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PUBH6013 Qualitative Research Methods Assignment Sample


This assessment addresses the following learning outcomes:

c) Apply qualitative research methods through undertaking data collection through, e.g. focus group, interviews, observational methods.

d) Appreciate cultural and ethical considerations for qualitative research in Public Health

e) Understand sampling techniques, bias and rigour as they apply to qualitative research

f) Apply coding and analysis techniques to qualitative data


Analysis: Use the resources in module six to:

1. Code the data that you collect from your interviewees.

2. Develop themes based on your coding.

3. Report on the themes that you’ve identified, supported by relevant quotes from your interviewees. Report this part in the same style as the results section of a qualitative journal article.

Reflection: reflect on your experience of interviewing and analysing the data. What did you do well, and what did you struggle with? What could you learn to do better? What did you learn through this experience?



The current research is about the reasoning behind the diabetes among the Australian indigenous community. The research question is significant to identify the main reason of Diabetes and its effect on the life-expectancy among the Australian indigenous community. The primary research based on online papers gave a set of organised data but cannot fulfil the criteria of the research on likelihood of diabetes. The likelihood criteria can be derived from interviewing questions on selected participants. The current research proceeds with the data analysis based on interviewing. The interviews have been taken as face-to-face session where the researcher can notice the expression and actions while responding to a question. This will help a researcher to develop coding because the reaction of the respondents help enables researcher to develop their perceptions. While transcribing an interview, the researcher find some physical gesture and give better answer to a question, rather than their verbal expression. In this paper, the development of coding and theme development will be analysed in this way, on the proposed research.

Analysis and findings of interview

The study reflects a participatory action approach for conducting their interview sessions. In these interview sessions, the participants are selected from the local healthcare who have good knowledge on the health of indigenous people. Unlike the primary research, the participatory actions find out some surplus data which can create the challenge of diversion (Crosley & Jansen, 2020). The researcher is able to highlight only the relevant data while developing coding for the research.


The first step of coding is familiarization. It is conducted by transcribing the recording of participants’ interviews (Cristancho & Helmich, 2019). From the interviews of healthcare participants, the research finds out that the Likelihood of diabetes, obesity and hypertension occurs mostly in mid-aged females whereas most of them are pregnant. The same respondent informed that most of the diabetic women are from aboriginal ethnicity. Another participants respondent that he has observed the likelihood of death in diabetes is mostly among Torrens-islanders while the general mortality rate of these community is better than the non-indigenous. It implies that the indigenous people have better life-expectancy rate than the non-indigenous but they are prone to suffer in Chronic disease which slows down the dying process. From another respondent, it is drawn that the indigenous people refuse to take the primary healthcare as they believe in their traditional medicines. A team of respondent who were treating on the narcotic patients informed that the consumptions of alcohol is higher in indigenous patients compared to the non-indigenous populations. It implies that the alcohol can be a major cause in diabetes. After checking all the notes, the coding is developed in this way:

Developing codes

Notes taken from interview transcriptions


the prevalence of diabetes, obesity and hypertension occurs mostly in mid-aged females. Most of them are pregnant aboriginal women.

           Likelihood of diabetes

           Likelihood of obesity

          Likelihood of hypertension






likelihood of death in diabetes is mostly among Torrens-islanders while the general mortality rate of these community is better than the non-indigenous.

           death in diabetes

           diabetes likelihood


           mortality rate


indigenous people refuse to take the primary healthcare as they believe in their traditional medicines

           indigenous people

           primary healthcare



           traditional medicines

the consumptions of alcohol is higher in indigenous patients compared to the non-indigenous populations

           Alcohol consumption


           indigenous patients

           non-indigenous populations


Developing Themes

In the coding process, the research gathers the raw data of Diabetes disease of indigenous people. In the theme developing process, it will reach to the actual meaning derived from the raw data set (Caulfield, 2020). By looking on the patterns of the codes, the study will combine the codes into the theme. The unnecessary codes will be eliminated while the main codes will be categorized by matching their patterns. The eliminated codes can also be combined into a theme but the researcher has to remind that the data which are relevant in regards to the research objective, only taken (Crosley & Jansen, 2020). This indicates an inductive coding while giving importance to the didactive data indicates the didactive coding. Here the data that concludes the research question, ‘the likelihood of diabetes among Australian indigenous populations’, reflects inductive coding. The data those take part in addressing common symptoms of diabetes or alcohol addiction of aboriginal people, captures different broader contexts. These are called didactive coding. The didactive codes can form themes which are not relevant to this current context. For example, the diabetics patients have common diseases like obesity and hypertension. This will create less impact while developing strategies to prevent diabetes. This can be used as symptoms. The reference of females and their age group is important to this research because it will help in medicine research (Radcliffe et al., 2020). Now the study shows how it develops themes by mapping the relationship between codes.



·         Likelihood of diabetes

·         Females

·         Mid-aged

·         Aboriginal


Likelihood of diabetes among mid-aged aboriginal females.

·         Likelihood of diabetes

·         Females

·         Pregnant

·         Aboriginal

Likelihood of diabetes among pregnant aboriginal females.

·         death in diabetes

·         diabetes likelihood

·         Torrens-islanders

The likelihood of death among Torrens-islanders in diabetes

·         indigenous people

·         primary healthcare

·         diabetes likelihood


The primary healthcare of indigenous diabetic patients

·         indigenous people

·         traditional medicines

·         diabetes likelihood


The use of traditional medicines in indigenous diabetics.

·         Alcohol consumption

·         indigenous patients

·         diabetes likelihood

Alcohol consumption among indigenous diabetic patients



From the above table it can be shown that the meaningful codes are only used which can answer the problem of this research. It avoids unnecessary themes development like mortality rate among indigenous; mortality rate among diabetics; mortality rate among alcoholic; alcoholic among indigenous; and chronic disease among diabetes. The purpose is to locate the genetic DNA of indigenous and their likelihood of developing diabetes, which is detected through this research.


As the research is conducted in a cross-cultural environment, as a researcher I feel it is very necessary to take some ethical consideration of the research. Before making any decision, I should check my biasness to any culture. Through out my research, from data collection to decision making, I am on the track of moral behaviour and justice. I have maintained the respect for all the cultures discussed in this research. Also, I select participants of healthcare from various cultural backgrounds. They were both from Indigenous and non-indigenous background. It helped me to check the consistency of their statement. Also, I tried to put the social context of indigenous people which is often ignored in the health research. I have drawn this from value coding. My research is not bounded within men, rather I have mentioned the special needs of women health in the research of Diabetes (Goins et al, 2020). I felt the inclusion of woman is very necessary in this research as the healthcare of the marginalised woman is overlooked or challenged in Australian society. I have mentioned the need of primary care among diabetes patients as I observed from the transcriptions of participants that the indigenous women often do not get the primary care in the time of child birth. From the conversation of the respondents, I came to know that the social belief among indigenous are profound. They believe in traditional medicines. So, they refuse to take the help of primary healthcare which I have highlighted in my research. I have addressed the habit of drinking among indigenous patients because alcohol can be a major driver of diabetes. I have to consider the ethical challenges of a social research as it is not purely a medical research.
Being a researcher, I am obliged to keep confide the names of the participants, their healthcare organizations and the patient’s personal case history data given by them. During the research I used my personal laptop for recording their video, as I need to watch their physical expressions also. I found it is helpful in this research as most of the participants are from different cultures and languages. Some of them have no clarity of speaking but they try to express the meaning. For this reason, a visual observation is important.


Developing codes and themes are important to make a research question. In this study, we observe only didactive coding which ideates many references. It helps to assess the proposed idea that whether diabetes occur more in indigenous. An inductive coding will answer it by gathering and connecting all the data. An inductive coding helps to reach to the conclusion of a research question and used in getting a research theory out of codes. Though the initial target of coding is to interpret the data and familiarise the data, it also reflects the value coding which indicates the cultural value through the health attitude of indigenous people.While moving from coding to analysation, the core topic qualitative data analysis comes. The researcher analyses the data and locates the code categorization. The categorization and data set of codes combinedly develop themes. The inductive coding gives a proper answer of the research question that there is a genetical connection between Diabetes and Indigenous community.


Caulfield, J. (2020). How to do thematic analysis. Scribber. How to Do Thematic Analysis | A Step-by-Step Guide & Examples (scribbr.com)[5th Aug 2021]

Cristancho, S. M., &Helmich, E. (2019). Rich pictures: a companion method for qualitative research in medical education. Medical Education, 53(9), 916–924. https://doi-org.torrens.idm.oclc.org/10.1111/medu.13890

Crosley, J., & Jansen, D. (2020).Qualitative Data Coding 101:How to code qualitative data, explained simply.Gradcoach. Qualitative Data Coding: Explained Simply (With Examples) - Grad Coach [5th Aug 2021]

Goins, R. T., Jones, J., Schure, M., Winchester, B., & Bradley, V. (2020). Type 2 diabetes management among older American Indians: beliefs, attitudes, and practices. Ethnicity & Health, 25(8), 1055–1071. https://doi-org.torrens.idm.oclc.org/10.1080/13557858.2018.1493092

Radcliffe, P., Canfield, M., Lucas D’Oliveira, A. F. P., Finch, E., Segura, L., Torrens, M., & Gilchrist, G. (2020). Patterns of alcohol use among men receiving treatment for heroin and/or cocaine use in England, Brazil and Spain. A cross-country analysis. Drugs: Education, Prevention & Policy, 27(4), 297–305. https://doi-org.torrens.idm.oclc.org/10.1080/09687637.2019.1658715


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PUBH6004 Leadership and Effecting Change in Public Health Assignment Sample

Assessment 2 - Public Health Professionals

In this nursing assignment help, you will be provided a scenario (problem) involving a public health leader that you will need to analyse using the knowledge gained from this subject for 3 modules. Subsequently, immersing yourself in the scenario, you will evaluate yourself as a public health leader. (Note: Case study will be provided after Module 2). You will be writing a 2000?word report in three parts, as follows:

Part 1:

Analyse the scenario of the public health leader, presented in the Australian public health context using the Australian Health Leadership Framework [1000 words] (Australian Health Leadership Framework: https://www.aims.org.au/documents/item/352)

Part 2:

Undertake a self?assessment using the Leadership self?assessment tool [500 words ] http://www.springboard.health.nsw.gov.au/sat/documents/leadershipassessmenttool.pdf Apply the tool to obtain your results. (The tool is not automatic – you need to apply it honestly)

Part 3:

Imagine yourself to be in the situation. Reflect on your leadership style, its strengths, and apply them to this scenario. How would you have responded to the situation based on the self?evaluation in part 2? Where do you see the gaps in your profile? Prepare an action plan. [500 words] Assessment Criteria: Your graded assignment will be assessed against the following specific criteria: • Demonstrated ability to analyse public health leadership scenario in the context, applying the Australian Health Leadership Framework to the scenario presented (40%) • Demonstrated ability to self?assess leadership style, summarise and critique (10%) • Demonstrated ability to contextualise, reflect on leadership style, assess gaps and prepare an action plan for improvement (30%) • General assessment criteria (20%): o Provides a lucid introduction o Shows a sophisticated understanding of the key issues o Shows ability to interpret relevant information and literature in relation to chosen topic o Demonstrates a capacity to explain and apply relevant concepts o Shows evidence of reading beyond the required readings o Justifies any conclusions reached with well?formed arguments and not merely assertions o Provides a conclusion or summary o Correctly uses academic writing, presentation and grammar: ? Complies with academic standards of legibility, referencing and bibliographical details(including reference list) ? Writes clearly, with accurate spelling and grammar as well as proper sentence and paragraph construction ? Uses appropriate APA style for citing and referencing research




In this assessment the analysis of the case study of the public health leader is being done by using the knowledge of the subject and further the self-assessment test for being a leader has been conducted. In the end the analysis of the self-leadership position considering the case study provided is being presented.

Part 1

Public Health Leader Role

According to research, it has been seen that the quality of health leadership tends to affect directly and indirectly the quality of patient care and is one of the most critical factors for supporting the practice that is best in the industry (aims.org.au, 2022, p3). Health leads Australia had been made by the research and dialogue and had been made on the existing and validated work of the global platform and tends to focus on the capabilities needed to deal with the health issues in Australia (Pinto, & Bloch, 2017, p3).

Health LEADS Australia: leadership framework

1. Leads Self: The leadership process is never complete, and it is always a topic of work in progress (aims.org.au, 2022, p7).

2. Engaging Others: Leaders tend to enable the people to engage with the vision or goal by stories and explanations that relate to the complexities (aims.org.au, 2022, p8).

3. Achieving the outcomes: The people who are the leader need to work to make an individual difference (aims.org.au, 2022, p8).

4. Driving Innovation: It tends to include the fundamental business changes for the business and the models of care for achieving people-centered quality services (aims.org.au, 2022, p9).

5. Shape system: Health is a complex system that is evolving where all the parts involving the services are interconnected with the legislation and the funding (org.au, 2022, p9).

Part 2

Defining Leadership

Leadership is an art through which a person can motivate a group of people for acting towards achieving a common goal (Kiral, 2020, p1). According to the report of R. T. (2021, para 28), leadership does not tend to rely on the attributes of the individuals as well as it does not focus on the relationship dyadic between the leaders and the followers that tends to be the starting point of the leadership. In other words, it can be said that leadership is essential collective by nature and involves the activities of initiating, developing, deciding, and supporting as well as challenging and executing the elements that are independent (R. T. 2021, para 28).

It has been observed from the self-assessment that often I don’t tend to be engaged with other people in order to follow proper services direction that can be made and a vision for the health (heti.nsw.gov.au, 2022, p5). I also found out that I sometimes discuss only those factors which I feel are important that can impact the future of the health of a person.In Achieving Outcomescategory I have got 3 ‘a lot of the time’, 4 ‘some of the time’ and 1 ‘very little/never’. Through the self-assessment, I have also found out that before speaking, I sometimes keep my attitudes, beliefs, and behavior of mine in consideration and how it will affect others. I continuously look for opportunities that I need to learn and develop. However, I sometimes lose my calm and fail to ‘walk the talk’ with the values and beliefs of mine.In Developing and Leading self category I have got 2 ‘a lot of the time’, 5 ‘some of the time’ and 1 ‘very little/never’.In order to solve specific problems, I sometimes spend time with the team and discuss the work together while assisting them in finding out different issues that tend to affect the performance. However, I sometimes fail to create opportunities for people from other professions so that they can learn from one another. In Engaging people and building relationship I have got 1 ‘a lot of the time’, 7 ‘some of the time’ and 0 ‘very little/never’.

I have also observed that I have failed to challenge the work related practices and has failed to inspire people to change. In Partnering and collaborating across boundaries I have got 0 ‘a lot of the time’, 5 ‘some of the time’ and 3 ‘very little/never’.I also fail to take every stakeholders perspective when making decisions. Further I ask people to come up with new ideas as well as apply new information in the delivery nut fails to put forward the solution that are designed to meet the requirements (/heti.edu.au, 2022, p17). In Transforming the system I have got 1 ‘a lot of the time’, 5 ‘some of the time’ and 2 ‘very little/never.

Part 3

Reflection according to Case Study

Leadership Style: If I was in the situation of Dr John and wanted to make changes in the hospital while making improvement in public health, then I would be using Transformational leadership as it is one of the most effective styles (Eliyana, &Ma’arif, 2019, p1).

Strengths: Some of the strengths of my leadership style include having the ability to motivate others. I can encourage the employees to move from a self-interest attitude to the mindset in which they have been working for the common good. I am also able to hold emphasis on authenticity cooperation and make clear communication.

Application: There is a difference between being a leader of the business and a leader of public health; according to (TRIMESTER 1 Module 1. (2022, p3), Rowitz stated that a successful public health leader refers to the one with vision, decisiveness and who are the excellent communication and change agents as well as who are willing to take risks. In this case, I would have been having the convictions of the value and will be committed deeply to improving the health of everyone in the community. I would also be mentoring and providing the right set of training to the team so that the desired results could be achieved (Rasa, 2022, p4). Also, my emotional intelligence is highly energetic, and I am passionate regarding my work as a health practitioner (Mollah, et al., 2018, p7). I have strong moral values and try to encourage other people to follow the same (Bonsu, &Twum-Danso, 2018, p11). I believe in working in an ethical manner and with clean values and clear priorities. Using transformational leadership will be necessary because it is a type of leadership where the leader and follower are empowered each other’s motivation and morality (Louw, Muriithi&Radloff, 2018, p 2).

Gaps: From the self-evaluation, I have found out that along with the strengths of emotional intelligence and empathy, I also have specific gaps. I tend to become nervous during times when there is enormous pressure. Often because of my busy schedule, I am not much able to assist other people in their work. I also find it challenging to negotiate with the stakeholders, and keeping everyone's perspective in mind while making decisions becomes difficult.

Action Plan


From the above analysis it has been seen that Dr John was an effective public health leader. He was able to identify the changes that were needed in the hospital and also was able to grab the opportunity of becoming an leader by meeting the bureaucrats at the public gathering. He had full determination and strong values on which he worked upon. He also treated other people equally and encouraged the team to come up with new ideas. The self assessment shows that I have strong emotional intelligence and ethical values with the help of which I can motivate and encourage the team in an effective manner. However, I need to work upon the negotiation skills and the quality to remain calm during work pressure.


Bonsu, S., &Twum-Danso, E. (2018). Leadership style in the global economy: A focus on cross-cultural and transformational leadership. Journal of Marketing and Management, 9(2), 37-52.https://gsmi-ijgb.com/wp-content/uploads/JMM-V9-N2-P04-Samuel-Bonsu-Global-Economy.pdf


Eliyana, A., &Ma’arif, S. (2019). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment effect in the transformational leadership towards employee performance. European Research on Management and Business Economics, 25(3), 144-150.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2444883418300196

Health Education and Training Institute Higher Education Academic Quality Assurance Framework. heti.edu.au. (2022). Retrieved 26 March 2022, from https://heti.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/485708/HETI-Academic-Quality-Assurance-Framework-v1.1.pdf.

Health LEADS Australia: the Australian health leadership framework. Aims.org.au. (2022). Retrieved March 23 2022, from https://www.aims.org.au/documents/item/352.

Herro, D., Quigley, C., Andrews, J., & Delacruz, G. (2017). Co-Measure: developing an assessment for student collaboration in STEAM activities. International journal of STEM education, 4(1), 1-12.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40594-017-0094-z

Kiral, E. (2020). Excellent Leadership Theory in Education. Journal of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies, 4(1), n1.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2095771817300944

Lee, C. S., Ooi, A. S., Zenn, M. R., & Song, D. H. (2018). The utility of a master of business administration degree in plastic surgery: determining motivations and outcomes of a formal business education among plastic surgeons. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Global Open, 6(6).https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6157935/

Louw, L., Muriithi, S. M., &Radloff, S. (2018). The relationship between transformational leadership and leadership effectiveness in Kenyan indigenous banks.http://dspace.daystar.ac.ke/xmlui/bitstream/handle/123456789/3609/The%20relationship%20between%20transformational.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Mollah, T. N., Antoniades, J., Lafeer, F. I., &Brijnath, B. (2018). How do mental health practitioners operationalise cultural competency in everyday practice? A qualitative analysis. BMC Health Services Research, 18(1), 1-12.https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1186/s12913-018-3296-2.pdf

Pinto, A. D., & Bloch, G. (2017). Framework for building primary care capacity to address the social determinants of health. Canadian Family Physician, 63(11), e476-e482.https://www.cfp.ca/content/63/11/e476.short

Rasa, J. (2022). Developing influential health leaders: the critical elements for success. Jhmhp.amegroups.com. Retrieved March 23 2022, from https://jhmhp.amegroups.com/article/view/5595/html.

The Leadership and Management Framework. Heti.nsw.gov.au. (2022). Retrieved 26 March 2022, from https://www.heti.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/622950/LMDED-Framework-Self-Assessment-Tool-2020_PRINT.pdf.

What is Leadership?. TRIMESTER 1 HE 2022 PUBH6004 ONLINE M1831 CRN 529 Module 1. (2022). Retrieved March 23 2022, from https://docs.google.com/document/d/1-vDbVuYJIuE9UFXCZIMV3UTxv7Px7DUsI2L40ARFEhA/edit.


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PUBH6012: Capstone B Applied Research Project in Public Health Assignment Sample

Assignment Brief

Individual/Group - Individual or Group
Length - 5,000 words

Learning Outcomes for assignment help:

This assessment addresses the following learning outcomes:

1. Integrate and apply their knowledge and skills in public health
2. Apply research skills to a public health issue
3. Analyse the results of data collected from research, taking into consideration prior evidence and theory
4. Understand the ethical implications for conducting a piece of public health research
6. Create a final research report

Submission - By 11:55pm AEST/AEDT Sunday of Week 10
Weighting - 80%
Total Marks - 100 marks




This assessment advanced skills in reporting the justification, methods, results, and conclusions of a research project. Key understanding contained includes how to justify a research project using literature, how to implement a research proposal to collect and analyse data, how to report the results of the analysis of data, how to contextualise one’s own research in the context of the wider body of literature, and how to draw conclusions about future research and recommendations based on research. This prepares students for the conduct and reporting of research, which is an important skill set for public health practitioners.


Part 1: Due Sunday end of Module 1 Week 1

Based on the feedback from your Capstone a Research Proposal, revise your research plan and GANTT chart.

Submit these to your Capstone A facilitator by Sunday end of Module 1 Week 1. You may not proceed with your data collection until this has been approved by your supervising facilitator.

Part 2:

The final assignment for this subject will be the write-up of the findings of your research into a final report. This will be comprised of the following parts:

1) Abstract

a. Summary of your report (as you would find in a published research article)

2) Introduction

a. Introduction to and justification of the topic area, drawing upon your literature review (from Capstone A), and including the knowledge gap your project addresses
b. Your research question

3) Research design and methods

a. Summarise your research design/methods (from Capstone A) – what type of project did you do?
b. How did you collect the data (i.e. search strategy and process/ policy consultation process)? If a policy consultation, explain how any organizations/individuals that you consulted with were approached
c. How did you analyse the data (i.e. thematic analysis, systematic review process, consultation synthesis)?
d. Briefly explain the ethical issues that should be considered

4) Results

a. Report the results of your findings, e.g. key themes if a qualitative study, results in table
format if a quantitative study
b. Clearly explain key figures, tables and graphs

5) Discussion: Interpretation and contextualization of your results

a. Place your results in the context of your literature review
b. Contextualise the results within the academic literature
c. Describe any limitations of your study

6) Conclusion

a. Conclusions from this study
b. Recommendations for future research or policy change based on feasible solutions

7) Supplementary material

a. Reference List
b. Any appendices

This research report format has been based on the standard format for a journal article, and thus may be submitted to a journal in the future if the student is interested.

