing smoking (Shahab et al., 2017, p 85). All the intervention mechanisms are handled at the local community levels for adopting cost-effective efforts. Though there is a considerable cost component attached to the training and programs which are advertised for tobacco prevention and control mechanism.
2 SECTION 2: ASSESSING THE HEALTH NEEDS OF THE TARGET SERVICE USERS
2.1 INDICATORS TO MEASURE HEALTH STATUS
The services on stop smoking of tobacco have been built and developed on the basis of past efforts for the prevention of smoking. Initiatives in the domain include working in a joint manner with individuals in the local authority services, partnering with the NHS and also pursuing approaches for the population for the development of a sustainable and integrated system of care. The Government in England has very ambitious targets for attaining smoke free ambition in England by 2030 in spite of threat pertaining to budget cuts remaining (Cancer Research UK, 2021). Ascertaining the health need assessment of the targeted population, the aims of the service has been ascertained. The health needs of the targeted population are being ascertained especially for pregnant women, school-going children and adults such that the impacts of smoking on their health can be reduced. Tobacco control can be seen to be of considerable importance when reducing the impact of adverse effects on the health of individuals also reduce the incidence of cancers amongst the population. Survey data reveals a considerable impact on the health of the targeted population also a rise in the incidence of cancers associated with tobacco smoking (Hunt et al., 2018, p 314).
2.2 SOURCES OF DATA ON INDICATORS
Cancer research organization in the UK publishes relevant data which reveals that tobacco smoking has been seen associated with cancers of 15 different types affecting the nasopharynx, oral, lung, oesophagus, larynx, ovarian, stomach, pancreas, bladder, pharynx, liver, kidney, bowel, leukaemia, and bowel and also many more. The organization reveals that tobacco remains one of the biggest forms of preventable cancers and death in the UK. Smoking was seen to be associated with 125,000 deaths in the UK. 15% of cancers were seen to be caused by smoking. There was also seen considerable deprivation associated with cigarette smoking in 2019 (Ash, 2017).
2.3 SCOPING OF THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, CORPORATE AND COMPARATIVE APPROACHES:
Cancer research organization in the UK also ASH organization revealed that in every 2 people born after 1960 in the UK is diagnosed with some forms of cancer during their life and approximately 1 in every 4 will die from tobacco smoking disease. Tobacco smoking is estimated to be causing one-fifth of cancers every year and causing 27% of deaths related to cancers in the UK (Raupach et al., 2015, p 374). A recent survey conducted by Ash organization reveals that 19% of cancers are connected to some form of tobacco smoking. These bodies are the leading research organizations in cancers in the UK. Data search conducted in these organizations reveals the health needs of the population to prevent cancers.
2.4 EVALUATION OF SERVICE
Logic model to adopt structural, process and outcome indicators which will allow assessing the performance of the service (Brain et al., 2017, p 914). There will be adopted prevention-related indicators for assessing the intervention of the service for understanding the effectiveness of the service performance.
Figure 1: Service Evaluation Model
Using an epidemiological approach, the HNA has been conducted and then an evaluation approach is undertaken for ensuring effective intervention. This approach will enable the meeting needs of the target population (Jones, and Hamilton, 2013, p 565). The health service is evaluated using the above methodological approach. Limitation on the service includes budgetary constraints remaining with the need of the target population. Though budgetary constraints cannot be addressed by the services.
2.5 GAPS IN THE SERVICES
The services in the UK is made available to all possible types of users such that inequalities can be removed with the best possibilities. Targeted users in the service have been benefitting tremendously from this service. There does not remain any significant gaps that remain in attending to the services for the targeted users. Intended targeted users such as adults often restrain from the services provided. A possible explanation for this includes their unawareness regarding the impacts associated with the consequences of tobacco smoking.
2.6 IN CASE THE SERVICE WAS REMOVED
In case the service was removed or withdrawn then there might arise significant consequences reflected in the direct rise of cases of tobacco smokers. The relevance of this service is regarding its sustainability aspect, which otherwise in case not implemented then will lead to considerable impacts on the health of the targeted population. School going children and pregnant women will be the most impacted group in case the service was removed. As the service focuses on considerable behavioral change to have a positive impact on the targeted population.
Ash, 2017. Smoking and Cancer. ASH Fact Sheet on Smoking and Cancer. Accessed from [https://ash.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/Smoking-Cancer.pdf]
Bauld, L., Hiscock, R., Dobbie, F., Aveyard, P., Coleman, T., Leonardi-Bee, J., McRobbie, H. and McEwen, A., 2016. English stop-smoking services: one-year outcomes. International journal of environmental research and public health, 13(12), p.1175.
Beard, E., Brose, L.S., Brown, J., West, R. and McEwen, A., 2014. How are the English Stop Smoking Services responding to growth in the use of electronic cigarettes? Patient education and counseling, 94(2), pp.276-281.
Beard, E., West, R., Michie, S. and Brown, J., 2016. Association between electronic cigarette use and changes in quit attempts, success of quit attempts, use of smoking cessation pharmacotherapy, and use of stop smoking services in England: time series analysis of population trends. bmj, 354.
Brain, K., Carter, B., Lifford, K.J., Burke, O., Devaraj, A., Baldwin, D.R., Duffy, S. and Field, J.K., 2017. Impact of low-dose CT screening on smoking cessation among high-risk participants in the UK Lung Cancer Screening Trial. Thorax, 72(10), pp.912-918.
Cancer Research UK, 2021. Tobacco statistics. Together we will beat cancer. Accessed from [https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/health-professional/cancer-statistics/risk/tobacco#heading-Zero]
Department of Health & Social Care, 2018. Tobacco Control Plan Delivery Plan 2017 – 2022. National Archives of the Government of the UK. Accessed from [https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/714365/tobacco-control-delivery-plan-2017-to-2022.pdf]
Hollingworth, W., Cohen, D., Hawkins, J., Hughes, R.A., Moore, L.A., Holliday, J.C., Audrey, S., Starkey, F. and Campbell, R., 2012. Reducing smoking in adolescents: cost-effectiveness results from the cluster randomized ASSIST (A Stop Smoking in Schools Trial). Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 14(2), pp.161-168.
Hunt, D., Knuchel-Takano, A., Jaccard, A., Bhimjiyani, A., Retat, L., Selvarajah, C., Brown, K., Webber, L.L. and Brown, M., 2018. Modelling the implications of reducing smoking prevalence: the public health and economic benefits of achieving a ‘tobacco-free’UK. Tobacco control, 27(2), pp.129-135.
Jones, S.E. and Hamilton, S., 2013. Introducing a new stop smoking service in an acute UK hospital: a qualitative study to evaluate service user experience. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 17(5), pp.563-569.
Office for National Statistics, 2021. Adult smoking habits in the UK: 2019. Office for National Statistics. Accessed from [https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/healthandlifeexpectancies/bulletins/adultsmokinghabitsingreatbritain/2019]
Pirie, K., Peto, R., Reeves, G.K., Green, J., Beral, V. and Million Women Study Collaborators, 2013. The 21st century hazards of smoking and benefits of stopping: a prospective study of one million women in the UK. The Lancet, 381(9861), pp.133-141.
Raupach, T., Al-Herbie, G., McNeill, A., Bobak, A. and McEwen, A., 2015. Smoking cessation education and training in UK medical schools: a national survey. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 17(3), pp.372-375.
Richardson, S., Langley, T., Szatkowski, L., Sims, M., Gilmore, A., McNeill, A. and Lewis, S., 2014. How does the emotive content of televised anti-smoking mass media campaigns influence monthly calls to the NHS Stop Smoking helpline in England? Preventive medicine, 69, pp.43-48.
Shahab, L., Dobbie, F., Hiscock, R., McNeill, A. and Bauld, L., 2017. Prevalence and impact of long-term use of nicotine replacement therapy in UK Stop-Smoking Services: findings from the ELONS study. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 20(1), pp.81-88.