NOTE: due to the time constraints around submission and peer review, a submitted article will not be required as part of this subject. If you wish to develop a journal article, you may seek advice on how to do this at the end of the Capstone.

Assessment Criteria:

• Revised and approved project plan and GANTT chart (5%)
• Clear executive summary/abstract which condenses the findings of the report (10%)
• Clear justification and outline of the significance of the topic (5%)
• Justification of the research design and methods, including ethical considerations (10%)
• Clear presentation of results, with transparency of findings (20%)
• Comprehensive discussion of the results within the context of previous studies/theory, and identification of the limitations of the study, with recommendations for future research (30%)
• Conclusion with logical recommendations related to the findings and wider literature (10%)
• General assessment criteria (10%):
• Provides a lucid introduction
• Shows a sophisticated understanding of the key issues
• Shows ability to interpret relevant information and literature in relation to
chosen topic
• Demonstrates a capacity to explain and apply relevant concepts
• Shows evidence of reading beyond the required readings
• Justifies any conclusions reached with well-formed arguments and not merely assertions
• Provides a conclusion or summary
• Correctly uses academic writing, presentation and grammar:
• Complies with academic standards of legibility, referencing and bibliographical details (including reference list)
• Writes clearly, with accurate spelling and grammar as well as proper sentence and paragraph construction
• Uses appropriate APA style for citing and referencing research




In reproductive aged women, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a very common endocrine disorder. Also, PCOS is common in ethnic diversity in its manifestation. The study has focused on genetic and phenotype studies in Asian women with PCOS. It is very common that East Asians hirsutism score cutoff is lower than the Caucasian counterpart, and they are less hirsute. Across ethnicities, it is not clear about any significant differences in the characteristics of polycystic ovary (PCO), or prevalence, or severity of irregular menstruation (IM). In East Asian patients, the IM/PCO subgroup is a relatively common phenotype, but it is not the same among Caucasian patients (Kim & Choi, 2019). The prevalence of insulin resistance acts as a major determinant of PCOS among Asian women. In East Asian patients, a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome and lower body mass index (BMI) were reported. However, as per comparative report, Asian women with PCOS were likely to have metabolic complications and diabetes than Caucasian patients, despite lower BMI. South Asian patients showed severe metabolic risks and insulin resistance, an increased degree of hirsutism, early onset of symptoms compared with Caucasians. In the pathogenesis of PCOS, genetic components play an important role, and between Asian and Caucasian patients, similar genetic risk factors exist suggested by the wide association studies of PCOS. Across different ethnicities, ongoing comparative studies are required to manage PCOS and the standardization of the diagnosis (Kim & Choi, 2019).

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has clinical manifestation, which varies from mild to severe disturbance of metabolic functions and reproductive functions. As PCOS affects 1 woman out of 5 women of reproductive age, it has clinical and public health importance across the various regions. The high level of androgen in women could lead to PCOS in women. It has diverse clinical implications such as reproductive features (hirsutism and hyperandrogenism), impaired glucose tolerance, and psychological features (anxiety, depression). Moreover, itis an X-linked dominant condition. PCOS in women is widely dependent on ethnicity, environmental, genetic factors, including body weight and lifestyle of the women. Therefore, weight loss increases the chances of ovulation and pregnancy and improves the endocrine profile. With medications such as aromatase inhibitors, clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen, and gonadotrophins, PCOS can be treated. When other treatment fails, the last option for fertilization is in vitro fertilization. According to different studies based on Spain and the USA, its prevalence is estimated at 4-8%. Moreover, fertility can be improved by maintaining a lifestyle, including diet, exercise, and behavior therapy (Qureshi et al., 2016). As stoutness initiated insulin opposition fundamentally exasperates PCOS highlights, it has interesting collaborations with the steadily expanding heftiness commonness around the world. How PCOS affects long-term health should be provided to women through education. Also, this education can make the women feel physical and psychological benefits so that with their health care providers, they could engage themselves more freely (Qureshi et al., 2016).

Polycystic ovarian condition (PCOS) is believed to be the most widely recognized endocrine problem in ladies. Regular indications incorporate unpredictable polycystic ovaries, hirsutism, and feminine cycle, just as an expanded danger for a huge number of conditions, including dyslipidemia, insulin obstruction and barrenness. The commonness of polycystic ovarian disorder is by and large idea to be somewhere in the range of 3% and 10% however it is broadly obscure for explicit subpopulations dependent on geological area and race/nationality. In light of the serious level of inconstancy and irregularities between the diverse analytic standards, there is a one of a kind test that exists while deciding the commonness of this disorder. There is a huge level of people that stay undiscovered even in the wake of visiting different medical services suppliers. Most examinations led across the world are restricted by little example size, determination inclination, and absence of similarity across considers. There have been not very many investigations that have analyzed the commonness of polycystic ovary condition across the United States. In view of the National Institutes of Health (NIH's) symptomatic measures, there is a comparable commonness of PCOS recorded across the United Kingdom, United States, Greece, Spain, Mexico, and Australia. Different examinations have shown a few contrasts between geological area and race. The current data isn't enough persuading to choose if there are any basic differences in the inescapability of PCOS across geological territory, racial or ethnic get-togethers. This audit will try to decide the commonness of polycystic ovarian condition dependent on geological area and race/nationality

Justification of the study

In this study, it is essential to monitor the women's metabolic and cardiovascular wellbeing and upgraded the related dangers to distinguish ladies with the analysis. Based on geographical location and race or ethnicity, the prevalence of the polycystic ovarian syndrome is widely unknown for specific subpopulations, which is generally thought to be between 3% and 10% (Wolf et al., 2018). While deciding the predominance of this disorder, a one of a kind test exists dependent on the serious level of fluctuation and irregularities between the distinctive analytic measures. According to many researchers, South Asian women have the lowest prevalence of PCOS. The geographical location plays a key role to influence the prevalence of PCOS (Wolf et al., 2018). So here, it is important to focus on Asian Women to understand various determinants of PCOS in the regions.

Literature Review

The epigenetic change can explain the difference illustrated in the twin studies combined with the genetic loci. This could contribute to PCOS pathogenesis and symptom development if external factors alter the expression of these genes. According to the epigenetic theoretical model, an individual is more in control of his mental and physical health condition that he thinks. The vulnerability relating to PCOS condition in Asian women can be minimized by making positive changes (Raperport& Homburg, 2019).

Making lifestyle changes to curtail obesity, ensuring frequent and timely health screening and diagnosis and living in a healthy environment are few measures to control risk factors and determinant of PCOS (Ding et al., 2017). Generally, Chinese women are at the lowest risk of developing PCOS and Caucasian women and females residing in the Middle East, with Black women having the highest risks of developing the syndrome under the same diagnostic criterion of PCOS. The healthcare management priority, ethical variation in screening, and diagnosis play an integral role in influencing the prevalence of PCOS (Ding et al., 2017).

In the etiology, predominance, and adjustment of polycystic ovary condition (PCOS), an assortment of ecological variables is conceivably included. Other than this, ecological poisons, diet and nourishment, financial status, and geology are the fundamental natural variables. In upsetting conceptive wellbeing, ecological poisons assume a part is obvious in some examination, however what these poisons may mean for the advancement of PCOS has very limited research study. Much research explained that PCOS symptoms could be reduced with weight loss among obese women and certain dietary supplements (Merkin et al., 2016). Further, more research is required in preventing or mitigating the development of PCOS to compare various approaches to nutritional factors and weight loss that may play a role. Some research explains with certain PCOS phenotypes has some association with low socioeconomic status. But socio-economic conditions during youth or pre-adulthood that might be more applicable to the formative beginning of PCOS requires more focal point of the specialists (Amiri et al., 2020). The worldwide examples of PCOS are conceivably important pointers of hereditary, social, and ecological variables that may add to abundance hazard in specific districts of the world, which should be tended to the restricted extent of tantamount global investigations on PCOS (Merkin et al., 2016).

The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire (PCOSQ) and the Short Form-a day and a half (36) were managed in a cross-sectional study to 129 Caucasian ladies and 42 South Asian determined to have PCOS enrolled from the gynecology outpatient centers of two college showing clinics in Sheffield and Leeds. Extra clinical information was disconnected from clinical notes. Regularizing information, gathered as a component of the Oxford Health and Lifestyles II review, was acquired to contrast SF-36 outcomes and ethnically coordinated with ladies from the overall UK populace. Utilizing the SF-36, regulating HRQoL scores for ladies of South Asian source were lower than for Caucasian ladies. Given this lower benchmark we tried whether a similar relationship remains constant among those with PCOS

Research questions

1. What are the major driving determinants of PCOS?
2. Why this region influences the prevalence of PCOS?
3. What are the measures that can be taken to control risk factors?

Research Design and Methods

A systematic investigation and a secondary research design pertaining to the topic ‘Determinants of PCOS among Asian Women’ has been conveyed in this paper. For getting a though insight into the public health issue with involving the associated determinants, the existing data relating to the topic has been considered for the research. A huge source of secondary data has been used to gather data for the research paper on the public health issues such as journal papers, institutional library and textbooks, previous research article studies, and reports from international agencies like the World Health Organization (WHO). Secondary data are quite helpful as it helps to get already published and incorporate with this research in order to get the better understanding. Online sources are used to gather the secondary sources and after going to various studies and their data this research paper was written.

Chart-1: Gantt Chart for the designed research paper

While designing the research paper, the researcher has taken the help of Gantt chart to identify the tasks with targeting some week. According to the planned schedule in the week 1, selecting the research topic i.e. Motivation HR issue in Boots organization has been covered. In the second week, the researcher has covered designing the secondary data collection process. In the third week, the researcher has focused on the literature to conduct the research process. Next, collecting secondary sources has been conducted in the fourth week (Aversa et al., 2020). Moreover, integrating secondary data has been evaluated in the fifth week. In the sixth week, systematic data analysis has been conducted. In the seventh week, the findings have been structured appropriately. At last week that is eighth week, devised recommendations to address the issue.

Hence, the research paper is designed to understand the ladies' metabolic and cardiovascular wellbeing and improved the related dangers to distinguish ladies with the analysis and in future it can monitor properly. The main aim of the paper is to do the critical analysis of the geographical location and race or ethnicity, the prevalence of the polycystic ovarian syndrome and identify why PCOS is widely unknown for specific subpopulations. In this research paper, major driving determinants of PCOS has been analysed and it has also focus on the prevention measures that can be taken to control risk factors has been analysed and interpreted. Accordingly, the research paper is designed to cover its primary research question that is what are the major driving determinants of PCOS? Why this region influences the prevalence of PCOS? What are the measures that can be taken to control risk factors?

Data Collection process

In this research paper, the research data is collected focusing on the secondary sources of data that includes articles, reports, and institutional library and textbooks focusing on the symptom development among women, socio-economic conditions, demographic factor, clinical issues of the geographical population referred to as risk factors among the Asian women. Further, the data collection has also focused on the internal and external factors influencing the PCOS among Asian women (Chaudhari et al., 2018).

Search Strategy and Process

There are various academic sources such as ncbi, science direct, Google scholar, ijrr journal, WHO and many more has been identified over various articles and reports on PCOS among Asian women for the search strategy of systematic review. The research paper has involved various authors’ perspectives over the topic with referring the abstract and findings between 2010 and 2020 period of time. For this paper, the researcher has specified Asian women population with identifying the assessment criteria such as analysis and interpretations containing prevalence of PCOS women, key determinants and risk factors, racial and ethnic PCOS prevalence, prevention programmes and PCOS prevalence provinces. In this paper, the contributions of the secondary source of literature and their outcomes, considered for the analysis of the data. Further, the research paper has gone into more detail to find out the research gap that is discussed (Dos Santos et al., 2020). The researcher has avoided some narrative reviews, and editorials publications, which are not specific to the PCOS Asian women. Moreover, the researcher also did not consider summarized evidences for the analysis of the research (Fokunang et al., 2013).

Data Analysis

The systematic literature review of PCOS among Asian women has been considered in the analysis of the research paper. By conducting these literature reviews, the researcher has identified the research gaps in the study ofPCOS among Asian women. Further, the research gap has been helpful to analyse and interpret the major driving determinants of PCOS and the region influences the prevalence of PCOS (Lim et al., 2019). In addition, the literature reviews also helpful to interpret the prevention measures that can be taken to control risk factors with specific recommendations. In this paper, the recent ten years’ data published between 2010 to 2020period of time has been taken to updates the systematic review of the PCOS among Asian women. Various sources of articles and reports related to public health and PCOS are studied for the systematic review. The hypothesis regarding incidence rate of PCOS in Asian women, prevalence of PCOS and risk factors has been analysedthrough studying the literature review. In the next part, the study has focused on the interpretations of prevalence and incidence among women and the association among the incidence, and prevalence of the PCOS.The research paper focused on a wide range of factors that are responsible and significantly influencing the prevalence of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) in Asian women. The paper analyzed that the PCOS in women is widely dependent on ethnicity, environmental, genetic factors, including body weight and lifestyle of the women. Comprehensive approach by healthcare professionals and individuals is necessary to control its burden. Controlling factors relating to diverse aspects such as lifestyle changes, occupational factors, and individual habits are vital to curtail PCOS-related risks (Rani et al., 2021).

Brief Descriptions of the Included Literatures in the Data Analysis

According to Qureshi et al. (2016), the high level of androgen in women could lead to PCOS in women. Kim and Choi (2019), mentions that the prevalence in insulin resistance acts as a major determinant of PCOS among Asian women (Kim & Choi, 2019). According to Wolf et al. (2018), South Asian women have lowest prevalence of PCOS (Wolf et al., 2018). The geographical location plays a key role to influence the prevalence of PCOS. Andini et al., (2019), mentioned that some of the chief factors impacting PCOS in Asian women are insulin resistance, obesity, genetics, etc. According to Ding et al. (2017), the healthcare management priority, ethical variation in screening and diagnosis plays an integral role to influence PCOS (Ding et al., 2017). Merkin et al. (2016), mentioned that some of the chief environmental determinants of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome include environmental nutrition, diet and nutrition, etc. (Merkin et al., 2016) According to Kshetrimayum et al., (2019), the lifestyle factors and environmental factors play a key role to influence the PCOS condition among women (Kshetrimayum et al., 2019). According to the author, the PCOS is a genetic disorder, which is influenced by diverse factors (Ünlütürk et al., 2016). Rani et al. (2021), mentioned that hormonal imbalance is a major determinant of the medical condition (Rani et al., 2021). Raperport & Homburg (2019), explained that the ethical background of a person plays an influential role and impacts the prevalence of PCOS (Raperport & Homburg, 2019). The prevention measures require to be considered to reduce the PCOS prevalence rate among the women, looking into the risk factor examined in the research gap from the literature review.

Ethical considerations

While conducting a research work, research ethics is an essential element of the research work. A researcher must require to adopt the research ethics, which relates to the code of conduct. If a researcher is considering ethical practices in to the research study, it is always considered as the qualified research work as the adoption of ethical practices has a direct implication on the research paper quality (Buchanan& Miller, 2006). According to the public health perspective, a research ethics always supervised with providing more preferences and taking into consideration to the benefits and risks to the society along with the research participants, who are involved in the research study (Buchanan& Miller, 2006). While working on a public health research topic, there are some of the chief ethical principles that must be adopted by the researcher such as non-maleficence, beneficence, autonomy, and justice (Moghadam et al., 2018).

Key determinants of PCOS and Risk factors for high Prevalence among Asian women

The exploration of the secondary data has revealed that various determinants of PCOS exist among Asian women. Some of the chief determinants are genetic factors, obesity and insulin resistance.

Genetic factors

For the delayed follicular growth of women with PCOS, the anomalies in calcium balance may be separately responsible. Further, it may follow up to PCOS syndrome pathogenesis. In PCOS metabolic syndrome and Insulin Resistance (IR) pathogenesis, the vitamin D deficiency may be a causal factor. A major candidate gene for PCOS is the gene of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). It is also called as the calcitriol receptor NR1I1 (Andini et al., 2020). VDR is a ligand activated transcription factor to control cell functions including homeostasis of calcium phosphate and bone metabolism, and control many endocrine functions, which mediates the vitamin D genomic activities. For potential effects of complex disease susceptibility and functional significance, various VDR polymorphisms have been examined like obesity, cardiovascular disease, tuberculosis, osteoarthritis (OA), hypertension, and high myopia.


PCOS has various factors and obesity is one of the major factors among them. The obesity has three parameters for its evaluation, which are the Waist Circumference (WC), Body Fat Percentage (BFP), and Body Mass Index (BMI). These three parameters have further divided into two categories such as the PCOS group and the balanced control group (Varanasi et al., 2018). The above-discussed three parameters are important in supporting PCOS diagnosis and screening as compare to the balanced control group, in the PCOS population the BMI, WC, and PBF have increased significantly. For predicting PCOS, Rotterdam recommendations are preferred as a gold standard (Andini et al., 2020).

Insulin resistance

Jin Ju Kim and Young Min Choi (2019), mentions that the prevalence in insulin resistance acts as a major determinant of PCOS among Asian women. In East Asian patients, a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome and lower body mass index (BMI) were reported. However, a comparative study reported that Asian women with PCOS were more likely to have metabolic complications and diabetes than Caucasian patients, despite lower BMI. South Asian patients showed severe insulin resistance and metabolic risks, an increased degree of hirsutism, early onset of symptoms compared with Caucasians. In the pathogenesis of PCOS, genetic components play an important role, and between Asian and Caucasian patients, similar genetic risk factors exist suggested by the genome wide association studies of PCOS. Across different ethnicities, ongoing comparative studies are required to manage PCOS and the standardization of the diagnosis(Kim& Choi, 2019). Insulin resistance plays an important role in PCOS pathogenesis, which results in compensatory hyperinsulinemia. Therefore, the women with PCOS have an increased risk of prediabetes, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is prevalent among women with PCOS although the prevalence across background populations differs. A research report has mentioned that indicating the Asian women with PCOS have metabolic complications as they were more likely than Whites to have diabetes. Moreover, depending on the measure used and the threshold, the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) in PCOS patients differs accordingly (Kim& Choi, 2019).

Results or findings

In this research paper, various manuscripts are described in description section, from where the collected articles provided ideas for the key determinants of the PCOS and its risk factors. The manuscripts have been analysed, and defined the table-1 explaining to categorize Complications, risks stratification, biochemical abnormalities, associated clinical features in PCOS. The overall research has implemented qualitative study in the research paper (Wijeyaratne et al., 2014).

Table- 1: Complications, risks stratification, biochemical abnormalities, associated clinical features in PCOS

The table has explained the possibility biochemical derangement of acyclic oestrogen excess has associated clinical features such as menstrual irregularity or oligomenorrhoea. It has complications like ovarian cancer, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, which has probable risk, remote risk and increased risk among the PCOS Asian women. In insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia biochemical abnormalities, the associated clinical features in PCOS include acanthosis nigricans obesity, which may result in some complications such as pregnancy induced hypertension, diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes and hypertension. Accordingly, pregnancy induced hypertension has some probable risk, diabetes mellitus has increased risk, gestational diabetes has increased risk and hypertension has probable risk stratification. Moreover, the dyslipidaemia biochemical abnormalities may leads to resulting complications coronary artery disease with having probable risk stratification. Further, the high testosterone or androstenedione, decreased sex hormone binding globulin of biochemical abnormalities has associated clinical features in PCOS such as hirsutism, frontal balding, acne, and hydradenitissuppurativa. The above table has mentioned all the risk stratification, which are resulting complications among the PCOS Asian women (Dos Santos et al., 2020).

Table-2: In an unselected female population estimated prevalence of PCOS

In the table -2, an unselected female population has estimated for the prevalence of PCOS. Looking into the 1990 NIH, the estimation of 5.5% (95% CrI: 4.8–6.3%) hasthe prevalence of PCOS for White women. In the Middle East, 6.1% (95% CrI: 5.3–7.1%), and 7.4% (95% CrI: 6.3–8.7%) has taken respectively for the corresponding figures for women residing and Black women (Ding et al., 2017). Next, jumping to the 2003 Rotterdam, the Middle East women (16.0%, 95% CrI: 13.8–18.6%) and Chinese women (5.6%, 95% CrI: 4.4–7.3%) has prevalence estimation, which is feasible. Among Chinese women, the prevalence of PCOS has almost risen to the triple in the Middle East women. For females in Middle East, under the 2006 AES, prevalence of PCOS is12.0% (95% CrI: 11.3–14.2%), under the 2003 Rotterdam it is 16.0% (95% CrI: 13.8–18.6%), and under the 1990 NIH it is 6.1% (95% CrI: 5.3–7.1%). Under the 2006 AES with the prevalence is lying in-between and under Rotterdam more than doubles the prevalence that is under the 1990 NIH (Ding et al., 2017).

Graph-: Prevalence of risk factor among PCOD women in Asia

According to the research study, the urban regions have a considerably higher proportion resided among the PCOS women. The rural regions are in middle stage and the controlled regions are found very less according to the graph. The research has mentioned that lifestyle and dietary factors are attributed for the major difference in the various regions. The Asian PCOS women requires to focus on the long?term health consequences (Deswal et al., 2019). Women can be at risk of serious if they ignore the PCOS, later which can be difficult to manage in their health condition. In this context, for better management continuous surveys and lifestyle changes should be promoted with taking initiatives (Deswal et al., 2019).

In this study, it is essential to monitor the women's metabolic and cardiovascular wellbeing and streamlined the related dangers to distinguish ladies with the determination. In view of geological area and race or identity, the commonness of the polycystic ovarian disorder is generally obscure for explicit subpopulations (Wolf et al., 2018). While deciding the pervasiveness of this disorder, an interesting test exists dependent on the serious level of changeability and irregularities between the diverse demonstrative rules. According to many researchers, South Asian women have the lowest prevalence of PCOS. The geographical location plays a key role to influence the prevalence of PCOS (Wolf et al., 2018). So here, it became very important for the Asian Women to understand various determinants of PCOS in their regions and accordingly they can change their lifestyle.

In this paper, Epigenetic theory has been used to comprehend the research findings in detail. According to the epigenetic theoretical model, an individual is more in control of his mental and physical health condition that he thinks. The vulnerability relating to PCOS condition in Asian women can be reduced by making positive changes(Raperport& Homburg, 2019).A few measures to control risk factors and determinant of PCOS such as living in healthy environment, ensuring frequent and timely health screening and diagnosis and making lifestyle changes to curtail obesity(Ding et al., 2017).The Research analysis has focused on the prevalence of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome among Asian women that has influenced by a wide range of factors. It is anlysed that comprehensive approach by healthcare professionals and individuals is necessary to control its burden (Kshetrimayum et al., 2019).

The research paper has found that to curtail PCOS-related risks, controlling factors relating diverse aspects is vital and significant. These controlling factors are individual habits, occupational factors and lifestyle changes. There exist factors like generic factors and geographical placement which cannot be controlled to influence the PCOS condition (Wolf et al., 2018). The following figure has explained Safety measures to control the determinants of PCOS among women, which can be considered in the future studies and women can get serious about the issues.

Figure-1: Safety measures to control the determinants of PCOS among women

Limitations of the study

The research paper has regional boundaries to study the determinants of PCOS among women. It has given more focus on the Asian region and the study was also focused to the gender specific. This research paper can be helpful for the state interventions to identify the gaps in the public health sector. This paper helps to find out the safety measures to control the determinants of PCOS among woman, but as it’s depends up on the secondary research so finding data is major limitation of this research paper (Aversa et al., 2020).

It is concluded that, the identification of the determinants of the PCOS among the Asian women was essential for the study as it has highlighted the chief determinants such as genetic factors, obesity and insulin resistance issues. The analysis of complications, risks stratification, biochemical abnormalities, associated clinical features in the Asian women with PCOS has also discussed. A few measures to control risk factors and determinant of PCOS such as living in healthy environment, ensuring frequent and timely health screening and diagnosis and making lifestyle changes to curtail obesity can be taken into consideration for the future studies. In future there is a need to implement intervention as the research on the PCOS public health concern has highlighted its seriousness. It adversely affects the health condition of Asian women with PCOD. There is the requirement to implement measures to control its prevalence. The prevalence of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) condition among Asian women has been examined in the research, which acts as a serious public health burden. Suitable measures need to be adopted to control the associated risks and determinants. It is recommended that the government and social workers should raise various initiative programmes for the PCOS women to spread awareness. Based on the feasible solutions the controlling factors such as individual habits, occupational factors and lifestyle changes should be taken into consideration to make changes in the health policy and research.

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PUBH6004 Leadership and Effecting Change in Public Health Assignment 2 Sample

Assignment Brief

Individual/Group - Individual
Length - 2,000 words

Learning Outcomes

This assessment addresses the following learning outcomes:
1. Critique theories, styles, approaches and strategies of leadership in public health
2. Analyze the influence of diversity on leadership (gender, culture, professional discipline and community)
3. Evaluate personal leadership strengths and areas for improvement through analysis of public health leadership frameworks

Submission - Due Sunday end of Module 3 (Week 6) by 11:55pm
Weighting - 30%
Total Marks - 100 marks


In this assignment, you will be provided a scenario (problem) for assignment help involving a public health leader that you will need to analyze using the knowledge gained from this subject for 3 modules. Subsequently, immersing yourself in the scenario, you will evaluate yourself as a public health leader. (Note: Case study will be provided after Module 2).



You will be writing a 2000?word report in three parts, as follows:

Part 1: Analyze the scenario of the public health leader, presented in the Australian public health
context using the Australian Health Leadership Framework [1000 words]
(Australian Health Leadership Framework: https://www.aims.org.au/documents/item/352)

Part 2: Undertake a self?assessment using the Leadership self?assessment tool [500 words]
Apply the tool to obtain your results. (The tool is not automatic – you need to apply it honestly)

Part 3: Imagine yourself to be in the situation. Reflect on your leadership style, its strengths, and apply them to this scenario. How would you have responded to the situation based on the self?evaluation in part 2? Where do you see the gaps in your profile? Prepare an action plan. [500 words]
Assessment Criteria:

Your graded assignment will be assessed against the following specific criteria:

• Demonstrated ability to analyze public health leadership scenario in the context, applying the Australian Health Leadership Framework to the scenario presented (40%)
• Demonstrated ability to self?assess leadership style, summaries and critique (10%)
• Demonstrated ability to contextualize, reflect on leadership style, assess gaps and prepare an action plan for improvement (30%)
• General assessment criteria (20%):
o Provides a lucid introduction
o Shows a sophisticated understanding of the key issues
o Shows ability to interpret relevant information and literature in relation to
chosen topic
o Demonstrates a capacity to explain and apply relevant concepts
o Shows evidence of reading beyond the required readings
o Justifies any conclusions reached with well?formed arguments and not merely
o Provides a conclusion or summary
o Correctly uses academic writing, presentation and grammar:
• Complies with academic standards of legibility, referencing and
bibliographical details (including reference list)
• Writes clearly, with accurate spelling and grammar as well as proper
sentence and paragraph construction
• Uses appropriate APA style for citing and referencing research




The following essay will analyze the scenario of the public health leader using the Australian Health Leadership Framework. Furthermore, a self-assessment will be undertaken and a reflection based on the personal leadership style, its strengths and application to be scenario will be discussed in detail.
Part 1: Analysis of Dr. Tania’s situation

Leadership is comparable in all businesses even if the complexity and purpose of health is acknowledged. Health leaders are trying to enhance clinical, quality of life and the health system's well-being. Research demonstrates that the quality of health leadership influences the quality of patient care directly and indirectly and promotes optimal practice (Schaye, et al., 2020). Leaders impact people, their satisfaction, management confidence, dedication, personal and team effectiveness and organisational culture and environment. Leaders play an essential part in the mobilisation of people for a shared purpose, while others are significant. Health leaders work with others to affect the quality of health and welfare and the quality of treatment for birth, disease and life (Tay, et al., 2021). Capable leadership, governance and management are crucial to success in improving the quality of life and maximizing health-related investment effect. Distributed leadership involves everyone with the ability and will to lead the way to enhance their activities to create a lively and achievable vision of an equal, effective and sustainable human centre health system. Everyone may exhibit leadership in their area of influence in order to enhance health outcomes. The Australian health leadership framework comprises of five dimensions which help in understanding the leadership character of an individual in any given scenario. Hence, for the current scenario of Dr. Tania, this framework has been implemented to understand the qualities that are present in her while managing a health situation in a clinical health setting.

The first dimension suggests leading oneself in a clinical health care setting (Health Workforce Australia, 2013). Leaders are always ongoing. They recognize their skills and their limits and dedicate themselves to reflecting on themselves and improving them. Self-awareness, self-reform, drive, empathy and social competence are seen and demonstrated. In their position and context, they show integrity and perseverance in situations that are hard (Health Workforce Australia, 2013). Dr. Tania was responsible for coordinating the national response to the Nipah virus in the first occurrence of a national health catastrophe. Hence, it can be understood that Dr. Tania is self-aware and has strength of character. It is because of this she is able to understand the background of the pandemic and has ethical integrity, resilience, and courage to face the situation by her.

The second dimension displays the ability of leaders to engage others. Leaders allow others to engage with a vision or objective by use of complicated tales and explanations (Health Workforce Australia, 2013). Leaders encourage others to recognize, learn and grow possibilities. Dr. Tania identifying stakeholders shows its capacity to depict diversity of values and cultural reactivity models (Health Workforce Australia, 2013). It recognizes first Australians and guarantees that all individuals, consumers and employees in all healthcare environments are treated with decency and respect. She also enables consumers, co-workers and others to be strengthened. She motivates and allows people to exchange ideas, to take on chances for growth and leadership and to work with high-performance teams. It is with the help of this dimension that she is able to structure an appropriate action plan to deal with the pandemic in an efficient manner.

The third dimension displays the leader’s ability to achieve outcomes (Health Workforce Australia, 2013). Leaders are those who work to change things. They create an inspirational and motivational direction, they allow energy and effort to achieve and keep an eye on your objective. Health executives are compassionate about the quality of the health care system and the sustainability (Health Workforce Australia, 2013).

The fourth dimension revolves around driving innovation of leaders (Health Workforce Australia, 2013). Health innovation is not only a new product. It incorporates significant changes in business and care paradigms in order to deliver quality services centered on people. Passionate leadership, without which the status quo cannot be challenged, is a crucial component in effective innovation (Health Workforce Australia, 2013). The fifth dimension revolves around shaping systems by leaders. Health is a complex system in development that connects all components, including services, law and finance (Health Workforce Australia, 2013). A change in one element has consequences for the entire. Leaders who know patterns of interdependency are able to explain trends and to enable solutions to maximize benefits and reduce unintentional damage or injury (Health Workforce Australia, 2013).

Part 2: Undertake a self-assessment using the leadership self-assessment tool

I have assessed my own leadership potential with the help of the leadership self-assessment tool provided by the “Health Education & Training Institute”. In order to be a successful healthcare leader, the leader must have some key skills, expertise and traits. This NSW Health leadership framework helped me to assess my leadership potential on these leadership skills (heti.nsw.gov.au, 2021). I have performed the assessment through answering some survey questions and the results of my assessment have discussed below (See appendix). This framework helped me to identify the areas of improvement for strengthening my leadership capability.

Achieving outcomes (Score = 2+3+3+3+2+2+2+3 = 20) – In this domain, I have gained a score of 20, a mixed score in different areas. For instance, I found myself accountable for performance and resources, while being able to use patient outcomes and service agreement for driving performance. However, I can improve focus on what makes a difference in results and for building a common vision for health outcomes.

Developing and leading self (Score = 3+3+3+3+3+2+2+1 = 20) – In this domain, overall I have shown strength in developing and leading self, in most of areas, I have scored the maximum point. I am good at demonstrating self-awareness, actively seeking personal growth and taking responsibility of own performance and service. However, I can improve the area of modelling desired behaviour and values. Besides, I need to improve my patience, while working under pressure (Sutherland, 2014).

Engaging people and building relationships (Score = 3+3+2+3+3+3+3+2 = 22) – I am also good in engaging people and building relationships. Relationship building and communication is one of my strengths. I got the highest score in this domain, which highlights this area as my strength. I am effective in facilitating effective team process and fostering others’ development. Harnessing talent and diversity is also plus point, but I can work more on developing ability to create workplace culture environments, where people can contribute.

Partnering and collaborating across boundaries (Score = 2+2+2+2+3+3+3+3 = 20) – I have significant scope to improve this area, as I got mixed grade, showing a lot of areas with medium points. I scored well in creating cross-sectorial collaboration and encouraging fresh insight from diverse source to foster innovation. However, I need to build ability for working across formal boundaries and inspire people through my own action to collaborate for change (AU, 2020).

Transforming the system (Score = 3 + 2 + 2 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 3 + 2 = 15) – I scored poor in this domain, the minimum score among all five domains in the self-assessment framework, .e. 15. This is indicating significant need for improving this area. In demonstrating critical and system thinking I have significant room for improvement, which is crucial for a leader. I also need to improve my political astute and ability for building support for change. My score was also poor for assessing and working through resistance and other obstacles towards change.

Part 3: Reflection on leadership style and Action plan

Reviewing the scenario of Dr. Tania, I revealed that the leader has met all the necessary leadership criteria and the domains highlighted in the leadership framework by NSW. If I was in her situation, I would adopt the “transformational leadership style”. It is because, the situation Dr. Tania faced, showed that there was a significant need for change in the healthcare system for making the workforce and system ready to deal with the crisis situations effectively. Transformational leadership is a highly regarded leadership style supporting change and innovation in organizational and industrial context. The key strength of this leadership style is the integrity and fairness and its ability to inspire others to accept and face challenges. Following this leadership style in the scenario of Dr. Tania would have helped me to inspire the workforce towards bringing change in the healthcare system, transformation of the system, proper resource management, eliminate discrimination and promote diversity and inclusion, which was highly needed in the scenario of change for equalization of medical system (van Diggele et al., 2020). Additionally, it would promote collaboration and community mobilization, required for standardization of process and increased adherence of community people towards the preventive measures. I have identified some gaps in my profile, based on the above discussed self-evaluation, based on the scores I got upon attaining the self-assessment. The following action plan would help me to fill those gaps.
Action plan

Key strengths – Communication, relationship building, team building and management, openness, self-awareness, visionary

Key priorities – Developing patience, modelling desired behaviour and values, ability to create workplace culture environments, where people can contribute, ability for working across formal boundaries, problem-solving skill, analytical skill, working through resistance and other obstacles towards change.

Development needs – I have found a lot of areas for improvement, which could contribute to my future strength and leadership ability, but currently, I need to work on developing my problem solving skill and improving patience level, while working in crisis situation. It is because, a leader has to undergo crisis situations every day and patience is foremost aspect that would help the leader to be calm and handle the situation tactfully and make effective decision. For this, I also need to have excellent problem solving skill.
Goal – My key goal is to become a patient and assertive leader, with excellent problem-solving ability by next year.

S – It specifically emphasizes upon problem solving skill development.

M – It can be measured through formative and summative assessment through leadership role play

A – It is attainable via field-specific action plans listed below.

R – It is relevant for developing leadership skill and ability to handle crisis situations like the scenario of Dr. Tania.

T – It would require 6 to 8 months to be completed.

Benefits of goal – This goal is SMART and would enrich my leadership potential and would help me to work in crisis situations like Dr. Tania.

Risks involved – No such risk is involved.

Potential obstacles – Lack of resources, lack of guidance or support, political or cultural barrier
How to overcome obstacles – I would take guidance from my supervisor to access resources and support required.

Resources – Problem solving tools, training session, supervisor’s guidance, peer support, organizational simulation, internet, computer, pen, paper

Where to access resources – These resources can be accessed online, from library and from the supervisor.


In conclusion, this framework for NSW Health leadership enabled me to evaluate my leadership potential in these leadership qualities. Following a transformative style of leadership in the Dr Tania scenario, I would have helped inspire people to change the health care system, transform the system, manage the right resources, eliminate discrimination, and promote diversity and inclusion, something that was so necessary in the changing scenario for equalization of the health care system.

Reference List

AU, H. N. G. (2020). Mentoring for Leadership and Management Development. https://www.heti.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/621707/LMDED-A-Guide-for-Mentees-2020.pdf

Health Workforce Australia. (2013). Health LEADS Australia: The Australian health leadership framework.Aims.org.au. Retrieved 25 June 2021, from https://www.aims.org.au/documents/item/352.

heti.nsw.gov.au. (2021). The Leadership and Management Framework – Self-Assessment Tool. Retrieved 25 June 2021, from https://www.heti.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/622950/LMDED-Framework-Self-Assessment-Tool-2020_PRINT.pdf

Schaye, V. E., Reich, J. A., Bosworth, B. P., Stern, D. T., Volpicelli, F., Shapiro, N. M., ... & Bails, D. B. (2020). Collaborating Across Private, Public, Community, and Federal Hospital Systems: Lessons Learned from the Covid-19 Pandemic Response in NYC. NEJM Catalyst Innovations in Care Delivery, 1(6). https://catalyst.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/CAT.20.0343

Sutherland, D. (2014). Assessments Using the NSW Public Sector Capabilities Framework. https://www.duncansutherland.com.au/images/stories/downloads/PSC_Capabilities.pdf

Tay, K. H., Ooi, C. C., Mahmood, M. I. B., Aw, L. P., Chan, L. P., Ng, D. C. E., & Tan, B. S. (2021). Reconfiguring the radiology leadership team for crisis management during the COVID-19 pandemic in a large tertiary hospital in Singapore. European Radiology, 31(1), 468-474. https://lesa.on.worldcat.org/oclc/8644093669 van Diggele, C., Burgess, A., Roberts, C., & Mellis, C. (2020). Leadership in healthcare education. BMC Medical Education, 20(2), 1-6. https://lesa.on.worldcat.org/oclc/8787670639


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PUBH6003 Health systems and Economics Assignment Sample

Assignment Brief

Individual/Group - Individual
Length - 1,500 words (+/- 10%)
Learning Outcomes

This assessment addresses the following learning outcomes:

• Apply systems thinking and an intersectoral approach to public health issues.

Submission - 12-Week Module
Due week 5 on Sunday at 11:55pm AEST/AEDT*
6-week Module
Due week 3 on Sunday at 11:55pm AEST/AEDT*

Weighting - 40%
Total Marks - 100 marks

Instructions for assignment help:

To prepare for this assessment, choose one public health issue (e.g. diabetes, obesity, cancer, heart disease, mental health, substance misuse, air pollution, water and sanitation, road accidents, suicide, etc.) in any country and examine how systems thinking can help to identify the broader system issues, and recommend solutions for better management. This is a research- based assignment which requires to conduct literature review on the selected topic on the specific country context.

Then in approximately 1500 words (+/- 10%), please answer the following questions considering your selected public health issue and country context.

• Describe the public health issue from systems thinking perspective (consider all direct and indirect factors and explain the complexity of the issues or interconnectedness of the issues)

• Explain the roles of stakeholders, both within the health system and in other sectors in addressing this issue (consider intersectoral action perspective)

• Drawing on research evidence, explain the obstacles (e.g. lack of cooperation among stakeholders or lack of shared vision and leadership, feedback delay, lack of healthy policy, fragile and fragmented health system, funding limitation, time constraints) that are preventing the application of systems thinking and intersectoral approach to the issue.

Report Structure

Your report should follow the following structure. The word count includes the introduction, body and conclusion.

(Title of your assignment)
Assessment 1: PUBH6003: Student name, Student ID

Executive summary

Provide a short summary which gives the reader an overview of the report.


Provide a short introduction which gives the reader an overview of the whole assignment.
Briefly introduce the public health issue in your chosen population (country).

Influence factors

Describe the public health issue from systems thinking perspective (consider all direct and indirect factors and explain the complexity/interconnectedness of the issues.

Health system

Explain the roles of stakeholders, both within the health system and in other sectors in addressing this issue (consider intersectoral action perspective)


Drawing on research evidence, explain the obstacles (e.g. lack of shared vision a leadership/cooperation, feedback delay, lack of healthy policy, fragile and fragmented health system, funding limitation, time constraints) that are preventing the application of systems thinking and intersectoral approach to the issue.


Based on the identified obstacles and literature, offer suggestions (e.g. developing shared vision
and leadership, policy change or reform, creating supportive environment, strengthening, and
reorienting health system, increased budget allocation, empowering community and individuals)
for how systems thinking and an intersectoral approach could be applied to the issue.


In a short paragraph, provide a useful overall summary of your assignment for the reader. Do not introduce any new information/ideas.

Submission Instructions:

Submit via the Assessment 1 – Report link in Assessment on main navigation menu in Blackboard

Assessment Criteria

• Demonstrated knowledge and understanding ofsystemsthinking and anintersectoral approach (20%)
• Showsthe ability to interpret and analyse relevant information and literature on systems thinking and an intersectoral approach (30%)
• Demonstrates the ability to apply knowledge and understanding ofsystemsthinking and anintersectoral approach to a public health problem (30%)
• Use of academic conventions including appropriate resources and referencing (20%)
o Uses key readings and shows evidence of reading beyond the key reading
o There is a lucid introduction and clear conclusion or summary
o Complies with normal academic of referencing and bibliographical details (including reference list, use 6th version APA style)
o Is written clearly with accurate spelling, grammar and sentence






The global health domain is rapidly transforming and advancing. The domain of public health issue has emerged to even greater heights, posing challenges to humanity, which is evident from the surge in the recent Covid-19 pandemic. Tackling issues in the public health domain requires not only insight into the problem but also capabilities applied to resolve them easily. Systems thinking approach in public health issue is a new approach being integrated that offers more durable insight for understanding and for taking action (Johnson et al., 2018). There are various benefits offered by the systems thinking approach while other approaches are confusing due to their enormous body of theories, methods or tools they engage. Systems thinking is being currently adopted for resolving various issues related to public health as it can provide powerful language for communicating as well as investigation of complex issues (Frank et al., 2016). The current scope of discussion relates to the application of systems thinking approach to a particular issue in public health and the ways it offers beneficial solution over other methods. While there exist enormous public health issues within Australia, one prominent issue that bears a tremendous burden of costs and responsibilities on the government is Type 2 Diabetes. Though there has been various intervention mechanisms as well as methodologies for tackling the issue yet it remains one of the most prominent which is still growing in Australia amongst the aged population. This discussion reveals ways systems thinking approach can provide a better solution for the management of the public health challenge.

The public health issue of the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Australia

Influence factors

Type 2 Diabetes is a chronic condition depicted by high levels of glucose in the blood. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes amongst the aged population is associated with modifiable lifestyle factors, also genetic and family-related risk aspects. According to the National Health Survey (NHS) conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), 2014-2015 almost 1 in 6 people aged 65 years reported diabetes, amounting to almost 574,000 people. Such prevalence was seen to increase with age with men reporting higher rates of prevalence as compared to women. There were a greater prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes amongst the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people as against other Australians.

Figure 1: Rate of self-reported diabetes
Source: (AIHW, 2018)

Systems thinking perspective allows considering all direct as well as indirect factors associated with the disease type 2 diabetes (Hassmiller Lich et al., 2016). Type 2 diabetes being a large public health issue in Australia, there are various factors and system actors that have tremendous roles in this complex issue. While there remain considerable factors that leads to the challenge of type 2 diabetes, there are various system actors (participants) who are unable to tackle the issue effectively, making it a highly prevalent disease in the population. Some of the direct and indirect factors leading to type 2 diabetes are unhealthy lifestyle factors, lack of awareness of the disease, lack of physical exercise, sedentary lifestyles, genetic issues, family history of diabetes, lack of balanced diet, inefficient management of diabetes, a high body mass index (BMI), high blood pressure, lack of professional help for managing diabetes as rural locations in Australia and so on. The complexity of the issue arises from the interconnectedness of the issues and also arising from the lack of it (Keane, 2014). For instance, a lack of awareness regarding the impacts of type 2 diabetes often leads to not professionally approaching the management of the disease. Prevalence of genetic factors also sometimes the presence of type 2 diabetes individuals in the family leads to ignoring lifestyle factors, BMI, heart disease, high blood pressure that might lead to the onset of type 2 diabetes amongst aged adults and inability to tackle them as well. Australia is a country that is dominated by public health actors supported by the Federal along with State Government funding. Hence role and responsibility in tackling a public health issue by the government are of enormous importance. The public health intervention approach is primarily determined by public health policies determined centrally by Federal efforts. Hence participants (actors- stakeholders) play a predominant role in tackling the prevalent type 2 diabetes. Issues that arise in this public health issue is lack of focus of government, or governmental agencies and their healthcare providers in eliminating type 2 diabetes from Australia (Leveson, 2012). The prevalence of numerous disease and the recent outbreak of Covid-19 has to a certain extent diverted the government's attention from reducing the incidence of type 2 diabetes.