Smith, C.E., Hill, S.E. and Amos, A., 2020. Impact of specialist and primary care stop smoking support on socio?economic inequalities in cessation in the United Kingdom: a systematic review and national equity analysis. Addiction, 115(1), pp.34-46.
Wee, L.H., West, R., Hiong, T.G., Yeap, L., Chan, C.M.H., Kiau, H.B., Perialathan, K., Mohamed, M.H.N., Michie, S. and Jackson, S.E., 2020. Effectiveness of training stop?smoking advisers to deliver cessation support to the UK national proposed standard versus usual care in Malaysia: a two?arm cluster randomized controlled trial Addiction.
PHCA9521 Global Health and Development Assignment Sample
Due: 8 September
Length: 500 words (Worth 20%)
Background to this Assignment Task
Module 2 introduced the key players in global health progress such as the World Health Organization/UNICEF, Government and Non-Government (NGOs), Global Alliances, Philanthropic(private) Funding and others. It also provided information on where to obtain current information on global health initiatives and current global health statistics.
This task requires students to search the available resources on-line in global health, decide upon one Program/Initiative of interest; summarise key information and communicate this effectively.
This enables peer sharing of information and resources in your group, and the opportunity to view a range of Initiatives/Programs globally.
Assignment Questions for Assignment Help
1. Select a Global Health Initiative or Program from any of the key players in Global Health
2. Write a 500-word document which describes the program; the need and significance of the disease or situation; and outcomes. This will include global health data (statistics) from a range of sources.
3. This task includes the skill of producing a document which translate more complex knowledge and information and communicates it at the level of your fellow post-graduate students and work colleagues.
A minimum of 3 references are required. One reference can be the Website or link to the Program, one to the site where the data was obtained and one which shows the significance of the disease or situation. References are not included in the word-count and there is no need for an Introduction or Conclusion. Do not write this document as a list or in dot points. This task requires you to set out the document in a way that most effectively translates this knowledge to your fellow students.
The purpose of this study is to analyse the importance of the Global Health program to fight Aids and to make people aware of the importance of this program.
Background of The Study
It is observed from a study that there are nearly 38 million people in the world who are suffering from Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. It is significant to note that this is a disease which is sexually transmitted and one-fifth of the total population in the world is unaware of its consequences. Dr Mike McCune is trying to collaborate with Novartis for developing affordable maiden doses of gene therapy for the affected people. Moreover, this program is being conducted to make the population aware regarding the symptoms, consequences and procedures of treatment for the affected people. The prominent program is Global fund to Fight Aids and the key players of this program are the programming associates and the members of the United Nations and World Health Organisation who in collaboration will be convening this program. The higher officials of both institutions will be responsible to make participants understand the implications of AIDS.
Need and Importance of The Program
Health and well-being are the most important wealth for people. HIV is a virus that demolishes the T-cells of human beings and reduces their immunity of people. Hence, people became weak to fight with diseases and disease prone. Hence, the program is required to make the population understand the implications of HIV-AIDS in the bodies of human beings. This program is important as it will help the students to become cognizant of the action plans to combat AIDS. This program will also help in learning the approaches through which the transmission of the disease can be checked. In addition, the program will give information that human fluids like saliva, tears and urine do not contain the virus, however when fluids are in contact with the blood it becomes infectious (Sherbuk et al., 2020). Moreover, preventive methods like the practice of safer sex and the practise which a person needs to perform after getting HIV positive will be discussed in the program so that people can become more aware regarding HIV-AIDS.
Summarisation of The Outcomes
The major outcome of Global fund to Fight Aids program by the United Nations is to provide information to the people regarding the preventive measures, symptoms and treatment of HIV-AIDS. It is significant to note that due to this program people will come to know that the common symptoms of HIV-AIDS are rash, muscle ache, fatigue along with lymph which gets swollen (Marc et al., 2022). They will come to know that HIV-AIDS is a disease which usually gets transmitted during sexual intercourse, usage of contaminated syringes for vaccination and many more.
Figure: Trends of HIV in Australia
Source: (ABC News, 2022).