Health System

Stakeholders in the public health system include patients, GPs, doctors, hospitals, nurses, healthcare professionals, government, professional bodies and agencies aiming to tackle the challenge of type 2 diabetes. As this a dominant public health issue in Australia is primarily tackled by governmental intervention, they are the primary stakeholders apart from their healthcare providers, who in turn are supported by the policies approved by the government (Buttigieg et al., 2015). The government in the country hence has a crucial role in developing policy, procedures and fund initiatives for tackling the growing issue of type 2 diabetes amongst the aged population, which in turn bears tremendous costs on the government. The role of healthcare providers which includes doctors, nurses, and other professionals are directed by governmental policies. Hence they focus their efforts on eliminating the prevalence of the disease based on funding available or focus provided on the issue by the government. This intersectoral perspective provides relative less importance to tackling the issue as there is another major prevalent health issue in the country currently.


Hence drawing from the discussion above, it can be easily understood that the prevalence of type 2 diabetes as a public health issue has remained not due to lack of shared vision and leadership or cooperation, lack of healthy policy, delays in feedback, or fragile health system, or time constraint rather due to lack of focus and funding limitations (Battle-Fisher, 2014). There is a present tremendous intersectoral approach to the issue. The prevalence of several public health issues and especially the emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic has posed tremendous constraints on the government as well as healthcare providers to tackle the issue of type 2 diabetes (Liedtka et al., 2017). With the government having a varied focus such as controlling outbreak or coronavirus, tackling child mortality issues, comorbidity issues, prevalent public health diseases such as type 2 diabetes, heart problems or high blood pressure challenges goes to the backdrop. The importance of the issue has reduced over the years considerably with limited funding available with the government in tackling health challenges and constraint arising out of the increase in costs of healthcare.


Based on the literature and obstacles identified, certain recommendations have been developed that can assist in tackling the issue. Also, such recommendation includes systems thinking and intersectoral approach applied to the issue.

? Policy reforms: From the perspective of systems thinking, the government has a large number of different policies in healthcare. A consolidated policy on a disease affecting the aged developed can create a consolidated effort impacting the health systems to adopt an approach that is easy as well. With systems thinking approach, it is possible to realise the interconnectedness of the various disease affecting the aged and then tackling their root cause by consolidated efforts form healthcare actors can provide a solution to the challenge.

? Creating a supportive environment: Again, this is in connection with the previous point that aims at undertaking a consolidated effort from the government as well as from the side of healthcare providers. With systems thinking approach developing a supportive environment from the side of the government in the healthcare sector can render tremendous effectiveness in tackling this complex issue of type 2 diabetes amongst the aged population in Australia.

? Increasing budget allocation: With increasing costs especially in the healthcare sector, the budgetary allocation has not been revised. Budget allocation for tackling public health issues such as type 2 diabetes and other prevalent diseases amongst the aged Australian population needs a revision. This will enable creating an allocation for tackling this issue in the long-term as well.


In conclusion, the complex issue of type 2 diabetes prevalent amongst the aged population in Australia is growing tremendously. Such complex issues cannot easily be tackled by single-handed efforts which bring into role systems thinking approach. The systems thinking approach has the capabilities to handle complex issues like this one. By adopting a consolidated approach of systems thinking, this issue of type 2 diabetes can be tackled with efforts assumed by the government and healthcare providers.







AIHW. (2018). Older Australia at a glance. Australian Government – Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Accessed from [https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/older-people/older-australia-at-a-glance/contents/health-and-functioning/diabetes]

Battle-Fisher, M. (2014). Application of systems thinking to health policy & public health ethics : public health and private illness (Ser. Springerbriefs in public health). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-12203-8.

Buttigieg, S. C., Rather, C., & Eiff, W. von. (2015). International best practices in health care management (Ser. Advances in health care management, v. 17). Emerald.

Frank, M., Shaked, H., & Koral-Kordova, S. (Eds.). (2016). Systems thinking : foundation, uses and challenges (Ser. Management science: theory and applications). Nova Science Publishers.

Hassmiller Lich, K., Frerichs, L., Fischbein, D., Bogachev, G., & Pentz, M. A. (2016). Translating research into prevention of high-risk behaviors in the presence of complex systems: definitions and systems frameworks. Translational Behavioral Medicine : Practice, Policy, Research, 6(1), 17–31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13142-016-0390-z

Johnson, J. A., Anderson, D. E., & Rossow, C. C. (2018). Health systems thinking. Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. https://public.ebookcentral.proquest.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=5555416.

Keane, C. (2014). Modeling behavior in complex public health systems: simulations and games for action and evaluation. Springer Pub. Company, LLC.

Leveson, N. (2012). Engineering a safer world: systems thinking applied to safety (Ser. Engineering systems). MIT Press.

Liedtka, J., Salzman, R., & Azer, D. (2017). Design thinking for the greater good: innovation in the social sector (Ser. Columbia business school publishing). Columbia Business School Publishing.


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HAGE20005 Health Promotion For Healthy Ageing Assignment Sample

Assignment Brief

Due date:5.00pm (AEST) Wednesday, 26 May 2021 (Week 11)
Weighting: 50%
Length: 2500 words plus or minus 10% (excluding references)
Unit Coordinator: Ainslie Monson

Learning Outcomes Assessed

1.Evaluate the suitability of a current health promotion strategy to meet the needs of older people using evidence-based research.

2. Assess a current health promotion campaign related to health ageing and devise a health promotion plan to optimize well-being in older people.


The aim of this assessment is to prepare you to make a high-level contribution to health promotion policy and practice for the older person throughout the health care system.


You are writing a critical analysis of a health promotion strategy and related campaign aimed at older persons. Choose a targeted area such as physical activity, smoking cessation, obesity, mental health, or some other focus area requiring health promotion in the community of older persons.

This involves, firstly, choosing a current health promotion strategy and related campaign aimed at older persons.

Your task is to:

• critically evaluate the strategy and
• assess the campaign and
• devise a health promotion plan for the older person related to the strategy and campaign.

Please follow the steps below to complete your assessment task:

1. Introduction (250 words) –Introduce your topic. The introduction outlines the key points of your essay. It will inform the reader what you are writing about – why you are writing about it and how you will discuss this topic.

2. The main body of the essay (2000 words) identify and explain the health promotion strategy and campaign selected. Justify the selection of your strategy and campaign and how it relates to the care of older person. Critically analyze and assess the strategy and campaign selected and its relevance to the older person. Devise a health promotion plan for a local level related to the strategy and campaign. The main body of the essay should be substantiated with reference to the peer reviewed literature (no less than 10 peer reviewed articles).

3. Conclusion (250 words) – no references in this section. The conclusion should summaries the key areas that address the set task. No new information should be included.

Literature and references

In this assessment use at least 15 contemporary references (<10 years) to support your discussion. You may also use seminal scholarly literature where relevant. Suitable references include peer-reviewed journal articles as well as textbooks and credible websites. When sourcing information, consider the 5 elements of a quality reference: currency, authority, relevance, objectivity, and coverage. Grey literature sourced from the internet must be from reputable websites such as from government, university, or peak national bodies: for example,

Requirements for assignment help

• Use a conventional and legible size 12 font, such as Times New Roman or Arial, with 1.5-line spacing and 2.54cm page margins (standard pre-set margin in Microsoft Word).

• Include page numbers on each page in a header.

• Write in the third-person perspective.

• Use formal academic language.

• Use the seventh edition American Psychological Association (APA) referencing style. The University Academic Learning Centre has an online APA

Referencing Style Guide.

• The word count is considered from the first word of the introduction to the last word of the conclusion. The word count excludes the reference list but includes in-text references and direct quotations.


Submit your assessment via the unit Moodle site in Microsoft Word format only.

Marking Criteria

Refer to the marking rubric on the Moodle site for more detail on how marks will be



The current report covers the subject of health promotion for aged Australians, who are prone to vulnerable health conditions, including both mental and physical. The essay will specifically focus on the subject of mental health promotion for the older people in Australia to reduce the effects of stigma, followed by prevention of depression and suicidal tendencies. The essay will outline the fundamentals of mental health stability for older people in Australia, through the implementation of the National Mental Health Policy 2008. It aspires to capture the core intent of the subject by enabling the older people to come up with self-manageable ways to deal with the associated issues of a disturbed mental health. The survey report of the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health, conducted by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare showed that people belonging to the age group of 16-85 years are subject to the highest percentage of mental health issues with an increasing percentage of 6% to 7% on an average for the age group of 75-85 years (aihw.gov.au). This figure shows the presence and risks of mental health among the older people in Australia, causing significant mental health damages (Awaworyi Churchillet al.2019).

Mental health issues sorted by age group in Australia in the year 2007
(Source: aihw.gov.au)

This is obviously a cause of concern as it essentially affects the process of healthy aging in the country, leading to a possible rise in the number of mental health cases. The structure of the essay follows the standard structure and explains the selected health promotion strategy, along with a critical evaluation of the same, followed by a theoretical interpretation and a proposal for a Health promotion plan for the local aged people in the country.


Explanation of the health strategy and campaign: National Mental Health Policy 2008

In order to explain the details of the National Mental Health Policy 2008, it is important to understand the aims and objectives of the policy (Milner, Smith & LaMontagne, 2015). The National Mental Health Policy 2008 aims at reducing the number of cases of mental health issues among the Australians, including the younger and the aged population (aihw.gov.au). The policy design is developed to support enabling recovery, along with prevention of mental health issues, by conducting early detection and avoiding occurrences of severe cases, including depression and suicides (Edwardet al.2015).

The policy has a strategic vision of promoting the mental health and well-being of the Australian community and develops programs to support the cause of mental health issues and enable the individuals to fight social stigmas (apo.org.au). The mental health patient, in every country in the world suffer from social disconnect and are treated differently. This policy ensures a comprehensive check and monitoring of the patients, pertaining to the security of mental health problems and enable participation of the patients in the society, with equal opportunities (Barryet al.2019).

The strategy skilfully aims at maximizing the ability of the children, the teenagers and aged people to cope up, with the normal stresses and encourage the people to participate in enhancing the emotional resilience and reducing vulnerability to mental health (Van Spijkeret al.2019). This strategy encourages in have focused on delivering the coordinated programs, both at the individual , community and system levels and focus on enhancing the security of the mental health patients to ensure that they are able to participate in the functions of securing mental health (Askell-Williams& Murray-Harvey, 2016).

The campaigns under the strategy include de-stigmatisation targeted at the whole community, identifying the populations, which is at the highest risk, ensuring an access to care at the right time, prevent suicidal tendencies by encouraging the people to participate in community activities and even assign carers to them, as and when needed (Slewa-Younan et al.2017).

Justification behind the selected strategy and campaign

Mental health is a serious problem in the world and people of all ages succumb to this condition. From a survey conducted by the Black Dog institute, it has been found that one in every five of the Australians suffer from mental health issues (Mokitimiet al.2018). Approximately 20% of the Australian aged between 16-85 years are affected by mental health issues, which include depression, dementia, self-isolation and the repeated suicidal attempts (aihw.gov.au). Out of the 20% of the Australian suffering, the mental health blockage shows 11.5% of the total count having a single disorder, while the rest 8.5% have multiple mental health disorders (health.gov.au).

The findings from Mission Australia’s Youth Survey in the year, 2014 showed that the onset of mental health issues in Australians occur at the age of 18-24 years, with a significant segment having the teenagers and the aged people in the list (health.gov.au). Therefore, the most affected population in mental health issues in Australia comprise the teenagers and the aged people (Milne ret al.2015).

It has been further found that the second leading cause of death in Australia is that of suicide due to depression or self-isolation, which could be a possible outcome of mental health issues. therefore, the focus is laid on the reducing the number of deaths , along with educating the aged people to refrain from engaging in any sort of mental health issues and self-isolation, caused due to depression and social disconnect (Gupta&Sagar, 2018).

The justification behind the selected strategy is established through its possible implications of enabling recovery and preventing and detecting the mental illness, at an early stage, to prevent all sorts of possible occurrences of such condition (Astell-Burt&Feng, 2019). The policy engages in developing interventions for reducing mental health, which includes both clinical and psychological (Ho&Mussap, 2017). The plan has also been effective in helping the mental health patients, fight the social stigmas, and be a part of healthy community environment.

Therefore, the justification behind the selection of the National Mental Health Policy 2008 is developed through its patient-centric approach and its ability to take care of the mental health patients, by applying the Multi-disciplinary model of care. This Multi-disciplinary model of care caters to the implementation of both the clinical and psychological intervention pertaining to the challenges of mental health, faced by the aged population in Australia (Hashmi et al.2020).

However, critics have pointed out the loopholes in the strategy in terms of the absence of a holistic approach, and integration of an evidence-based program, which may include, use of digital tools like Artificial Intelligence, Big Data to map the exact number, Ginger and Silver Cloud to offer self-help resources and tele-therapy.

Critical analysis and assessment of the strategy

In order to conduct a critical assessment of a health promotion policy or strategy, it is important to evaluate the ratio of accomplishment with the set objectives. According to Zhou et al.(2018), the success ratio of a health promotion policy or strategy is dependent on the development and application of policy levers over time (Coates& Howe, 2015). These policy levers map the percentage of success of a health promotion policy or strategy in compliance with the set objectives (Graceet al.2015). While conducting an evaluation of a health promotion policy or strategy, it is often evident that the key focus is placed on the outcome or impact measures, which draws on the balance sheet of the selected indicators, representing the interventions, control measures and success of the interventions.

Hence, in order to assess the success and failure of the National Mental Health Policy 2008, it is important to understand the kind of interventions that had been implemented by the policy with the objectives and the loopholes. The policy shows that although the agenda behind the designing of the National Mental Health Policy 2008 had been strategic, yet it lacked the holistic approach (van Rensburg&Fourie, 2016). The strategy did focus on early detection of mental health issues among the people in Australia, including the Aged population with allocations of separate carers for them to look after, however, the holistic approach is missing.
The strategy mainly focused on external interventions like psychological and clinical, by assigning doctors to the earliest rescue. However, the emphasis on individual participation and self-education is missing in the strategy along with the absence of an evidence-based program, to continuously monitor the progress of the intervention and apply digital integration for better evaluation.

Health promotion plan for the local people

In relation to the above explanation of the selected health promotion strategy for prevention of mental health issues for the aged people in Australia, it needs to be stated that the percentage of affected people in mental health are much more among the aged compared to the teenagers (blackdoginstitute.org.au,2021). The teenagers have the support from their family members and often engaged in early interventions, likely counseling sessions, active community engagement, social communication and psychologist interventions (Syed& McLean, 2017).

The aged people on the other hand are more prone to mental health issues, as they are mostly aged , may be at the age of 70+ years wherein either of the partners have expired and the children also do not stay with them. Multiple incidents can happen, which could be the possible causes behind the mental health issues of the aged people in Australia (apo.org.au, 2021). This aged population in turn takes to clinical depression, abstinence from taking medicine and even engage in isolation and social disassociation. The eighth stage in Erikson’s model of psychosocial development shows the presence of ego integrity in war with despair. This stage comes to a person, who is above the 65 years of age, until his/her demise.

Erikson’s eight stages of psychosocial development
(Source: Syed& McLean, 2017)

At this stage, an individual invests a lot of time in thinking about the accomplishments and failures in life. It is these failures, which often push them towards mental health issues, causing depression and unprecedented suicidal attempts. Hence, this section of the population needs to be targeted to avoid unprecedented suicidal cases and depressive deaths. Therefore, from the above explanation of the selected National Mental Health Policy 2008 policy, it is obvious that although the policy had been effective in the beginning stages, yet there has been an unequal ratio between the objectives met with the policy levers.

Therefore, a separate plan needs to be developed, which will focus on the aged people of the locality and educate them to deal with mental health issues in a stronger and more self-managed manner. The plan is inspired from the National Mental Health Policy 2008 and aims at reducing the occurrence of mental health issues among the older people, at the local level.

Goal 1: To encourage the local aged people to enrol in the nearby yoga classes, ballroom dance practices and physical exercising centres

Goal 2: Select two days in a week by the community centres to encourage the older people in community interaction through casual group meets and cultivate friendship

Goal 3: Conduct weekly community centre weekly activities like painting, cooking, walking pets and encourage the aged people to participate in them


In consideration to the above literature, it is obvious that mental health issues happen to be one of the biggest issues in Australia. The highest percentages of the affected group include the aged and the teenagers. However, the findings show that the recovery rates among the teenagers are more compared to the aged population. Therefore, the selection of the aged population for the study is justified. The teenagers are said to receive quicker interventions and participations from the family guardians to help them stabilize, while the aged people mostly subside to isolation and suicidal attempts.

Therefore, the selected National Mental Health Policy 2008 ¸aimed at reducing the number of depression and suicidal cases among the older people in the country, and induce a conducive ambiance to support healthy aging in the country. The selected strategy rationalizes the inclusion of plans and actions to ensure that the mental health promotion of the aged population of the country is secured. The critical analysis of the National Mental Health Policy 2008,policy showed that the primary assessment of the success and failure rate of the National Mental Health Policy 2008 was dependent on the percentage of the objectives met, subsiding with the percentage of the intervention from policy levers.

The study showed that although the plan had been successful in the beginning, yet few areas were left untreated, which automatically questioned the overall credibility of the plan. Hence, the application of the Multi-disciplinary models of care has identified the strategy to have a holistic approach. Nonetheless, the strategy needs to be more robust with a continued focus on using the methods to monitor the mental health conditions of the older people and apply an evidence-based approach. Additionally, a recommended health promotion plan for the local aged people to combat mental health issues has been developed.


Aihw.gov.au . (2021). Mental Health of Older Australians. Retrieved from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/c2ff6c58-e05e-49ed-afd7-43bd21eef4e2/AW15-6-4-Mental-health-of-older-Australians.pdf.aspx#:~:text=From%20the%202007%20National%20Survey,85%20age%20group%20(Figure%206.4.

Apo.org.au . (2021). National Mental Health Policy 2008. Retrieved from: https://apo.org.au/node/30315

Askell-Williams, H., & Murray-Harvey, R. (2016). Sustainable professional learning for early childhood educators: Lessons from an Australia-wide mental health promotion initiative. Journal of Early Childhood Research, 14(2), 196-210.

Astell-Burt, T., &Feng, X. (2019).Association of urban green space with mental health and general health among adults in Australia. JAMA network open, 2(7), e198209-e198209.

Awaworyi Churchill, S., Farrell, L., & Smyth, R. (2019).Neighbourhood ethnic diversity and mental health in Australia. Health Economics, 28(9), 1075-1087.

Barry, M. M., Clarke, A. M., Petersen, I., & Jenkins, R. (Eds.). (2019). Implementing mental health promotion. Springer Nature.

blackdoginstitute.org.au . 2021. Retrieved from: https://www.blackdoginstitute.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/1-facts_figures.pdf

Coates, D. D., & Howe, D. (2015). The design and development of staff wellbeing initiatives: staff stressors, burnout and emotional exhaustion at children and young people’s mental health in Australia. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 42(6), 655-663.

Edward, K. L., Warelow, P., Hemingway, S., Hercelinskyj, G., Welch, A., McAndrew, S., & Stephenson, J. (2015). Motivations of nursing students regarding their educational preparation for mental health nursing in Australia and the United Kingdom: a survey evaluation. BMC nursing, 14(1), 1-5.

Grace, F. C., Meurk, C. S., Head, B. W., Hall, W. D., Carstensen, G., Harris, M. G., &Whiteford, H. A. (2015). An analysis of policy levers used to implement mental health reform in Australia 1992-2012. BMC Health Services Research, 15(1), 1-11.

Gupta, S., &Sagar, R. (2018). National Mental Health Programme-optimism and caution: A narrative review. Indian journal of psychological medicine, 40(6), 509-516.

Hashmi, R., Alam, K., &Gow, J. (2020). Socioeconomic inequalities in mental health in Australia: Explaining life shock exposure. Health Policy, 124(1), 97-105.

Health.gov.au . (2021). National Mental Health Policy 2008. Retrieved from: https://www.health.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/2020/11/national-mental-health-policy-2008.pdf

Health.gov.au. (2021). Mental Health Promotion. Retrieved from: https://www1.health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/mental-pubs-n-pol08-toc~mental-pubs-n-pol08-2~mental-pubs-n-pol08-2-2

Ho, F., &Mussap, A. J. (2017). Transgender mental health in Australia: Satisfaction with practitioners and the standards of care. Australian Psychologist, 52(3), 209-218.

Milner, A., Smith, P., &LaMontagne, A. D. (2015).Working hours and mental health in Australia: evidence from an Australian population-based cohort, 2001–2012. Occupational and environmental medicine, 72(8), 573-579.

Mokitimi, S., Schneider, M., & de Vries, P. J. (2018). Child and adolescent mental health policy in South Africa: history, current policy development and implementation, and policy analysis. International journal of mental health systems, 12(1), 1-15.

Slewa-Younan, S., Yaser, A., Guajardo, M. G. U., Mannan, H., Smith, C. A., &Mond, J. M. (2017).The mental health and help-seeking behaviour of resettled Afghan refugees in Australia. International journal of mental health systems, 11(1), 1-8.

Syed, M., & McLean, K. C. (2017).Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development.

Van Spijker, B. A., Salinas-Perez, J. A., Mendoza, J., Bell, T., Bagheri, N., Furst, M. A., ...& Salvador-Carulla, L. (2019). Service availability and capacity in rural mental health in Australia: Analysing gaps using an Integrated Mental Health Atlas. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 53(10), 1000-1012.

vanRensburg, A. J., &Fourie, P. (2016). Health policy and integrated mental health care in the SADC region: strategic clarification using the Rainbow Model. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 10(1), 1-13.

Zhou, W., Yu, Y., Yang, M., Chen, L., & Xiao, S. (2018). Policy development and challenges of global mental health: a systematic review of published studies of national-level mental health policies. BMC psychiatry, 18(1), 1-9.

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NSG3101 Rehabilitation and Community Cares Assignment Sample


“National Health Priority Areas (NHPAs) were established in response to the World Health Organization’s Global Strategy of Health for All by the year 2000 and sought to focus public attention and health policy on these areas that were considered to contribute significantly to the burden of disease in Australia" AIHW (2018). The NHPAs currently consists of nine priority areas in relation to health and chronic disease.

To demonstrate your understanding of the National Health Priority Areas in relation to chronic disease, you are required to complete Parts A & B of this assessment as outlined below.

Part A of this assessment requires you to work collaboratively in groups of 3. Each member of the group will work individually on either sections 1,2 or 3 to produce a 1000-word document that will form part of the overall presentation report. Which member of the group does which section is up to you as a group to decide.

Your individual report must be evidence-based, use current literature and use APA 7th referencing style. A minimum of 10 references is required, and references must be no older than five years except if required they come from required or recommended textbooks.

You will need to research, identify and discuss the following in your report for assignment help

Section 1 - The Australian National Health Priorities

This section should include the following:

1. Discussion of the Australian National Health Priorities, when were they formulated and why?

2. An outline of the priority areas in relation to chronic conditions and prevalence of disease in each relevant chronic disease priority area using current data and
statistics to support your discussion.

3. A brief discussion of the National Strategic Framework for chronic illness used to coordinate the management of Chronic Disease in Australia.


Question 1

The National Health Priority Area is an initiative that is formed from a collaborative effort that includes the State, the Territory, and the Commonwealth of Australia. This particular health priority seeks to put focus on health policy and public attention on the areas that are deemed to significantly contribute to the disease burden that exists in Australia (Simpson et al., 2021). After years of analysis and decisions, the Health Ministers of Australia decided to formulate a plan which would mainly focus on paying attention to typical public health concerns that exist in the country. After researching the critical health emergencies that exist in the country, this particular health priority plan was formulated.

This plan was formulated in the areas where it has a potential for gain in health (Littlejohns et al., 2018). It was identified while negotiating this plan that there are main health concerns that exist in the country. This National Health priority was implemented in 2000. The main reason behind the formulation of this particular health policy was to ensure the health and safety of the general public. This plan was implemented as an initiative to help in reducing the rates of chronic conditions among the people of Australia. This plan was crafted with the intention of eliminating the diseases that are a burden to the country.

The Australian government realized that there are various diseases that exist in the country which are still not given proper attention and cure. Diseases like mental health issues are still considered to be taboo in many places of the world. Australia wanted to take this initiative in formulating a health care plan that will mainly focus on the diseases that are still undercover and lacking proper care (Bik-Multanowska et al., 2022). This plan will help millions of people in getting better treatment and cure remedies for those diseases that fall under the nine areas of priority.

Question 2

Chronic disease is known as a condition that commonly lasts for one or more years, and it requires ongoing treatment and medical attention and also limits the activities of regular living(Seaton et al., 2019). There are various types of chronic diseases that exist in Australia, which is a burden to the country as it takes away the lives of many each year. People suffering from chronic conditions suffer both physically and mentally. Chronic conditions in cumulative forms are also known as non-communicable diseases. Non-communicable diseases have a mortality rate of 41 million per year which contributes to 71% of the total death rates. There are various types of chronic conditions that contribute to the total death rates in Australia. In the year 2014-2015, more than 3% of the total population of Australia reported having Coronary health conditions for a long period of time (Engelman et al., 2019). It is estimated that more than 1.7 million Australians are diabetic patients. This data represents the number of patients who are registered and known. Cancer is considered to be a major illness in Australia, and it has a substantial economic and social impact on the life of the individual who suffers from this illness (Nisar et al., 2021). Asthma is more common in the 0-14 age group male among which females above the age of 15 have asthma more percent (Xu, Jones & Mishra, 2020).

Figure 1: Yearly date rates in Australia due to chronic conditions
Source: (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2022)

The priority areas of chronic conditions include adherence to medication, behavioral modification, and seeking mental care. It is identified in the NHPAs that various modifications are needed to be implemented in the country's medical system so that chronic conditions can be treated. The priority areas in adherence to medication ensure that all the citizens of Australia are provided with proper medication. Behaviouralmodificationsaim in to increase or decrease a certain type of reaction or behavior. Seeking mental care is considered to be a priority due to the fact that many Australians suffer from mental illnesses that are undiagnosed.

Question 3

The National Framework is helping millions of Australian with health literacy, health workforce, extensive research, governance and leadership, and data and information regarding various chronic conditions. The initiative from the side of the National Framework is helping in reducing the rates of chronic conditions by providing them with health assistance and proper treatment so that the recovery rate can be increased. It is also identified that a lot of proper management practice is required in order to manage the way the health system in Australia works. The National Framework ensures that every chronic condition should be treated well, and it is the responsibility of the health system to ensure that effective medication is provided to all. The framework identifies all the citizens who are suffering from some type of chronic condition and then aims to diagnose that person with medication that will be provided by the Australian health system.

Figure 2: Percentage of people suffering from chronic conditions in Australia
Source: (Abc, 2022)

The National Framework for treating chronic conditions in Australia is an overarching document policy that is formulated especially for chronic conditions that exist in the country (Cardoso, Reis & Manzanares-Céspedes, 2018). This particular framework outlines the outcomes and directions through which the Australian people can be helped, and their lives can be made healthier. This can be achieved by following effective management and prevention strategies that are marked under the chronic conditions identified by the NHPAs. This particular framework moves across a disease-centric approach and helps in providing national directions and strategies that are applicable to a variety of chronic conditions. With the help of recognizing that various other similar principles that underlie the management and prevention of chronic disease do exist. This particular framework is considered to be an effective resource for every player in the space of chronic conductions (Hajat & Stein, 2018). This particular framework was crafted with the intention of providing strategic and effective measures that will aim to make the lives of the Australian people safer and healthier.

Reference list

Abc. (2022). Australia's Health 2016: Australians living longer but with more chronic disease. Abc. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-09-14/australia-health-2016-report-card/7844002.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2022). The health of Australia’s females, Chronic conditions - Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/men-women/female-health/contents/how-healthy/chronic-conditions

Bik-Multanowska, K., Mikocka-Walus, A., Fernando, J., & Westrupp, E. (2022). Mental distress of parents with chronic diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia: A prospective cohort study. Journal of psychosomatic research, 152, 110688. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8665692/

Cardoso, E. M., Reis, C., & Manzanares-Céspedes, M. C. (2018). Chronic periodontitis, inflammatory cytokines, and interrelationship with other chronic diseases. Postgraduate Medicine, 130(1), 98-104. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00325481.2018.1396876

Dempsey, P. C., Matthews, C. E., Dashti, S. G., Doherty, A. R., Bergouignan, A., van Roekel, E. H., ... & Lynch, B. M. (2020). Sedentary behavior and chronic disease: mechanisms and future directions. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 17(1), 52-61. https://www.sochob.cl/web1/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/Sedentary-Behavior-and-Chronic-Disease-Mechanisms-and-Future-Directions.pdf

Engelman, D., Cantey, P. T., Marks, M., Solomon, A. W., Chang, A. Y., Chosidow, O., & Steer, A. C. (2019). The public health control of scabies: priorities for research and action. The Lancet, 394(10192), 81-92. https://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/4653773/1/2018%20Scabies%20review%20v12.pdf

Hajat, C., & Stein, E. (2018). The global burden of multiple chronic conditions: a narrative review. Preventive medicine reports, 12, 284-293. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211335518302468

Littlejohns, P., Kieslich, K., Weale, A., Tumilty, E., Richardson, G., Stokes, T., ... & Scuffham, P. (2018). Creating sustainable health care systems: Agreeing social (societal) priorities through public participation. Journal of health organization and management, 33(1), 18-34. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/JHOM-02-2018-0065/full/html

Nisar, M., Kolbe-Alexander, T. L., Burton, N. W., & Khan, A. (2021). A Longitudinal Assessment of Risk Factors and Chronic Diseases among Immigrant and Non-Immigrant Adults in Australia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(16), 8621. https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/18/16/8621

Seaton, P., Levett-Jones, T., Cant, R., Cooper, S., Kelly, M. A., McKenna, L., ... & Bogossian, F. (2019). Exploring the extent to which simulation-based education addresses contemporary patient safety priorities: A scoping review. Collegian, 26(1), 194-203. https://d1wqtxts1xzle7.cloudfront.net/67726397/pdf-with-cover-page-v2.pdf?Expires=1650448162&Signature=ETnSyFJmViNOZdeQ35V8X-Ub8Bhe7afpPpzDsyPWSMeabb5Szi8d7DIhaMUE9SAgGwLuoA~MQmBKVrgZxQ-0TAIPuVQ~4H1FGiiJgQjQ4uQTp~1fdmi83izq6irhNxb5UJPKlA-lR32rdHlmphqgLjUSujGLx8wyS7lUO2KxyIcOdOmOxcNk5silIWDrbMBOndmBsGxeRfu53QWFx-XEe3z5AlJdSiftQz8BGSr8FDzA09-7zorB2wY1MzFBLHHR-5Ij9Vm7-o9f~BsTJ42pOuwDmdLxjVJZW8xl8auL1VooeXILfh-bxs0vuGtAQndQu~-N2PyhGTNgIQToR0nG-Q__&Key-Pair-Id=APKAJLOHF5GGSLRBV4ZA

Simpson, P. L., Guthrie, J., Jones, J., & Butler, T. (2021). Identifying research priorities to improve the health of incarcerated populations: results of citizens' juries in Australian prisons. The Lancet Public Health, 6(10), e771-e779. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2468266721000505

Xu, X., Jones, M., & Mishra, G. D. (2020). Age at natural menopause and development of chronic conditions and multimorbidity: results from an Australian prospective cohort. Human Reproduction, 35(1), 203-211. https://www.erkenmenopoz.com/konu/dosyalar/menopoz_makale_ozetleri/ocak2020_5.pdf

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NSG3NCI Chronic Illness Management Plan Assignment Sample

Write a 1000-word report for assignment help explaining what telehealth is and why the type you chose may be beneficial for a client with the described chronic illness

Points to consider:

Definition of telehealth and different types
Why a particular type would be beneficial for your client
The multidisciplinary needs of your client
Description of the client’s chronic illness and why telehealth may be an option
Positive aspects of telehealth for the client
Negative aspects of telehealth or issues for the client


Chronic Illness

Arthritis is characterized by the painful and swollen swelling of one or more joints. Arthritis is characterized by a range of joint symptoms, the most prominent of which are pain and stiffness, which often get worse with age. Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are the two forms of arthritis that are diagnosed most frequently.


Definition of Telehealth and Different Types

Telehealth is the delivery of healthcare and related services through electronic and digital communication technologies, including but not limited to remote medical diagnosis and treatment, healthcare professional and patient education, health information services, and patient self-care. Telehealth makes use of a wide variety of technologies, including remote patient monitoring (RPM), video conferencing (both live and on-demand), "store and forward" electronic transmission, and mobile health applications (Knudsen, 2018).

The desire to stay in touch with patients, no matter where they may be, is what motivates the many manifestations of telehealth. Telehealth is the electronic exchange of health-related information between a care provider and a patient. This broad definition gives rise to several subsets of telehealth. Here are a few of the most notable:

? Patient Tracking at a Distance: In the first place, one of the most important things that telehealth is good for is keeping an eye on patients from afar. Caregivers may keep tabs on their patients' well-being from afar with the help of remote patient monitoring.

? Store-and-forward: The ability to "save and send" telehealth data is also crucial to the concept's existence. Telehealth with a "save and forward" capability improves long-distance access to patient histories and other medical data (Maeder, 2021).

? Telehealth in real time: A doctor may provide round-the-clock, anywhere-in-the-world treatment to a patient via real-time telehealth.

? Remote Monitoring: The use of telehealth to enable patients to have certain parts of their health monitored from the comfort of their own homes is becoming an increasingly popular alternative. Providers are able to address both acute and chronic diseases because to remote patient monitoring.

? Medical advice from a specialist: Because of telehealth, doctors may collaborate remotely to offer more comprehensive treatment options to their patients.

? Telehealth for Rheumatoid Arthritis: One can check in and follow up with the healthcare provider when they have rheumatoid arthritis (RA) thanks to telehealth.

? Radiology and other medical imaging: Sharing medical pictures like X-rays, scans, and more is now much quicker thanks to advancements in telehealth technology. By making these pictures accessible, any board-certified radiologist with network access can evaluate them whenever necessary (Tigerconnect, 2021).

Why a particular type would be beneficial for your client?

Our client who’s suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and has restricted mobility or significant symptoms, such as persistent pain, exhaustion, and joint stiffness, which make it difficult to attend in-person consultations, may find that telehealth’s remote monitoring is an intriguing choice. Telehealth’s remote monitoring has the potential to make receiving treatment for RA less intimidating, which may encourage people living with the illness to seek treatment sooner for any changes in the symptoms they are experiencing (Bergman, 2021).

Because they don't need to take time off from work or pay for transportation to go to their appointments, persons who have RA (Rheumatoid Arthritis) can save a considerable amount of time and money by using telehealth’s remote monitoring. Appointments with a healthcare provider are also made a great deal more convenient for this patient demographic as a result of this (Saini, 2022).

The multidisciplinary needs of your client

With the help of a team of professionals from different fields working together, patients can get the best possible treatment. With everyone's input, the team as a whole can provide better care to its patients. This strategy is effective because it guarantees that each patient receives personalized attention (Freeman, 2021).
Although members of a multidisciplinary team have to put in more time, the patient benefits from coordinated services and a standard operating procedure (SOP) that enhances the quality of care they get. Communication within a multidisciplinary team makes coordinating efforts simpler, even if not all team members are present when a patient is being treated (Healthie, 2022).

Describe the client's chronic ailment and explain how it might be treated via remote monitoring

There are more than a hundred different varieties of arthritis and related disorders, and our client has a form of arthritis that is not a single disease but rather specifies a mix of symptoms including pain and inflammation in the joints. Arthritis affects people of all ages, races, and sexes equally, making it the biggest cause of disability in the United States. Despite the fact that some forms of arthritis are more prevalent among the elderly, arthritis itself is not a disease that is tied to advancing age (Gogia, 2019).

It's possible that remote monitoring is something brand new for both us and patients. Knowing as much as possible about the tools that will be utilizing to treat patients is the most effective way to provide care. This includes how they operate as well as how the data will be transmitted from the device (Reifsnider, 2020).

Advantages of telehealth from the patient's perspective

Benefits from telehealth remote monitoring is that they are easily accessible. As was previously said, no travel is necessary, and participation is global. Both of these factors contribute to the efficiency of telehealth visits, since they minimize the time away from work or school that would otherwise be required (Arthritis, 2021).

Concerns or drawbacks that the patient may have when using telehealth

Utilizing these technologies, on the other hand, comes with both positives and negatives, just like any other emerging or cutting-edge technology would. Some of the disadvantages (or restrictions) of remote monitoring are relatively insignificant problems that can be circumvented by service providers or resolved by IT departments.

? There are a few disadvantages associated with remote patient monitoring, such as the fact that it is dependent on expensive technology that not all patients can afford.

? Connections to the internet that can be relied upon are required for RPM systems. It's possible that some of the patients don't have access to broadband internet, which makes it more difficult for them to engage in RPM settings. However, basic vital signs data transmission does not always necessitate the use of broadband. (D’Silva, 2021).


Rapid adoption of digital health records (DHR), which are essential for providing remote care, has accompanied telehealth investments. Half of healthcare leaders (49%) cite digital health records as a major investment, reflecting government attempts to make healthcare data-driven, the report found.

Patients in remote locations now have easier access to care thanks to the widespread use of telehealth following the COVID-19 epidemic. According to the report, the attention is now more on technology driven healthcare, and healthcare leaders are overwhelmingly supportive of the adoption of remote care solutions, with 33% listing a shift to virtual care as one of their top priorities and 51% listing telehealth as a top investment area.


Arthritis. (2021, November 18). What Is Arthritis? Retrieved from arthritis: https://www.arthritis.org/health-wellness/about-arthritis/understanding-arthritis/what-is-arthritis

Gogia, S. B. (Ed.). (2019). Fundamentals of telemedicine and telehealth. Academic Press.

Maeder, A. J., Higa, C., & van den Berg, M. E. (Eds.). (2021). Telehealth innovations in remote healthcare services delivery: Global telehealth 2020 (Vol. 277). IOS Press.

D’Silva, K. M., & Wallace, Z. S. (2021). COVID-19 and rheumatoid arthritis. Current opinion in rheumatology, 33(3), 255.

Song, Y., Reifsnider, E., Zhao, S., Xie, X., & Chen, H. (2020). A randomized controlled trial of the effects of a telehealth educational intervention on medication adherence and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 76(5), 1172-1181.

Ferucci, E. D., Holck, P., Day, G. M., Choromanski, T. L., & Freeman, S. L. (2020). Factors associated with use of telemedicine for follow?up of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis care & research, 72(10), 1404-1409.

England, B. R., Barber, C. E., Bergman, M., Ranganath, V. K., Suter, L. G., & Michaud, K. (2021). Adaptation of American College of Rheumatology Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity and Functional Status Measures for Telehealth Visits. Arthritis care & research, 73(12), 1809-1814.

Knudsen, L. R., de Thurah, A., & Lomborg, K. (2018). Experiences with telehealth followup in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a qualitative interview study. Arthritis Care & Research, 70(9), 1366-1372.

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PUBH6002 Global and Environmental Health Issue Assignment Sample

Individual/Group - Individual
Length - 1000 words (+/- 10%)

Learning Outcomes - The Subject Learning Outcomes demonstrated by successful completion of the task below include:

a) Examine environmental factors from the local to the global levels that influence health and interpret the relevance to the health of populations.

b) Interpret and analyse the impacts of globalisation on the social, economic, and political determinants of global and local health.

c) Critically analyse ethical elements relevant to environmental health protections, policies, and industry practices, including identification of vulnerable groups

d) Investigate the relationships between environmental risk factors and social, economic, and political determinants of illness and injury.


Review the given policy provided by your lecturer. Public health policies are evidence-base
structured targets, aiming to provide the practical strategies that governments can apply to regulate key structural factors that contribute to the burden of, and the risk factors associated with the disease that is targeted by the policy.

To review the given policy, read carefully the given policy provided by your Learning facilitator.

Research the academic literature related to the policy and then conduct a review in 1000 words
(±10%) a report guided by the following four questions:

Introduction/Background (Approx. 150 words)

- In the introduction present the burden of disease and risk factors before the implementation of the current policy.

- Finally, briefly discuss the impact of the health-related issues related to the specific burden of disease(s) and population.

- Include an overview of the assessment as part of the introduction. Policy analysis (Approx. 600 words)

- Discuss how the policy was developed? Who were the key stakeholders in this development and what were their role?

- Describe the expected outcomes and the strengths of policy based on its successful achievements?

- Discuss 2 challenges or strategies that have been less successful or unsuccessful related to the policy. Recommendations and conclusions (Approx. 250 words)

- Provide 3 evidence-based recommendations to improve the implementation and/or efficacy of the policy based on your policy analysis.




Though in comparison with most of the countries of the world, Australia can boast of a clean and healthier quality of air, it has almost 5000 of its citizens that succumb every year due to diseases caused due to air pollution. The increase in population, urbanization, industrialization, air mode of transport, deterioration of the climate, and injudicious use of energy resources has been contributory factors to Australian air pollution. It has been predicted that with any remedial steps, a substantial increase in summer smog will be noticed after the year 2030, along with drought-driven bushfires and dust storms (science.org.au, 2022). Prolonged exposure to air pollution can increase the chances of respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and lung cancer. The vulnerable population like children, the elderly, the economically backward, and people with an already compromised immune system are more at risk of health hazards caused by air pollution (Who. int, 2022). Glencross et al (2020), researched that air pollution has a severe adverse impact on the immune system of the population. This report for assignment help will cover an analysis of the National Clean Air Agreement, Australia which was formed in December 2015.

Policy Analysis

In April 2014 Commonwealth Environment Minister of Australia Greg Hunt Conceptualized this agreement with the proposal of united efforts of all Environmental authorities of Australia for improving the air quality. Though the primary responsibility lies with the local governing authorities, all the levels of statutory and government authorities play a significant role in improving air quality. The Commonwealth, state government, and the local territorial government were identified as the key stakeholders responsible for the successful implementation of this agreement. This agreement was formulated to identify the main areas that contributed to poor air quality and to set priorities to work on those identified target areas. Identification of key air pollutants and their sources, and strategies to mitigate their impact was the objective of this agreement. Strategies to reduce air pollution need to be devised. This agreement aimed to meet three fundamental outcomes: improvement in environmental condition and health of citizens of Australia, society empowerment through increased awareness, access to authentic and genuine information and ways to combat air pollution, and an updated tracking system of air quality based on information, evidence, scientific principles and facts specifically for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and ozone. This agreement is a complementary tool for other government and commonwealth-enabled initiatives for environmental sustainability. The Commonwealth Government launched a National Environmental Science Programme that has a dedicated fund of $8.88 million for ensuring air quality in urban areas. An additional fund of $2.55 billion has been created to reduce the emission of harmful gases and air pollutants to establish the Emissions. Some notable achievements of the agreement over the years include the establishment of standards for emissions from marine engines and power equipment that will operate outdoors, and an increase in the quality of air for particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone gases (dcceew.gov.au, 2022). Various air champions have been identified who will work for this cause, and spread awareness and education. Non–statutory initiatives to improve air quality have also been identified (awe.gov.au, 2022). The main strength of this agreement is its holistic and comprehensive approach to dealing with the poor air quality whereby it attempts to garner support and collaboration at all levels of multiple stakeholders. Participation from local to national level improves the commitment towards the objective and reduces the resistance if any. Another strength is not only its short-term objective that will be met with a reduction in emissions but also a long-term vision of creating a culture or lifestyle change in the citizens of the country through awareness and education which is going to yield long-term sustainable benefits in maintaining air quality.

There has been criticism of this agreement by various environmental groups on the ground that the standards laid down by the Australian government in its clean air agreement do not comply with the norms established by the World Health Organization. Owing to this criticism, Australia has now set upper limits on the air pollutants PM10 which denotes the coal dust, fumes, and other coarse air particles, and PM2.5. a limit of 25 micrograms per cubic meter has been set for PM 10 (Abc.net.au, 2022). Another shortcoming of this policy is the lack of focus on industrialization as a contributor to air quality. There should be a stringent upper limit on the industries in the emission of air pollutants, the type of air pollutants, and also the consumption of natural resources.