The infected mothers will also come to know that their unborn babies can also contract the disease as a result of the body fluids which including amniotic fluids. Blood transfusion and transplantation of organs also lead to contracting HIV. Moreover, In Australia, there are around 28, 180 people who are suffering from HIV-AIDS (NewsGP, 2022). As an outcome of this program, these infected people will come to know that abstinence from having copulation with their partner helps in reducing the chances of HIV-AIDS (Benzaken et al., 2019). Another preventive measure that will be told to the participants of this program is of practising safer sex. In addition, some of the treatment procedures for HIV-AIDS will also be told that will help the infected people to get free treatment facilities from the government. All the participants will be told about antiretroviral therapy (ART) which is a treatment procedure for HIV-infected people (Marukutira et al., 2020). Moreover, Global fund to Fight Aids program will give all the information to participants so that HIV-AIDS can be eradicated from the world.
This study has analysed the background of HIV-AIDS and the challenges that it poses to humans. It has demonstrated what outcomes the program on HIV-AIDS will pose on the participants of the program.
ABC News, 2022. Australian HIV rates declining overall, but not for everyone. [online] Abc.net.au. Available at: <https://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-09-24/australian-hiv-rates-declining/10297546> [Accessed 7 September 2022].
Benzaken, A.S., Pereira, G.F., Costa, L., Tanuri, A., Santos, A.F. and Soares, M.A., 2019. Antiretroviral treatment, government policy and economy of HIV/AIDS in Brazil: is it time for HIV cure in the country?. AIDS research and therapy, 16(1), pp.1-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12981-019-0234-2
Marc, L.G., Goldhammer, H., Mayer, K.H., Cahill, S., Massaquoi, M., Nortrup, E., Cohen, S.M., Psihopaidas, D.A., Carney, J.T. and Keuroghlian, A.S., 2022. Rapid implementation of evidence-informed interventions to improve HIV health outcomes among priority populations: the E2i initiative. Public Health Reports, 137(4), pp.617-624. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177%2F00333549211027849
Marukutira, T., Gunaratnam, P., Douglass, C., Jamil, M.S., McGregor, S., Guy, R., Gray, R.T., Spelman, T., Horyniak, D., Higgins, N. and Giele, C., 2020. Trends in late and advanced HIV diagnoses among migrants in Australia; Implications for progress on Fast-Track targets: A retrospective observational study. Medicine, 99(8). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097%2FMD.0000000000019289
NewsGP, 2022. newsGP – Can Australia be the first country to eliminate HIV transmission?. [online] NewsGP. Available at: <https://www1.racgp.org.au/newsgp/clinical/can-australia-be-the-first-country-to-eliminate-hi> [Accessed 7 September 2022].
Sherbuk, J.E., Williams, B., McManus, K.A. and Dillingham, R., 2020, October. Financial, food, and housing insecurity due to coronavirus disease 2019 among at-risk people with human immunodeficiency virus in a nonurban ryan white HIV/AIDS program clinic. In Open forum infectious diseases (Vol. 7, No. 10, p. ofaa423). US: Oxford University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa423
PUBH6206 Health Promotion and Community Health Assignment Sample
Individual/Group - Individual
Length Part B - 1500 words (+/-10%)
Learning Outcomes This assessment addresses the following learning outcomes:
a) Critically analyse health promotion principles theories at the level of prevention.
b) Apply the principles of the Ottawa Charter to develop health promotion interventions in diverse communities.
d) Apply health promotion principles, theoretical frameworks, and strategies to health promotion intervention for diverse communities.
e) Critically analyse the concepts of community capacity building and empowerment within health promotion interventions
Students are required to develop the health promotion intervention based on the health promotion intervention plan outline developed in Assessment 2 Part A. Students are required to write the program of 1500 words (+/- 10%) in length. The steps below provide clear instructions on how to develop and present your program. Support your point of view with the credible evidence sources.
Instructions for online assignment help
1. Explain the stages of program development in the following stages.
Planning: Review your plan outline against the feedback given by the Learning Facilitator (Target group, Aim, Objective, Timeframe, and Stakeholders developed in Assessment 2 Part A)
Consideration: Consider health promotion principles, theoretical frameworks, and strategies, including Ottawa Charter Area of Action that could applied to your program
Explain potential stakeholders that should be involved in your program and the importance of their roles.