Recommendations and Conclusions

The standards set in this policy should be following the standards set by the WHO for a universal and global approach and adherence to air quality. WHO has set various upper limits for different gases, fumes, and air pollutants which can serve as a benchmark for this agreement (C40knowledgehub.org, 2022).

The Australian government can also study the cases of other developing countries that have been facing air quality issues and understand the initiatives taken by them to curb this growing menace.

Figure 1: Initiatives to improve air quality across various countries
(Source: Safety4sea.com 2022)

Eco-friendly public transport systems that are pedestrian- and cycle-oriented, purchasing energy-efficient electronic appliances and machinery, reduction in domestic as well as industrial waste, and reduction in agro incineration, are some of the steps that can be undertaken at the community level (Financialexpress.com, 2022).

Australia has been frequently criticized for its lack of regulation and enforcement of air pollution. The harmful impact of air pollutants, even when under the permissible limit, cannot simply be ignored. The agreement along with other environmental pacts are found to be lacking in monitoring mechanisms, established universal standards, and lack of coordination between government authorities. The main cause of air pollution in Australia is particulate matter (PM) which is generated by industry and transport vehicles, mining, and coal-related activities. The National Clean Air agreement should have it in its priority area as the adverse impacts of PM on health such as neurodevelopment disorders, lung, and respiratory diseases and increased mortality cannot be ignored. The Agreement must identify high threat zones through the data related to air quality and the cost of health damages in that area and treat those areas as a high priority. The agreement should reflect the financial burden of health hazards on the economy of the country. The agreement ignores the huge expenditure incurred because of health hazards due to air pollution. Approximately $5.9 billion is spent on health issues due to transport and energy per annum in Australia and its economic impact on the bottom line of the country should be reflected in the agreement (Vlies, 2022). The agreement should also focus on vulnerable areas like Hunter Valley in New South Wales which is targeted not only by environmental pollution but also by social and economic disparity. Being a hub for coal mining, it causes tremendous air pollution due to the emission of hazardous and toxic fumes, and huge amounts of waste (amansw.com.au, 2022).


Abc.net.au. (2022). National Clean Air Agreement slammed for failing to comply with WHO guidelines. Abc.net.au. (2022). Retrieved 30 September 2022, from https://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-12-16/national-clean-air-agreement-fails-to-comply-with-who-air-pollu/7033534.
amansw.com.au. (2022). Retrieved 1 October 2022, from https://www.amansw.com.au/air-pollution/.

awe.gov.au. (2022). https://www.awe.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/national-clean-air-agreement-mid-term-review-report.docx
C40knowledgehub.org. (2022). C40 Knowledge Community. C40knowledgehub.org. (2022). Retrieved 30 September 2022, from https://www.c40knowledgehub.org/s/article/WHO-

dcceew.gov.au. (2022). Retrieved 30 September 2022, from https://www.dcceew.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/national-clean-air-agreement.pdf.

Financialexpress.com. (2022). Fighting air pollution: Steps government can take to improve Delhi air quality | The Financial Express. Financialexpress.com. (2022). Retrieved 30 September 2022, from https://www.financialexpress.com/india-news/fighting-air-pollution-steps-government-can-take-to-improve-delhi-air-quality/1369050/.

Glencross, D. A., Ho, T. R., Camina, N., Hawrylowicz, C. M., & Pfeffer, P. E. (2020). Air pollution and its effects on the immune system. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 151, 56-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2020.01.179

Safety4sea.com. (2022). Retrieved 30 September 2022, from https://safety4sea.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Austrlia-agreement.pdf.
science.org.au (2022). Air pollution—what’s the situation?. Curious. (2022). Retrieved 30 September 2022, from https://www.science.org.au/curious/people-medicine/air-pollution-whats-situation.

Vlies, M. (2022). The effects of air pollution on Australians. New Energy Solar. Retrieved 1 October 2022, from https://www.newenergysolar.com.au/renewable-insights/renewable-energy/the-effects-of-air-pollution-on-australians.

Who.int. (2022). Health consequences of air pollution on populations. Who.int. (2022). Retrieved 30 September 2022, from https://www.who.int/news/item/15-11-2019-what-are-health-consequences-of-air-pollution-on-populations#:~:text=Exposure%20to%20high%20levels%20of,people%20who%20are%20already%20ill.

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HCT199 Evidencing Learning in Specialist Professional Assignment Sample

Assignment aims:

1. To enable students to recognise and optimise professional learning opportunities in relation to the practice setting;

2. To enable students to critically evaluate their professional practice, synthesise this in relation to their on-going role and professional development; and

3. To articulate the critical evaluation of professional practice through oral and written presentation of reflections on practice/practice related issues.

On completion of the module a student should be able to:

• Knowledge and Understanding [K)
• Intellectual Skills [S 1]
• Discipline Specific (including practical) Skills. [S 2]
• Transferable Skills [T]

1. Define and articulate personal learning outcomes via a learning contract relating to an aspect of their professional practice (K).

2. Use case studies/specific examples of practice to engage in a structured process of individual, critical and dialogic reflection on their own advanced, professional decision making in relation to this aspect of practice (S1).

3. Recognise and articulate through formative and summative assessment personal and professional learning, linked to personalised learning outcomes (S1, S2).

4. Clarify issues which define generic versus specialist practice, acknowledging professional identity whilst understanding where skills merge and others’ roles supersede in practice (S2).

5. Synthesise understanding of the philosophy of the relevant profession in order to suggest future advancements/changes to their own professional practice and where appropriate, that of the profession (K, S2).

Syllabus content:

The majority of content will be directed by the chosen specialist study, but the following areas will be explored for all:

Concepts underpinning professional development in the workplace:

- Individual responsibility for professional development
- Identification of professional development needs reconciling individual professional development needs and organisational / service development needs
- Clarification of generic versus specialist practice
- Concept of reflection and processes of reflective practice
- Evidence-based practice / Evidence-based decision making.

Processes of formalising work-based learning:

- Defining and writing individual learning outcomes through learning contract design
- Approaches to evidencing learning through work-based practice e.g. portfolios, professional diaries and significant incidents
- Using case studies as an approach to critical, dialogic reflection
- Principles of accreditation of work-based learning, if applicable


A Critical Reflection on the Development in Management of Neurophysiological changes in Autism from the Perspective of an Aspiring Advanced Physiotherapy Practitioner


Most Forth Valley primary care surgeries now employ Advanced Physiotherapy Practitioners (APPs). To address any musculoskeletal issue, APPs serve as patients' first point of contact. Patients may bypass the doctor's office and schedule an appointment with the APP via the clinic's front desk (Tawiah et al. 2021). Advanced physiotherapy practitioner has a broader autonomy of practice, allowing them to triage, assess, evaluate independently, and diagnose patients with extremely complex illnesses and maybe numerous pathologies across the health and social care landscape to enable integrated treatment (McGowan et al. 2018).

While expert physiotherapists still strive to give their patients as much autonomy as possible, they also take on leadership and management roles, deal with complicated decision-making processes, and know how to mitigate risk. Expert physiotherapists have advanced knowledge and training in a narrow field of medicine, such as injectable therapy; some even have prescription skills and the ability to diagnose and treat complex capabilities (Tawiah et al. 2018). In addition to directing the client's rehabilitation, their duties include collaborating closely with medical experts and acting as the initial point of contact, with the power to request diagnostic practitioners such as x-rays, scans, and blood tests.


My earnest goal is to become a successfully advanced physiotherapy practitioner whose main focus will be on the neurophysiological changes that occur from Autism. This paper is reflective in nature, discovering and broadening my continued professional development (CPD) perceptions to date, which has allowed me to broaden my clinical skills, knowledge, and comprehension of the topic of neurophysiological changes that occur from Autism. This paper is intended to be read by healthcare professionals. According to the Health and Care Professionals Council (2019), continuing professional development may be broken down into the following four categories. These are self-directed learning, work-based learning, formal education and professional activity. Reflection is at the core of all continuing professional development (CPD), and doing so is necessary in order to make sense of my experiences and advance my work for assignment help.

Self-reflection is analogous to explaining what one sees while staring into one's own eyes. It is a method for gauging how I operate in the world and how I study. To think about something is to engage in "reflection," in the simplest sense. Writing a reflective essay or study on one's own experiences is a vital part of the educational self in modern times (Roy and Uekusa, 2020). Instead of doing things with the same effectiveness I always have, reflecting may help me improve my skills and review how well they work. Positivity in this context refers to asking oneself whether there is a better or more efficient way to accomplish something and then acting on that inquiry (Chen et al. 2019). The ability to reflect on oneself is personal for development. Without it, we respond automatically to our surroundings and to our own selves. If I have ever had an intense reaction to something or said something that I have since come to regret, then I may acknowledge how reflection can assist me to use the better nutritious feedback and modification lifestyles (even opinions) which are not providing me. If this is the case, then I may also comprehend how it can support me in changing behaviours that are not serving me. We all self-reflect regularly, almost subconsciously, and we also do it on purpose when we want to learn something new about ourselves (Stefan and Cheie, 2022). What we see when we reflect on our own activities or routines is usually not a skewed reflection of reality but rather a minor distortion.

Clinical criteria for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) include deficits in the ability to communicate, engage socially, and adapt communication (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). As per my understanding, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined as the process that encompasses the whole group of effects from the most severe form of the condition, autism, to the milder forms, such as pervasive developmental disorder and Asperger syndrome (AS) not elsewhere defined (PDD-NOS) (PDD, NOS). A broad variety of IQs may coexist inside a single autism diagnosis. In other words, there is no universal ASD diagnosis (Miyazaki et al. 2007). Also, I realised that there are several potential causes of the ASD phenotype, including genetic disorders and ecological exposures and preterm delivery.

Variation in phenotype is also shown in areas such as the rate of language acquisition, the prevalence of epilepsy, and the spectrum of cognitive capacity. Nonetheless, abnormal responses to sensory information seem to be shared by those on all ends of the spectrum (Coskun et al. 2009). I came to know that over ninety-six per cent of children with ASD report both hyper- and hypo-sensitivities. There is a broad range of severity throughout the spectrum for sensory and behavioural impairments, just as there is for communication and social deficiencies, and these differences may persist into adulthood (Minshew et al. 2002).

From the two original fundamental findings by Asperger (1994) and Kanner (1943) through first-person experiences, sensory processing difficulties have been a consistent theme in clinical diagnoses of ASD (Asperger, 1994). I acquired that those who are unable to express their discomfort when confronted by certain sensory inputs may resort to self-harm or violent conduct. Hyper- and hyporesponsiveness to sensory input are not limited to those with ASD, although they do seem to be more common in this community than in those with other developmental disabilities (Leekam et al. 2007). It is less well known how these sensory abnormalities are distributed in individuals with ASD. In the past, it was believed that the more local senses were more susceptible to damage and served as indications of immaturity in development (Baranek et al. 2006). According to my understanding, despite increased evidence for disturbance in auditory and visual processing pathways and a renaissance in interest in multimodal integration, these individuals ’ experience are frequently the ones that get the least amount of research. This is the case in many cases (MSI).

There is evidence in the literature that points to observable changes occurring in early auditory circuitry, especially in response to increasingly complex stimuli. However, anomalies in the cerebellum do not appear to be sufficient to explain the inadequacies for all individuals who fall within the autism spectrum (Roberts et al. 2010). I realised that the ability to take in and make sense of a variety of incoming sounds is the fundamental prerequisite for both language and effective communication. Therefore, it is very necessary to have an understanding of the characteristics of this preliminary stage in the auditory sensory stream. Ordinarily, event-related potentials (ERPs) obtained using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) have been utilised in order to explore cortical auditory sensory processing that occurs further than the brainstem (Koh et al. 2010). I learned that brain responses are gathered across numerous trials to simple auditory stimuli and averaged to produce information on the temporal and spatial resolution of responses.

The main and association auditory cortices are assumed to be responsible for the abnormally late peaks seen in both EEG and MEG investigations (150 ms). These findings, unfortunately, disclosed to me that there are directional disparities in delay. Cortical latencies were shown to be shorter for longer tones at 1000 Hz in two separate investigations. Tone durations of 100 and 4 milliseconds were utilised, respectively, by Ferri et al. (2003) and Martineau et al. (1984). Delays in onset and latency in others have been observed compared to controls. Bruneau et al. (2003) demonstrated late auditory evoked potentials using a tone with a frequency of 750 Hz and a duration of 200 milliseconds. MEG was employed by Roberts et al. (2010) to report a delay in the M100 response of the right hemisphere to tones of various frequencies lasting 300 milliseconds (200, 300, 500, and 1000 Hz).

Whitehouse and Bishop (2008) observed, in instance, that the early peak latencies of the typical repeating tones varied across vowel sounds, sophisticated nonspeech sounds, and complex tones. This was the case regardless of whether the sounds were speech or nonspeech. This was the case despite the fact that each of the noises was considered to be a tone that repeated itself. Researchers Bruneau et al. (2003) and Oram Cardy et al. (2008) observed that stronger language ability was reflected in this area of low-level processing by greater and earlier right hemisphere cortical peaks. This discovery was made by the researcher Martineau et al. (1984). Differences in age, diagnosis and research paradigms may account for contradictory results. The future of this study is expected to benefit from the incorporation of behavioural phenotyping and correlations.

When Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler developed the term "autism" to describe an individual who withdrew into their own world, he drew inspiration from the Greek word for "self" (Blatt, 2012). As per my knowledge, due to sensory processing difficulties, autistic youngsters may seem to be living in a separate universe from their peers. These kids won't stop talking about the same thing, do the same things again and over (such as wring their hands or rock their bodies), say the same words over and over, and refuse to change to new situations. Psychiatrist Leo Kanner analysed the cases of 11 very bright kids who all showed characteristics of autism, including an intense need for isolation and sameness (Kanner, 1968). Kanner hypothesised that these children lacked the capacity for social-emotional development from birth (Grandin and Panek, 2013).

The frequency of the autism phenotype has remained consistent, but the number of people who are clinically diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder has grown significantly, according to a 2015 study conducted in Sweden that looked back over a 10-year period (Lundstrom et al. 2015). Because it is based on the observation of gene expression in people and their relationships to genetic variables, phenotyping is a valid method for evaluating autism neurophysiology. I understood that the significant rise in autism diagnoses is due to the fact that phenotyping has been largely abandoned in favour of a subjective checklist of symptoms, with little to no knowledge of the probable origins of these symptoms.

According to a nationwide study conducted in the United States in 2015, many children who were first labelled with autism spectrum disorder were subsequently determined not to be autistic (Bloomberg et al. 2016). I acquired that children who were given an incorrect diagnosis were less likely to be sent to a professional for further evaluation and treatment, and they were also less likely to have ever been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder or Asperger syndrome. According to a study published in Psychology Today in 2015, many children initially labelled with autism really suffer from a mix of language delay, sensory difficulties, and apraxia (Schrader, 2015). If a kid has apraxia, it means that he or she (a) understands language conceptually but has trouble expressing it vocally and (b) has trouble blending sounds in words to make meaningful communication. I also learned that it is true that some of these youngsters have trouble paying attention during tests. Others have difficulties digesting information and hence cannot reply in time to be assessed.

From an article published in 2016, I witnessed that Between 2006 and 2012, the number of people in Germany who were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder rose by almost 70 per cent. The authors of this study clearly imply (Bachman, 2018) that a substantial percentage of this huge rise was attributable to an incorrect diagnosis. Some researchers speculate that rather than having autism, many of these kids just had a low IQ, learning problems, or ADHD (Knight, 2017). Overdiagnosis of autism is common, according to the results of a 2019 thorough study published in JAMA Psychiatry (Rodgaard et al. 2019). There has been an over-expansion of the autism umbrella. I understood how autism is increasingly used as a catchall term for a wide range of conditions in neurology and child psychology that have just a superficial relationship with autism. In many cases, medical professionals will diagnose autism symptoms in people whose presenting symptoms are really just ADHD and poor social skills.

Many youngsters with sensory processing disorder (SPD) are given a diagnosis with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to a story in the Irish Times from 2019 (McDonagh, 2019). I acquired that poor eye contact, disliking hugs, poor play, and meltdowns are being used to label children with autism.

The German government provides financial assistance to autistic children and their families and provides special services in the classroom for autistic students. However, the vast majority of kids who have autism can succeed in a traditional classroom setting without any additional support. In Ireland, children with an autism diagnosis have better access to special care and education programmes tailored to their unique needs than children with other diagnoses. Due to this advantage, doctors are more likely to identify a kid with autism rather than another disorder (Rose, 2016).

Autistic children who live in the United Kingdom and need special assistance get a Disability Living Allowance. I learned that in order for the parents to obtain this benefit, neither a diagnosis nor proof of financial need is necessary. In the United States, parents may have Risperidone and Aripiprazole prescribed for their children if they have been diagnosed with autism. The antipsychotic medications approved for use in the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression cannot possibly help those with autism. The only reason parents give their kids medication is so they can behave (Talsma et al. 2010).

As per my research, children who are antisocial, struggle with anxiety and refuse education are often incorrectly classified as autistic in the United Kingdom. To the mother's benefit, a fraudulent diagnosis of autism might be used in custody proceedings (Garber, 2011). The autistic brain has the same basic neurological structure as any other brain. The neurophysiology of the autistic brain is what sets it apart. The cingulate gyrus (CG) is like an automated transmission that smoothly shifts focus between the frontal lobes in a neurotypical brain. However, in autism, a dysfunctional CG prevents access to the emotional/creative processing right frontal lobe, which is pivotal in spontaneity, social behaviour, and nonverbal abilities. While some neurotypical individuals are primarily right-brain thinkers, others tend to favour the left side of the brain. However, autistic individuals can't function well without using their left brain exclusively (Rolland, 2020). This may take up to a day. Anxiety is a distressing physiological reaction (not an emotion) that goes straight to the body and ignores the brain.

I understood that an autistic person's hyperfocus is so strong that they are unable to juggle competing thoughts. An autistic individual will accept your every statement at face value since they lack the cognitive capacity to process two sets of information at once. Autistic persons are unable to monitor how they are being received or viewed by their audience when speaking at length about a favourite subject (Kallstrand et al. 2010). I learned that people on the autism spectrum need organised activities because they cannot focus on both the task at hand and the task of predicting what could happen next.

Different forms of sensory overload are also brought on by hyperfocus. As a result of their hyperfocus, autistic people hear loud or high-pitched noises with far more intensity than their neurotypical counterparts. An autistic individual may experience cognitive impairment and a frightening void of thought if exposed to too many words on a page (Jemel et al. 2010). From my knowledge, I understood that anxiety might be brought on by shopping for too long or by overhearing private conversations. Anxiety attacks are often triggered by hardware shop lighting displays. Some people find that their hyperfocus amplifies their sensation of touch, which may make wearing tight clothes or receiving a hug uncomfortable.

These 52 autistic characteristics are all attributable to autism's distinguishing feature: hyperfocus (Churches et al. 2010). The mental state of hyperfocus consists of undying, laser-like attention on a single thinking process to the exclusion of all others. My research says that about a third of the following characteristics may also be attributed to other factors. This is why collecting a list of symptoms isn't a reliable diagnostic tool. The categorization of symptoms leads to more questions than answers if we don't know what's causing them (Vlamings et al. 2010). Autism's distinctive symptoms result from hyperfocus, a condition that is causally unique. If I suffer from hyperfocus, I won't be able to process several inputs or thoughts at once. The autistic person on the other end of the line cannot sense anything you or I am saying to them right now.

The concept of an autism spectrum needs to be abandoned because it is unproductive. Many erroneous autism diagnoses may be traced back to this flawed idea. The condition of autism does not belong on any gradable spectrum (Monk et al. 2010). I understood that autism is not a spectrum disorder but rather only has one form. No autistic autism disorders exist, and neither do autistic tendencies. True autism exists at a one hundred per cent rate. The sole difference between people with autism is the degree to which they experience hyperfocus. Individuals with autism disorder (low functioning) tend to be completely inaccessible due to their intense attention (Annaz et al. 2010). While communicating with people with Asperger syndrome who are high functioning, I understood that they exhibit hyperfocus less severely. If a visual representation is to be of any use, it must take the form of a vertical bar chart, with the highest intensity (lowest functioning) at the bottom and the lowest intensity (maximum functioning) at the top.

Children with autism who are unable to communicate are especially vulnerable to being stuck in a state of hyperfocus from which they cannot be rescued. Some severely autistic youngsters, as Einstein did at age four, develop an interest in communication and begin speaking on their own (Iarocci et al. 2010). Children with developmental, learning, language, communication, or social disorders not associated with autism are the only ones who can be taught to talk. When compared to the clinical phenotypic approach that was the norm in the 1960s, the symptom survey method of autism diagnosis represents a huge step backwards. Phenotyping relies on studying gene expression in people and establishing links between circumstances and genetics.


Autism is a neurophysiological disorder that affects how the brain processes information and is not caused by external factors. The inability to react to external or social stimuli is a major problem for a brain that is stuck in hyperfocus. Similarly, it cannot be treated using behaviour change techniques. Autism-related hyperfocus cannot be reasoned away. Hyperfocus, or intense, single-minded attention on one thought pattern at a time, to the exclusion of everything else, including one's own emotions, is a defining characteristic of autism. It seems that the cingulate gyrus (CG), the brain region responsible for focusing attention, is malfunctioning in those with hyperfocus. When compared to the clinical phenotypic approach that was the norm in autism diagnosis in the 1960s, the symptom survey method has been a severe setback.

Phenotyping relies on studying gene expression in people and establishing links between circumstances and genetics. Autism is a neurophysiological disorder that affects how the brain processes information and is not caused by external factors. The inability to react to external or social stimuli is a major problem for a brain that is stuck in hyperfocus. Similarly, it cannot be treated using behaviour change techniques. Autism-related hyperfocus cannot be reasoned away. Hyperfocus, or intense, single-minded attention on one thought pattern at a time, to the exclusion of everything else, including one's own emotions, is a defining characteristic of autism. The brain of the attention-focusing cingulate gyrus (CG) seems to be at the root of hyperfocus. 


American Psychiatric Association 1994 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV. 4th ed. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, D.C

Annaz, D., Remington, A., Milne, E., Coleman, M., Campbell, R., Thomas, M.S. and Swettenham, J., 2010. Development of motion processing in children with autism. Developmental science, 13(6), pp.826-838.

Asperger, H., 1944. Autistic psychopathy in childhood. Translated and annotated by U. Frith (Ed.) in Autism and Asperger syndrome (1991).

Bachmann, C.J., Gerste, B. and Hoffmann, F., 2018. Diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders in Germany: time trends in administrative prevalence and diagnostic stability. Autism, 22(3), pp.283-290.

Baranek, G.T., David, F.J., Poe, M.D., Stone, W.L. and Watson, L.R., 2006. Sensory Experiences Questionnaire: discriminating sensory features in young children with autism, developmental delays, and typical development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(6), pp.591-601.

Blatt, G.J., 2012. The neuropathology of autism. Scientifica, 2012.

Blumberg, S.J., Zablotsky, B., Avila, R.M., Colpe, L.J., Pringle, B.A. and Kogan, M.D., 2016. Diagnosis lost: Differences between children who had and who currently have an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. Autism, 20(7), pp.783-795.

Bruneau, N., Bonnet-Brilhault, F., Gomot, M., Adrien, J.L. and Barthélémy, C., 2003. Cortical auditory processing and communication in children with autism: electrophysiological/behavioral relations. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 51(1), pp.17-25.

Cardy, J.E.O., Flagg, E.J., Roberts, W. and Roberts, T.P., 2008. Auditory evoked fields predict language ability and impairment in children. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 68(2), pp.170-175.

Chen, F.F., Chen, S.Y. and Pai, H.C., 2019. Self-reflection and critical thinking: The influence of professional qualifications on registered nurses. Contemporary nurse, 55(1), pp.59-70.

Churches, O., Wheelwright, S., Baron-Cohen, S. and Ring, H., 2010. The N170 is not modulated by attention in autism spectrum conditions. Neuroreport, 21(6), pp.399-403.

Ferri, R., Elia, M., Agarwal, N., Lanuzza, B., Musumeci, S.A. and Pennisi, G., 2003. The mismatch negativity and the P3a components of the auditory event-related potentials in autistic low-functioning subjects. Clinical neurophysiology, 114(9), pp.1671-1680.

Garber, B.D., 2011. Parental alienation and the dynamics of the enmeshed parent–child dyad: Adultification, parentification, and infantilization. Family Court Review, 49(2), pp.322-335.

Grandin, T. and Panek, R., 2013. The autistic brain: Thinking across the spectrum. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Iarocci, G., Rombough, A., Yager, J., Weeks, DJ and Chua, R., 2010. Visual influences on speech perception in children with autism. Autism, 14(4), pp.305-320.

Jemel, B., Mimeault, D., Saint-Amour, D., Hosein, A. and Mottron, L., 2010. VEP contrast sensitivity responses reveal reduced functional segregation of mid and high filters of visual channels in autism. Journal of Vision, 10(6), pp.13-13.

Källstrand, J., Olsson, O., Nehlstedt, S.F., Sköld, M.L. and Nielzén, S., 2010. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment, 6, p.289.

Kanner, L., 1943. Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous child, 2(3), pp.217-250.

Kanner, L., 1968. Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Acta paedopsychiatrica, 35(4), pp.100-136.

Knight, B. (2017) Child autism diagnosis 'in vogue' – DW – 01/27/2017, dw.com. Deutsche Welle. Available at: https://www.dw.com/en/child-autism-diagnosis-in-vogue-in-germany/a-37306457 (Accessed: December 26, 2022).

Koh, H.C., Milne, E. and Dobkins, K., 2010. Spatial contrast sensitivity in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 40(8), pp.978-987.

Leekam, S.R., Nieto, C., Libby, S.J., Wing, L. and Gould, J., 2007. Describing the sensory abnormalities of children and adults with autism. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 37(5), pp.894-910.

Lundström, S., Reichenberg, A., Anckarsäter, H., Lichtenstein, P. and Gillberg, C., 2015. Autism phenotype versus registered diagnosis in Swedish children: prevalence trends over 10 years in general population samples. bmj, 350.

Martineau, J., Garreau, B., Barthelemy, C. and Lelord, G., 1984. Evoked potentials and P300 during sensory conditioning in autistic children. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.

McDonagh, M. (2019) Why are so many children being diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders?, The Irish Times. The Irish Times. Available at: https://www.irishtimes.com/life-and-style/health-family/parenting/why-are-so-many-children-being-diagnosed-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-1.4055335 (Accessed: December 26, 2022).

McGowan, E., Elliott, N. and Stokes, E., 2018. Leadership capabilities of physiotherapy leaders in Ireland: Part 2. Clinical specialists and advanced physiotherapy practitioners. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice.

Minshew, N.J., Sweeney, J. and Luna, B., 2002. Autism as a selective disorder of complex information processing and underdevelopment of neocortical systems. Molecular psychiatry, 7(2), pp.S14-S15.

Miyazaki M, Fujii E, Saijo T, Mori K, Hashimoto T, Kagami S, Kuroda Y 2007 Short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials in infantile autism: evidence of hyperactivity in the right primary somatosensory area. Dev Med Child Neurol 49: 13–17

Miyazaki, M., Fujii, E., Saijo, T., Mori, K., Hashimoto, T., Kagami, S. and Kuroda, Y., 2007. Short?latency somatosensory evoked potentials in infantile autism: Evidence of hyperactivity in the right primary somatosensory area. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 49(1), pp.13-17.

Monk, C.S., Weng, S.J., Wiggins, J.L., Kurapati, N., Louro, H.M., Carrasco, M., Maslowsky, J., Risi, S. and Lord, C., 2010. Neural circuitry of emotional face processing in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, 35(2), pp.105-114.

Roberts, T.P., Khan, S.Y., Rey, M., Monroe, J.F., Cannon, K., Blaskey, L., Woldoff, S., Qasmieh, S., Gandal, M., Schmidt, G.L. and Zarnow, D.M., 2010. MEG detection of delayed auditory evoked responses in autism spectrum disorders: towards an imaging biomarker for autism. Autism Research, 3(1), pp.8-18.

Rødgaard, E.M., Jensen, K., Vergnes, J.N., Soulières, I. and Mottron, L., 2019. Temporal changes in effect sizes of studies comparing individuals with and without autism: a meta-analysis. JAMA psychiatry, 76(11), pp.1124-1132.

Rose, J. (2016) How many children are misdiagnosed with autism? the rates continue to rise, Romper. Romper. Available at: https://www.romper.com/p/how-many-children-are-misdiagnosed-with-autism-the-rates-continue-to-rise-17484 (Accessed: December 26, 2022).
Rowland, D., 2020. Differential diagnosis of autism: a causal analysis. J Neurol Neurophysiol, 11(489), p.2.

Roy, R. and Uekusa, S., 2020. Collaborative autoethnography:“Self-reflection” as a timely alternative research approach during the global pandemic. Qualitative Research Journal.

Schrader, J. (2015) What if the diagnosis of autism is wrong?, Psychology Today. Sussex Publishers. Available at: https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/listen-the-kids/201508/what-if-the-diagnosis-autism-is-wrong (Accessed: December 26, 2022).

Stefan, C.A. and Cheie, L., 2022. Self-compassion and social anxiety in late adolescence: Contributions of self-reflection and insight. Self and Identity, 21(2), pp.210-222. 

Talsma, D., Senkowski, D., Soto-Faraco, S. and Woldorff, M.G., 2010. The multifaceted interplay between attention and multisensory integration. Trends in cognitive sciences, 14(9), pp.400-410.

Tawiah, A.K., Borthwick, A. and Woodhouse, L., 2018. Advanced physiotherapy practice: a qualitative study on the potential challenges and barriers to implementation in Ghana. Physiotherapy theory and practice.

Tawiah, A.K., Desmeules, F., Finucane, L., Lewis, J., Wieler, M., Stokes, E. and Woodhouse, L.J., 2021. Advanced practice in physiotherapy: a global survey. Physiotherapy, 113, pp.168-176.

Vlamings, P.H.J.M., Jonkman, L.M., van Daalen, E., van der Gaag, R.J. and Kemner, C., 2010. Basic abnormalities in visual processing affect face processing at an early age in autism spectrum disorder. Biological psychiatry, 68(12), pp.1107-1113.

Whitehouse, A.J. and Bishop, D.V., 2008. Do children with autism ‘switch off’to speech sounds? An investigation using event?related potentials. Developmental science, 11(4), pp.516-524.

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HCT343 Research Methods and Data Analysis in Healthcare Assignment Sample

Assignment Task

Title: - Correlation of socioeconomic status and health-related quality of life in parents of children with Autism in India


The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between health- related quality of life and socioeconomic status in caregivers of autism children in India.


1) To assess the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores of HRQoL using SF 12 in parents of children with Autism in India
2) To evaluate the association between socioeconomic status and Health- related quality of life (HRQoL) in caregivers of children with Autism in India.

• Inclusion Criteria:-

Parents of children with Autism
Child with autism should be from the age of 4 yrs to 18yrs.

• Exclusion Criteria:- Parents of children with autism who have morbidities.

Methods: -

Study design: - A cross-sectional, non-experimental design. The primary variables of interest are HRQoL and socioeconomic status by modified Kuppuswamy socioeconomic scale

• Data Analysis: - Paired sample t-tests will be used to assess the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores of HRQoL.
• The Pearson Product Moment Correlation will be used to measure the relationship between socioeconomic status and HRQol in caregivers of children with Autism.


1) There is no correlation between health-related quality of life and socioeconomic status in caregivers of children who are autistic in India.


1. Project laid Summary

Autism is one of the most severe neuropsychiatric disorders that affect children. The subject's Autistic can be characterised by the impairments of interactive social behaviour in a stereotypical manner (Joseph et al., 2022). The absence of the ability to perform tasks properly can impact oral health. The sense and constant care of helplessness drastically affect the quality of life. The respective disease occurs due to the neurodevelopment that is identified at the early stages of growth of the children and prior to attaining three years of age of a child. The presence of the condition Autism delayed the development of social and communication skills and fixed or restricted behavioural patterns. Many types of research are carried out to understand the condition of Autism in India and provide the information that around 18 million people in the country are suffering from the condition of Autism. It is also reported that the number of children affected by Autism is increasing day by day (Divan et al., 2021). Some of the researchers also claim that socioeconomic status and health-related quality of life of the parents of children are correlated with Autism; however, most of them are unable to provide deep information. A lack of primary research is also found regarding Autism to establish a correlation between this and socioeconomic status and health-related quality of life in parents of children for assignment help.

The issue with most of the previous studies is that those consider small sample sizes and also consider healthy parents, so the aim of the research is not gratified. Hence, the respective study aims to investigate the relationship between the health-related quality of life in parents and socioeconomic status in a total of 50 participants. All the participants have at least one child with Autism. The data is collected by using 12 scales of HRQL, and the socioeconomic status of the participants is modified and collected through the scale of Kuppuswamy. The collected data is presented in tabular form, followed by statistical analysis to establish the research objectives.

2. Background of the study

The disorder of Autism is a type of complex disability that is increasing day by day throughout the world and also in the country of India. The disability of children not only brings a financial burden for the family members, especially the parents; it also impacts the social health, psychological health and physical health of the families (Goldberg, McCormick and Virginia, 2021). In most cases, parents with Autism affected children revealed a lower quality of life if that is compared with the other parents who have healthy children and also the parents with physically disabled children.

Physicians and caregivers provide the information that children with the condition ASD not only develop neuro-developmental disorders yet also lead to problems that require proper treatment and medical attention (Keeley, 2021). Hence it can be stated that it impacted the quality of life of the parents due to the pressure of treatment of the child and related expenses. However, the respective disease develops a lifelong disability that limits the child's educational, social, and occupational demands in all stages of life. Hence the children require lifelong support from parents, which is a kind of burden for the family. The World Health Organisation also shows worry regarding the condition of Autism because it not only affects children and families, it also dismantles the growth of society (Grinker, 2020).

The diagnosis process of Autism is also complicated and difficult due to the absence of specific medical tests. There are various tools discovered by physicians to test Autism in children. WHO recommended the requirements for a diagnosis of behaviour and mental conditions. The ICD-10 test is preferable in the UK, while the USA prefers DSM-5. “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS)” is used in India (Kim et al., 2022). At the same time, there are various risk factors that are associated with Autism, parental age, heredity or family history and so on. The research provides the information parents who have one child affected through Autism also have the chance of having Autism in a second child also. Consequently, a clear understanding of Autism and its correlation with socioeconomic status and health-related quality of life require enlightenment to change the lifestyle of parents (Prakash et al., 2021). Recommended improvement of quality-of-life families with children of Autism also supports the growth of societies.

a) Data Search

b) Critical appraisal of research literature, Analysis, synthesis and evaluation of research literature

Autism is the third most developed disability in the world. According to Abbeduto et al. (2014), the developed countries, due to a lack of awareness regarding Autism, are affected mostly. Not only lack of awareness, poor diagnosis and lack of primary needs for Autism also increase the risks and numbers of affected people. As per some of the studies, the condition of Autism is developed due to genetic and environmental causes. While some others provide the information that low birth rate, viral infections during the time of pregnancy, metabolic imbalances and family history are responsible for the development of Autism. Detection of Autism in the early stage of childhood is challenging. However, the condition is properly diagnosed at the age of two years. As per Adler and Ostrove's (1999) view, though Autism cannot be diagnosed at an early stage, it can be understood through observation, as most of them develop difficulties in communication and the development of appropriate social relationships. Parents try to hide their conditions of Autism due to a lack of awareness about their mental health. Even many people are unaware that their conditions can impact newborn children. The affected children with age exhibit various abnormal behaviours and are subjected to filthy remarks, humiliation, bullying and so on.

There is no such cure for the condition of Autism in children due to the absence of drugs. However, appropriate awareness is effective for performing and adopting appropriate requirements to manage Autism. Based on the view of Bromley et al. (2014), Cognitive behaviour therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy, behavioural management therapy and so on. On the contrary, another research provides the information that Autism in children can be managed through medication treatment, school-based therapy, nutritious food and so on. Speech therapy is also considered by the physician in most cases of Autism. There upon it can be stated that the supportive system of Autism requires appropriate investment, which brings huge economic pressure upon the parents and to family. Children with Autism can lead happy lives if they are raised in a proper healthy, and happy environment. However, economic pressure, in most cases, brings disturbance within the environment of the home (Ahmed, Buheji and Fardan, 2020). In some of the cases, it is also observed that parents lose their ability to parent due to the economic pressure of treatment in a place where psychiatric and physical challenges take place.

As opined by Harman (2014), mothers experienced higher levels of stress. Some societies blamed mothers for the condition of Autism. At the same time, some parents try to find out the reason for Autism that, delays the whole process of diagnosis. With the reference of Hicks, Jason, (2018), incorrect diagnosis also increases the issues of the parents and family members. Secondly, children with Autism require support on their everyday chores, which decreases the occupational involvement of parents and ultimately impact economic conditions (Hastings et al., 2005). The schools that are run by the country's government are not effective due to the absence of infrastructure, which ultimately leads the parents to take private support services. Socioeconomic conditions are also impacted because Autism affected children are unable to travel by public transport in most cases for their mental and physical conditions. Thus, it can be stated that socioeconomic conditions are related to the life of parents of children with Autism.

The health-related quality of life means HRQoL is one of the most important measures that are not only effective for understanding the health of people with Autism, but it is also effective for understanding mental health. Based on the view of Algahtani et al. (2021), HRQoL is a kind of approach that is effective in measuring various health outcomes by proper evaluation of an individual's emotional, psychosocial and physical well-being as well. As stated by Meadan, Halle and Ebata, (2010), Paediatric Quality of life systematically addresses various problems such as social functioning, school functioning, and emotional functioning. Further, every domain of this is broken down into various factors. All of this is to support the children with Autism as well as the parents.

Most of the literature focuses on the families and parents with Autism and also disabilities and disorders. However, very few focus on increasing the quality of life of the affected children and their family members (rehab council.nic.in, 2022). While detection of Autism is quite difficult, increasing the quality of life can be able to support the parents and also the affected child. Treatment of Autism has also involved the education of parents and the spreading of awareness and also of caregivers. According to Rizk, Pizur-Barnekow and Darragh (2011), Caregivers are able to support children with Autism. However, lack of knowledge and investments from the sides of Government and infrastructure related to the respective care increase the issues of them. Pharmacological treatment for Autism is mostly preferred and widely practised in developed countries like India.

3. Purpose of study

The aim of the respective study is to evaluate the correlation between socioeconomic status and health-related quality of life in the family members and parents of children with Autism on the basis of a case study of the country India. The aim of the research is to recommend to parents with Autism children some remedies that are effective in maintaining the quality of life of themselves and also of their children.

a) Null hypothesis

There is no such correlation between socioeconomic status and health-related quality of life in the parents of children with Autism in country India.

b) Objectives

The objectives of the respective study are as follows:

? To evaluate the correlation of socioeconomic status of life in parents of children with Autism in India
? To evaluate health-related quality of life in health-related quality of life in parents of children with Autism in India
? To develop appropriate awareness in a married couple to manage the risks of Autism in pregnancy
? To recommend some remedies to the parents for managing the lifestyle of Autism Children

4. Research design

The socioeconomic status of the individual is an important parameter for determining the status of the individual in society (Wani, 2019).In this regard, importance is given to occupation, earnings as well as education. Henceforth it can be regarded that these parameters play a pivotal role in shaping the nutritional condition and the subsequent health condition of individuals and families in general (Nielsen et al., 2021). In the current topic, thus, it becomes imperative to determine the socioeconomic status of the parents of the children who are suffering from Autism in India. Thus, this determination of socioeconomic status would help to reflect the quality of life that the parents of autistic children are leading in India. Thus, the correlation study helps to understand the association that exists between socioeconomic status and the quality of life that these parents are leading.

In this regard, it is essential to formulate the categories in which these parents can be classified. These categories would help to understand the exact choice of the participants who will be chosen for conducting this study (Patino and Ferreira, 2018). The inclusion and exclusion criteria for the selection of the participants are as follows

a)Inclusion Criteria:

• Parents who have children suffering from Autism
• Parents are strictly from India
• Parents who have given consent to participate in the survey
• The parent can respond to the questions of the survey.
• The different parameters of threw socioeconomic status have been taken into consideration.

b) Exclusion Criteria

• Parents who do not have children suffering from Autism.

• Parents who are residing outside of India.

• Since Autism is a sensitive topic, the parents who have not given consent to participate in the survey have been excluded from the survey.

• The parents who are not in a mental or physical situation to respond to the questions have been excluded from the survey.

• The socioeconomic status of the patients has been considered in this respect, and the other aspects of life, like the physiological or the psychological parameters of the concerned, have been excluded from the survey since the focus is on the determination of the socioeconomic status of the parents and their relation with the quality of life that they are leading.

Thus, it can be inferred that the study is strictly concentrated on evaluating the socioeconomic status of the parents whose children are suffering from Autism. The parents of autistic children are only taken for conducting this survey. Moreover, it can be inferred that the parents' consent was taken before conducting the survey since Autism is a sensitive issue and ethical consideration must be given utter priority in this regard. The parents who have not opted to answer the questions of the survey have not been included in this research study. The study is this directed towards the goal, and it diverts itself from the unnecessary consideration of the aspects unrelated to the survey. For instance, this study avoids focusing on the parents who are residing outside India and thus focuses only on the estimation of the scenario of the parents who are residing in India. Furthermore, the physiological or psychological aspects of the parents have not been considered in this regard. The focus of the study is thus centred on finding the socio-economic status of the parents whose children are suffering from Autism in India.

c) Sample size

In this case, it is essential to determine the appropriate sample size, and this can be determined by the calculation of G power. The sample size is a crucial factor in the determination of the statistical accuracy of the results (Kang, 2021). The difference between the alternate and the null hypothesis is also determined by the sample size, and this can be predicted with the help of G power. Thus, the G power estimation is quite essential in the development of the research design of the scientific study.

The sample of 50 participants was taken by considering the G power of the population. In this case, the previous research has shown that the result of the correlation test has a tendency to have a positive value (Kivimäki et al.,2020). The p-value of 0.05 has been considered in this regard since the 5% level of significance is taken. In this kind of condition, the power of 0.8 is quite instrumental in diminishing the occurrence of the type-II error, and the effective sample size is 0.3. Thus, by considering all the necessary coefficients of correlation(r), the effective size is 0.478, and thus, in this respect, the sample size of approximately 35 would be quite conducive for performing the statistical analysis. Thus, we have considered the sample size of 50, and this is in good agreement with the G power of the sample size. In this respect, it must be noted that the smaller sample size would lead to the depleted statistical accuracy of the calculation that would be conducted, and this would also imply that the standard deviation from the mean would also be low. Thus, an accurate idea about the G power will help in ensuring that the size is adequate and it does not lead to the generation of excessive standard deviation, which can be regarded as an impediment to the accuracy of the statistical analysis. As discussed earlier ethical considerations have been taken into consideration, and thus it is essential to take the consent of the parents. The sample number of 50 reflects the number of participants who have agreed to participate in the study. A total of 62 participants had been approached for the survey, and among them, 12 participants opted to stay out of the survey. Henceforth the sample size of 50 has been considered for conducting this survey.
d) Data Collection

It is essential to evaluate the appropriate research methodology that will be conducive to procuring the research goals and objectives. The two types of research methods that are predominant in the scientific world are quantitative and qualitative types of research (Thelwall, and Nevill, 2021). In this research context, it was essential to evaluate the relationship between the socio-economic status and the healthy life of the parents whose children have been suffering from Autism. Firstly, it can be noted that the survey was conducted with the aid of the randomly chosen 50 parents whose children have suffered from Autism. This survey was conducted to evaluate the correlation between the socio-economic status and the healthy lifestyle of the concerned individuals. Thus, in this context, primary quantitative research has been performed to determine the effect of socioeconomic status on the health-related quality of life of the parents whose children have been suffering from Autism in India.