Select health setting where the program would be implemented and explain the appropriateness of this setting/location.
List required resources, including: human resources; equipment; tools and devices (e.g. testing kit, yoga mat, scale, stationary); facilities (e.g. room for education session, space/court for physical activities), printed resources (e.g. flyer, poster, booklet) (this is a critical thinking practice rather than the actual activity).
Estimate your budget required for you program and where could you get funding to support your program (this is a critical thinking practice rather than the real funding)
2. Explain how your program will be monitoring and evaluated.
3. Critically explain timeframe and milestones of your program
As the health promotion plan outline was completed, a brief knowledge about the risk associated with early mortality of infants and children under the age of 5 years was identified. The outlines help in assessing and highlighting the issues of diarrhoea witnessed by children which thus has been focused as one of the main leading causes of child death worldwide (Shine et al., 2020). As children below the age of 5 years have a lack of ability to self-assess health needs, manage and minimize risk factors and have a proper understanding of the threat. Thus, they witness the enhanced risk of complications related to diarrhea (UNICEF, 2022). The risk of diarrhoea is high among infants and children who lack proper access to clean drinking water, live in a house with poor disposal of human faecal, live in a poor house with shattered infrastructure, lacks proper meal as well as maintain standard hygiene. Thus, these factors explain the social determinants of health related to diarrhoea which increases the threat of infection in infants and children. As children are incapable of managing safety and sustaining a healthy lifestyle by themselves, it is necessary that parents are accounted for their safety and health security (World Health Organization, 2022). The health promotion plan hence focuses on involving children along with their parents in order to generate awareness and safety instructions in order to provide them with an opportunity to safeguard health. As Australia has a well-structured vaccination and clean water supply system, the risk of diarrhoea is significantly low and thus no proper statistics on the issue have been recorded (Thomas et al., 2021). Focusing on which the health promotion plan has been prospered to make sure that the general population do not forget the risk that the infants possess and ensure early management of the risks.
The health promotion intervention focuses on guiding and educating parents regarding the illness, the social factors and the other surrounding environment setting that increases the risk of diarrhoea among their children. The socio-economic approach to health has been identified to be the best application in the case of diarrhoea among children as the social factor the children witness and the economic burden faced by the family together develop a threat of diarrhoea (Lago et al., 2018). It aims to modify the physical and social environment in place of changing health behaviours. As the intervention aims to minimise the risk of diarrhoea, among the general population, it will focus on the primary level of health intervention where the aim is to reduce the risk of illness and ensure management before getting infected (Disease Prevention and Healthy Lifestyles, 2022). Focusing on the Ottawa charter health promotion strategy, the health promotion plan focuses on involving “Advocacy” as the key to success as it guides the need to provide education, awareness and advocacy among the patient and susceptible population as a means to overcome health challenges (Nkangu et al., 2021).
1. Stakeholder 1: dieticians and paediatricians- provide dietary and nutritional guidance to infants
2. Stakeholder 2: primary care and health care professionals- provide, diagnosis, treatment, care and health education.
3. Stakeholder 3: social service providers and non-governing organizations- support intervention with other services and facilities such as resources, funding, food and coordination.
4. Stakeholder 4: local authorities and Department of health, Australia- fund, policy and guidelines for health promotion intervention (Seymour et al., 2018).
Aims: the aim of the health promotion intervention plan is to assess the issue faced by the children in terms of their deprived social determinant of health and in terms of which, to formulate an intervention. The aim highlights the delivery of awareness and prevention guidance to parents of children below the age of 5 years in order to ensure the safety and security of their health. Also, as Australia has no recorded cases of diarrhoea due to vaccination, it is necessary that the health care provider focus on the issue and consider the delivery of guidance (Sommers et al., 2019).
Objective 1: the objective of the health promotion plan is to provide awareness to the communities regarding the precautions they must follow to safeguard their children from diarrhoea.
Objective 2: the objective is to maintain recognition among car providers in terms of diarrhoea in order to avoid the development of state public health issues.
S: the objective focuses in empowering parents as well as communities in terms of diarrhea management.
M: the objective can be measured by assessing change in health care delivery in terms of diarrhoea as well as preventive measures maintained by parents within the communities
A: it is possible to achieve as it requires stakeholder already working within community level and ensure
R: it focuses on delivering health promotion within diverse communities.
T: objective is time bound as education and prevention guidance will be delivered within a duration of 8 months.
The setting has been selected as in Australia due to Rotavirus vaccination, the prevalence of diarrhoea has come under control and thus no significant data is recorded on the occurring cases of diarrhoea. It is necessary that proper acknowledgement of minor cases is provided and significant guidance among communities is provided to safeguard children (Ruiz-Borrego et al., 2020).
Timeframe: the timeframe of the health intervention plan is identified to be 8 months.
Disease Prevention and Healthy Lifestyles. (2022). Three Levels of Health Promotion/Disease Prevention | Disease Prevention and Healthy Lifestyles. Retrieved 12 April 2022, from https://courses.lumenlearning.com/diseaseprevention/chapter/three-levels-of- health-promotiondisease- prevention/#:~:text=Summary,prompt%20treatment%20of%20a%20disease.
Lago, S., Cantarero, D., Rivera, B., Pascual, M., Blázquez-Fernández, C., Casal, B., & Reyes, F. (2018). Socioeconomic status, health inequalities and non-communicable diseases: a systematic review. Journal of Public Health, 26(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10389-017-0893-1.
Nkangu, M., Obegu, P., Asahngwa, C., Shiroya, V., Gobina, R., Agbaw-Ebai, F. P., ... & Foretia, D. (2021). Protocol: Scoping review protocol to understand the conceptualisation, implementation and practices of health promotion within the context of primary healthcare in Africa. BMJ Open, 11(12). doi: 10.1136/bmjopen- 2021-049084
Ruiz-Borrego, M., Chan, A., Marx, G., Brufsky, A., Chien, A. J., Thirlwell, M., ... & Barcenas, C. H. (2020, December). Bringing diarrhea under CONTROL: dose escalation reduces neratinib-associated diarrhea and improves tolerability in HER2- positive early-stage breast cancer. In San antonio breast cancer symposium (SABCS). Retrieved from:https://pumabiotechnology.com/docs/120920_PS13_20_Ruiz_Borrego_CONTROL _SABCS_2020_poster_FINAL.pdf
Seymour, J. (2018). The impact of public health awareness campaigns on the awareness and quality of palliative care. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 21(S1), S- 30. https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2017.0391
Shine, S., Muhamud, S., Adanew, S., Demelash, A., & Abate, M. (2020). Prevalence and associated factors of diarrhea among under-five children in Debre Berhan town, Ethiopia 2018: a cross sectional study. BMC infectious diseases, 20(1), 1-6. doi: 10.1186/s12879-020-4905-3
Sommers, T., Mitsuhashi, S., Singh, P., Hirsch, W., Katon, J., Ballou, S., ... & Nee, J. (2019). Prevalence of chronic constipation and chronic diarrhea in diabetic individuals in the United States. Official journal of the American College of Gastroenterology| ACG, 114(1), 135-142. doi: 10.1038/s41395-018-0418-8
Thomas, S., Donato, C. M., Covea, S., Ratu, F. T., Jenney, A. W., Reyburn, R., ... & Russell, F. M. (2021). Genotype Diversity before and after the Introduction of a Rotavirus Vaccine into the National Immunisation Program in Fiji. Pathogens, 10(3), 358. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10030358UNICEF. (2022). Child Mortality - UNICEF DATA. UNICEF DATA. Retrieved 12 April 2022, from https://data.unicef.org/topic/child-survival/under-five-mortality/.
World Health Organization. (2022). Health promotion and disease prevention through population-based interventions, including action to address social determinants and health inequity. Retrieved 12 April 2022, from http://www.emro.who.int/about- who/public-health-functions/health-promotion-disease-prevention.html