In this respect, the modified Kuppuswamy scale will be used, and 5the scoring will be done accordingly to measure the different parameters of the socio-economic status of the participants in India. The first aspect of measurement is the educational qualities of the parents of autistic children. In indicating this regard, the highest education is awarded a score of 7, while the illiterate participants are given a score of 1. The occupation of the participants will also be marked accordingly, with the people holding important positions in the government or private sectors getting a score of 10 while the unemployed participants are awarded 1. Again, in the case of income, the people belonging to the highest income categories will be awarded a score of 12, while people earning the least amount will be awarded a score of 1. Furthermore, it should be noted that according to the latest Kuppuswamy scale, the upper classes of the society are awarded a score of 26-29, while the people belonging to the lowest strata of the economic ladder will be given a score of 5. Thus, the higher scores of the participants indicate that they enjoy a better socio-economic position in society than the other participants.

The datasets will be properly estimated with the aid of the appropriate methods, and this will be instrumental in establishing the research goals (Sovacool, Axsen, and Sorrell, 2018). In the current research, the randomly selected parents whose children have been suffering from Autism were chosen, and their socio-economic status was estimated with the aid of the SF-12 and taking the modified Kuppuswamy scale for determining the socio-economic status of the parents. The data was collected after the completion of the survey, and it contained information related to the economics and education of the participants. The appropriate statistical test will help to depict the scores of the participants in the survey.

In this regard, the descriptive statistics will be calculated with the aid of Excel, and this will help to form a comprehensive idea about the responses that will be collected from the participants, and this will reflect the overall socio-economic status of the participants. A blank model 0f descriptive statistics is given below.

Table 1: A blank model of descriptive statistics
(Source-Self created)

The statistical analysis of the data collected from the survey will help to analyze the effect of the socio-economic status on the health-related quality of life. Here in this context, the Excel analysis was performed to conduct the correlation of the data that was collected from the survey (Miot, 2018). Table 2 determines the meaning of the values that are obtained from the statistical analysis of the data set which is available. Again, this relationship can be both; positive and negative (Mat Roni et al., 2020). The positive value determines that the variables in question get increased with the enhancement of the variable. A negative association can also exist, which implies that with the increase in one variable, another variable gets diminished.

Table 2: Meaning of the correlation values
(Source-Self created)

5. Ethical governance and consideration

Ethical consideration has been taken by the Ministry of Health and family welfare under the government of India. In this case, 50 people have been considered for undertaking the survey since it deals with a sensitive issue like child autism. Thus, the parents will be made to sign a petition of consent to affirm that they do not have any issues with sharing the relevant personal information. In this regard, the research design of the study has been made in consideration of the ethical aspects, and the consent forms of the parents will be submitted to the ministry of health and family welfare. The parents will be sent the questions through email, and this inline survey will ensure that the parents won't have to bear unnecessary trouble for participating in the survey. The parents whose children have been suffering from Autism can respond to the questions from the comfort of their homes since the survey will be conducted online mode. Thus, the parents would also feel comfortable sharing their personal details since this project will be conducted under the governance of an appropriate state agency. The reliability of the project would ensure the proper response from all the participants. Moreover, a detailed report about the progress of the survey will be presented to the learned experts after conducting the survey. These experts will review the scenario of the project properly and will also strategize some necessary recommendations that are related to the research study. These recommendations, according to the review of the scenario by then experts in the field, will be submitted to the government organization from time to time. Thus, the project related to the evaluation of the socioeconomic status and the quality of life of the parents whose children are suffering from Autism has been depicted by considering the ethical aspects and the proper governance of the project. The supervision of the concerned experts and the government agency would aid in fulfilling the research goals.


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CAM520 Global Health System Assignment Sample

Prepare a written report for assignment help to improve the capacity of the Australian health care system to address the evolving health needs of a target population. Choose one of the 31 Australian Primary Health Networks as the context for your report. Draw upon the epidemiological and demographic information in the most recent PHN needs assessment done by your chosen PHN. Your report will make four (4) evidence-based recommendations for change in the primary health care sector and discuss possible implementation strategies. Justify the proposed changes against Duckett’s criteria for an ideal health system – equity of outcomes, quality of care, efficiency, and acceptability for health consumers.



The Primary Health networks or PHNs are funded by the Department of Health of the Australian government in order to manage and coordinate the delivery of Primary Health care within the diverse regions of Australia. PHNs serves as an independent organization which focuses on assessing and evaluating the health needs of a community and providing significant health services to the general population according to their need as well as their favourable situation (Bates et al. 2022 p. 4). There are two significant goals of a Primary Health network which guide and account for the services the particular organization conducts. It focuses on improving and enhancing the effectiveness of the significant health services provided to people with a high risk of depraved health outcomes (Australian Government, 2022, p. 1). It also aims on improvising and supports the coordination of significant and necessary health-related services to the people in need along with increasing available and easy access to better care along with ensured quality service delivery. There are 31 Primary Health networks within Australia which function independently with an aim to minimize the risk of poor health outcomes as well as connect people with significant health services and maintain appropriate care delivery to people within significant time and locality (Australian Government, 2022, p. 1). In the following assessment, North Coast PHN has been selected out of the 31 Primary Health care networks in order to evaluate its significance in maintaining significant health service and quality care delivery within a certain target population of Australia. The assessment will thus focus on assessing the significant target population based on the epidemiological and demographic information accounted for by the north coast PHN in order to provide better health services and facilities to the general population of Australia.

Target population and health needs:

With growing age, the risk of several health issues and conditions develops in an elderly individual. According to World Health Organization, the common health issues or conditions witnessed by an elderly individual throughout the world account for osteoarthritis, diabetes, depression, hearing issues, loss of vision, dementia, a chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, joint pains as well as refractive error (WHO, 2022, p. 1). Within the premises of Australia, one in every five older individuals accounting for 22% of the overall population have reported the issues defies related to stroke, as well as heart or vascular complications. It has been found that 7% of the population sustains the risk of cancer while 15% are accounted to live with diabetes. Also, glaucoma, cataracts, blindness or muscular degeneration are also some of the issues witnessed by the elderly population living in Australia which develops a state of deprived quality of life and unhealthy ageing. With growing age the risk to sustain multiple health issues increases which serve as a depriving factor within their health conditions as well as the quality of living (Israeli et al. 2022, p. 3). The elderly population also sustains the development of several health conditions or stability which comes with growing age and they are generally accounted as geriatric syndromes. These syndromes serve as a prime factor in the development of different health issues and sufferings within an elderly individual such as the risk of falls, pressure ulcers, frailty, delirium as well as urinary incontinence. With growing age as well as significant health complications the basic needs and requirements of aged individual accounts for personal security, safety, financial stability, physical and mental health, significant health care services, management of health challenges along with self-actualization (Nguyen et al. 2022, p. 6). Thus this aged population explains the need of maintaining healthy ageing with growing time which explains the need of enhancing and improvising the significant physical environment they are ageing, the services they are provided with as well as the opportunities they sustain in order to maintain a healthy lifestyle as well as management of their health issues. It has been found that acknowledging the ageing population and significant planning for their benefit is one of the necessary investments for the future of the Australian population as it can ensure benefits for the younger generations as well as those who are growing older (Davern et al. 2020, p. 17).

According to the North Coast PHN, it has been found that more than 20% of the overall population of North Coast belongs to the age group of 65 and above when compared to those of Australia and NSW where the statistics are 15.7% and 18.5% respectively. It also highlights that more than 15.8% of the age population explains the need for assistance in conducting their core activities (North Coast Collective, 2022, p. 1). It was found that healthy ageing and living was the second health issue faced by the population of North Coast as well as a significant regional strategy in order to ensure better ageing within the elderly population. The health need assessment conducted by North Coast PHN highlighted the need for significant collaboration and partnership of health professionals with the elderly population in order to manage their health as well as the risk of sustaining illness. It was found that the elderly population mainly needs assistance based on non-disease approaches such as health care expenses or cost, overcoming the barrier of distance to seek services, and informed and well-guided services based on residential care or home-based care (North Coast PHN, 2022, p. 1).

Evidence-based recommendations and implementation strategies against Duckett’s health system criteria

Recommendation 1:

Access to transportation as well as health care services are two prime factors that serve as a barrier in the process of healthy ageing in the older population it has been found that travelling long distances to seek health care services often becomes a major issue for the older population as with growing edge several disabilities and mobility issues increases (North Coast Collective, 2022, p. 1). Also according to the North Coast PHN, it has been found that distance of travel was one of the issues reported by the general population which serves as a barrier to accessing significant health services. It was found that in order to seek specialist care and service, 42.9% of the population reported having issues due to the distance of travel that they had to meet (North Coast PHN, 2022, p. 1). Also in terms of allied health services such as podiatrists, dentists or physiotherapists the distance of travel was also a common barrier reported by 29.9% of the population. the population living on the North Coast explain the need to travel distance to seek better services in relation to their mental health condition as they lacked significant counselling and psychiatric services within their local premises. Approximately 40.3% of the population reported having a lack of services in their mental health facilities which has a direct association with the increased need for travelling distance (North Coast PHN, 2022, p.1). Hence focusing on the issues of travelling long distances as well as lack of services it is recommended that significant home-based or residential care services are provided to the elderly population on the northern coast. It is necessary that the elderly population or the population with a demand for healthy ageing are provided with significant attention and resources within their homes instead of nursing homes to seek better health conditions and undergo healthy ageing (Gordon et al. 2020, p. 75). Thus the North Coast PHN needs to develop a significant health care team which precisely functions on providing home-based care or residential care two people with increased health needs. In order to implement the strategy, it is necessary to develop a significant proposal with collaboration from other stakeholders such as local government, national government, NGOs, the Primary Health network as well as professionals with skills and experience in delivering home-based care. The intervention or the strategy will highlight the delivery of services to people in relation to their health needs living in every demographic condition in order to maintain equitable outcomes (Siette et al. 2021, p. 997). According to Duckett’s health system criteria equity of outcome explains that every individual belonging to every demographic or epidemiological condition is provided with equal and rightful opportunities in terms of their health and well being. Home-based care and residential care explains the significant delivery of services and health needs to the aged population with disability issues or mobility barriers within their living premises. It serves by minimizing or removing the need of traveling distances in order to seek better services as well as bringing effective specialist care and interventions at home to the people in need (Doh, Smith and Gevers, 2020, p. 1371). The recommendation in relation to the Primary Health network will ensure that people living on the North Coast with the need for home-based care will sustain a significant opportunity for healthy ageing with minimized risk of travel discomfort. Also, home-based care will reduce the increased health expenditure which rises with the need to travel long distances in order to seek specialists and professionals in relation to their health issues such as mental health, physiotherapies as well as other underlying health issues.

Recommendation 2:

It was found from the elderly population of the North Coast explains the lack of understanding and guidance related to the services as well as resources that are available in relation to their health issues. From the North Coast PHN, it was found that in relation to mental health services 35.3% of the population reported that they do not understand or are sure about what kind of services are available for their treatment (North Coast PHN, 2022, p. 1). In relation to alcohol and other drug services it has been found that out of 50.4% belonging to the age group of 15 to 64 years, 38.1% reported a similar issue of having a knowledge barrier about the services or facilities that are available. Also, 35.2% of the population belonging to 15 to 64 years reported that in relation to age-specific services these sustain and charity as well as lack of understanding of the diverse range of services or treatment facilities that are available within their communities (North Coast PHN 2022, p. 1). Thus, based on this statistical evidence it is recommended that significant awareness and guidance strategies or measures should be taken into account in order to guide and educate the population regarding the services as well as facilities that are available (Archibald and Kitson 2020, p. 99). According to Duckett health system criteria, acceptability for health consumers explains the suitable and appropriate guidance or services delivery to health consumers in relation to their health and well beings. Thus their recommendation explains that the North Coast Primary Health services need to guide the population regarding the services and treatments that are available to respective illnesses two people in need the implementation strategies for the recommendation explain the usage of primary healthcare services which will function in delivering appropriate guidance and knowledge to the local people as well as the communities.

Recommendation 3:

On assessing the North Coast PHN evidence on the local Health Network as well as services attainment by the general population as well as the issues they witnessed while seeking access to health services it was found that cost was one of the common factors which was identified in each aspect of health service. In terms of seeking specialist care, allied health, mental health services, alcohol and drug services, general practice as well as age-specific services. In each of the health service aspects, more than 25% of the population reported witnessing issues with cost in terms of their health care (North Coast PHN 2022, p. 1). With a lack of knowledge about available services the increased risk of spending a higher amount of economy on inappropriate diagnoses, medicines as well as services (Le et al. 2021, p. 5). By providing significant guidance and knowledge in relation to the available services the elderly population sustains the ability to invest their healthcare funds and economy in relatable and appropriate health services in terms of their underlying issues. Also, elderly health care funds must be ensured to people with financial instability in order to assist them in seeking better ageing and sustain efficient and effective services in terms of health according to Duckett’s criteria.

Recommendation 4:

It was also found from the North Coast PHN statistics it was found that in terms of age-specific services approximately 31.1% of the population reported having difficulty in organizing their services and care along with the daily necessities. They reported having issues with managing doctors’ appointments, normal domestic support and assistance as well as care packages with funding. Thus, it is recommended that significant home-based nursing care is provided to patients with deteriorating health conditions where they lose their ability to manage home-based services as well as their health care needs (North Coast PHN 2022, p. 1). According to ducats criteria, the recommendation will focus on providing effective and efficient services to elderly people and guide them through healthy ageing.


It can be stated that the elderly population of Australia explains the increased need for significant and necessary services related to their health and well being in order to restore the process of healthy ageing. The North Coast PHN highlighted the significant needs explained by the elderly population of the North Coast related to their health and the ageing process. Thus focusing on the needs as well as the risks sustained by these populations significant recommendations had been made and guided in the assessment which will serve in ensuring the process of healthy ageing. These recommendations are maintained using buckets health system criteria which guide equity of outcomes, quality of cash, efficacy as well as acceptability. The North Coast PHN explains the need for certain recommendations which highlight the implementation of advanced and well-organized home-based or residential care for age populations, cost-effective treatment intervention or health care funds as well as maintaining education and awareness in terms of health services available.


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PBHL20003 Social Epidemiology and Statistics Assignment Sample

Task description

The literature review provides an overview of the social epidemiological aspects of your topic that you chose for Assessment 2. It summarises broad trends in the literature on your topic and highlights important points in selected articles. The review task includes:

The literature review is due in the last week of Term. However, your preparation should commence at Week 1 to familiarize yourself with the Library and its academic databases, how to conduct literature searches, select material and structure your Review. The University library and CQU Student Learning Support provide online guides and individual sessions; and workshops on academic writing, academic integrity and referencing. You also have access to resources such as Studiosity.

Choosing the literature to include in your assignment help is important. Only peer-reviewed scholarly material should be used. You need to note various views and approaches contained in the literature and to choose works to include without bias or preconceived ideas. Journal articles are often more relevant than books due to the long lead time between the writing and publication of books and because journals are often the forum where the latest thinking on a topic appears.




Malaria has been accounted as one of the major global health priorities as the prevalence of malaria has been affected worldwide nations. According to World Malaria Report published in the year 2020, it has been found that approximately 229,000,000 case reports of malaria have been witnessed in the year 2019 (World Health Organization 2022, p. 1). The report highlights that children belonging to the age of five and below are one of the most susceptible and vulnerable target populations for malaria. Also, the report highlights that in the year 2019 approximately 67% of death cases were identified associated with malaria throughout the world (World Health Organization 2022 p. 1). The National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System and NNBSS reported the identification of 9291 case reports of diseases that are suspected to be transmitted by mosquitoes from the year 2010 to 2011 (Knope 2013, p. 3). It has also been evaluated and acknowledged that malaria has been one of the historical endemics for the population of Australia which was significantly declared eradicated since they are 1981. As the condition of malaria has no longer been accounted as an endemic condition, there are still 700 to 800 cases of malaria reported each year within the population of Australia who are accounted as frequent travellers.

One of the target populations of malaria within the premises of Australia accounts for Papua New Guinea’s population has it has been found that more than 95% of the population belonging to the New Guinea are found living in regions where the risk of malaria transmission is significantly higher than any other communities. The case reports of malaria within the premises of the Western Pacific region of Australia highlight that more than three fourth of the cases of malaria on identified within the Papua New Guinea population (Australian High Commission Papua New Guinea 2022, p. 1). The National Health and Medical Research Council has provided $21,860,617.00 to the field of malaria research in the year 2020 which is divided among ideas grants and investigator grants (NHMRC 2022, p. 1). Focusing on the rising prevalence of malaria as well as the increased risk of the infection within the Papua New Guinea population as well as other communities of Australia, the following literature review will focus on assessing significant literature evidence available in terms of malaria in the Australian population. It is necessary to develop significant literature analysis to evaluate the conditions sustained by the general population of Australia as well as Papua New Guinea as well as significant strategies and supportive actions that the government must take into account to provide them with safer and secured health outcomes. The increased prevalence of malaria within the target population, the significant factors which are associated with the increased risk of the condition as well as the services that are provided as well as those that need to be enhanced within the target population will be evaluated in the following Literature review.


To conduct a significant literature review, it will be necessary to identify, select and further evaluate sets of literature evidence with the help of inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as a literature search. The inclusion criteria focus on highlighting the criteria based on which the research articles will be selected from electronic databases. Articles which are published between the year 2010 to 2022 will be selected as well as those which are published in the English language (Patino and Ferreira 2018, p. 1). Also, the articles discuss the prevalence of malaria as well as associated factors within the target population such as Australia and Papua New Guinea to be precise. Electronic databases such as PubMed will be used to attain a significant set of literature articles which are peer-reviewed and authentic (Patino and Ferreira 2018, p. 2). The literature review will focus on the methodology target population, significant findings as well as the research gap that are identified within the selected research articles to evaluate a significant set of evidence for the assessment.

Literature analysis:

Theme 1: socioeconomic stability and diversity associated with increased risk of malaria in Papua New Guinea population

According to the research carried out by Davy et al. (2010, p. 1), it has been found that malaria has been one of the major burdens of health within nations with low-income values and standards first up the research was carried out focusing on the treatment-seeking behaviour in terms of malaria within one of the low-income population of Australia accounting for Papua New Guinea. The research was carried out focusing on a cross-sectional survey between two linguistically, culturally as well as demographically different regions where the Papua New Guinea population were residing. The cross-sectional survey relied on household evidence which was taken from both sides accounting for approximately 928 individuals (Davy et al. 2010, p. 3). These individuals were suspected and reported to be suffering from malaria within the past month and those evidence were taken into account based on the associated factors. These factors highlighted the significant treatment day accounted for, the factors that were associated with their living condition as well as other environmental aspects which are highly associated with the prevalence of malaria. The results of the study highlighted that formal health care treatment facilities, as well as cultural values, had a significant factor in the treatment-seeking behaviour of these target populations (Davy et al. 2010, p. 3). It was found that traditional healers, cultural practices as well as formal health care facilities are counted as the major treatment factors in terms of malaria within the target population. The research developed a significant gap in highlighting the precise cultural values and perspectives that serves as a major contributing factor to the risk of malaria as well as treatment-seeking behavior within the Papua New Guinea population (Davy et al. 2010, p, 5).

It was also found in a different research studies carried out by Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al. (2019, p. 3) that one of the significant causes of the increased risk of malaria within the Papua New Guinea population was lack of significant hygiene maintained within the general household activities. It was also found that personal hygiene, as well as environmental cleanliness, was significantly low within the population which increased the favourable setting of water contamination and further growth of mosquitoes breeding. Also maintaining significant hygiene such as hand cleaning, cooking with clean water, drinking clean water or maintaining sanitation throughout the surrounding was highly associated with the increased risk of malaria as these practices were effectively low within the target population (Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al. 2019, p. 3). It was found that behavioural factors such as drinking clean water, eating healthy food as well as maintaining nutritional value were appropriately and effectively low within the target population which does expose them to increased risk of malaria when compared to other populations. it was assessed that poverty as well as diversity web significantly functioning within the target population which exposes them to inappropriate cleanliness maintenance as well as safety measures implementation within a their daily routine (Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al. 2019, p. 3).

Theme 2: Climate change, and biodiversity within Papua New Guinea and other Australian communities

It has been found from a research study conducted by Imai et al. (2016, p 4), that climate change, as well as biodiversity, has a significant impact on the pop one new journey population increased prevalence of malaria. It has also been evaluated that malaria being a public health concern in the selected population highlights the vulnerability towards the change in climate as well as their increased sensitivity towards malarial mosquitoes. The research was carried out focusing on the time series method which was intended to evaluate the incidence of malaria associated with the weather as well as changing climate. The changing climate, as well as weather, accounted for increased or fluctuation in temperature, precipitation as well as change in global phenomena associated with climate (Imai et al. 2016, p 4). The research findings confirm that change in local weather has an increased influence on the increased risk of malaria within the target population along with a significant association with the change in global climate. The research highlighted a major literature gap where it appropriately discusses the local weather which is highly identified within the selected region’s weather in Papua New Guinea population colonized (Imai et al. 2016, p 4).

Another significant research was carried out by a researcher Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al. (2021, p. 2), which highlighted the transmission of malaria within the depopulation of Papua New Guinea. It focused on assessing the social, cultural as well as other demographic factors which have a significant impact on the change in the epidemiology of malaria within the target population. The research was carried out using a mixed-method design where two significant sites in the Papua New Guinea population were selected as the target sample. These selected target populations were involved in in-depth interviews, and discussions as well as cross-sectional survey based on malaria indicators but further implemented in the research to sustain a wide range of evidence (Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al. 2021, p. 2). The reason for the study identified that majority of the population spends this substantial amount of time in the outdoor settings which increased their risk to get exposed to increase mosquito bites. It was found that living within the outdoor setting, sleeping in the outdoor environment as well as increased mosquito bites were the factors highly associated with the increased prevalence of malaria within the Papua New Guinea population. It was also found that adult men had an increased risk of malaria due to working in the outdoor settings still late at night and also sleeping outside (Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al. 2021, p. 2).

Synthesis Table:


To conclude it can be stated that Australia has an increased prevalence of malaria despite eradication of the condition as one of the major public health concerns. It has been found that the Papua New Guinea population under administrative rule of Australian territory sustains an increased prevalence of malaria and thus serves as a public health concern. It has been found that there are several factors which serve in increased risk of malaria within the population such as poverty, climate change, diversity, cultural values as well as maintaining significant hygiene and healthy routine. After conducting the literature it has been found that there is a significant gap in the literature which precisely focuses on the Papua New general population as well as the biodiversity and the socio-economic condition they live which exposes them to increased risk of malaria and associated complications first of all so further research must be carried out to assess the significant treatment facilities and policies that are provided to them to fight against the prevalence of malaria.


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