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PUBH6013 Qualitative Research Methods Assignment Sample


This assessment addresses the following learning outcomes:

c) Apply qualitative research methods through undertaking data collection through, e.g. focus group, interviews, observational methods.

d) Appreciate cultural and ethical considerations for qualitative research in Public Health

e) Understand sampling techniques, bias and rigour as they apply to qualitative research

f) Apply coding and analysis techniques to qualitative data


Analysis: Use the resources in module six to:

1. Code the data that you collect from your interviewees.

2. Develop themes based on your coding.

3. Report on the themes that you’ve identified, supported by relevant quotes from your interviewees. Report this part in the same style as the results section of a qualitative journal article.

Reflection: reflect on your experience of interviewing and analysing the data. What did you do well, and what did you struggle with? What could you learn to do better? What did you learn through this experience?



The current research is about the reasoning behind the diabetes among the Australian indigenous community. The research question is significant to identify the main reason of Diabetes and its effect on the life-expectancy among the Australian indigenous community. The primary research based on online papers gave a set of organised data but cannot fulfil the criteria of the research on likelihood of diabetes. The likelihood criteria can be derived from interviewing questions on selected participants. The current research proceeds with the data analysis based on interviewing. The interviews have been taken as face-to-face session where the researcher can notice the expression and actions while responding to a question. This will help a researcher to develop coding because the reaction of the respondents help enables researcher to develop their perceptions. While transcribing an interview, the researcher find some physical gesture and give better answer to a question, rather than their verbal expression. In this paper, the development of coding and theme development will be analysed in this way, on the proposed research.

Analysis and findings of interview

The study reflects a participatory action approach for conducting their interview sessions. In these interview sessions, the participants are selected from the local healthcare who have good knowledge on the health of indigenous people. Unlike the primary research, the participatory actions find out some surplus data which can create the challenge of diversion (Crosley & Jansen, 2020). The researcher is able to highlight only the relevant data while developing coding for the research.


The first step of coding is familiarization. It is conducted by transcribing the recording of participants’ interviews (Cristancho & Helmich, 2019). From the interviews of healthcare participants, the research finds out that the Likelihood of diabetes, obesity and hypertension occurs mostly in mid-aged females whereas most of them are pregnant. The same respondent informed that most of the diabetic women are from aboriginal ethnicity. Another participants respondent that he has observed the likelihood of death in diabetes is mostly among Torrens-islanders while the general mortality rate of these community is better than the non-indigenous. It implies that the indigenous people have better life-expectancy rate than the non-indigenous but they are prone to suffer in Chronic disease which slows down the dying process. From another respondent, it is drawn that the indigenous people refuse to take the primary healthcare as they believe in their traditional medicines. A team of respondent who were treating on the narcotic patients informed that the consumptions of alcohol is higher in indigenous patients compared to the non-indigenous populations. It implies that the alcohol can be a major cause in diabetes. After checking all the notes, the coding is developed in this way:

Developing codes

Notes taken from interview transcriptions


the prevalence of diabetes, obesity and hypertension occurs mostly in mid-aged females. Most of them are pregnant aboriginal women.

           Likelihood of diabetes

           Likelihood of obesity

          Likelihood of hypertension






likelihood of death in diabetes is mostly among Torrens-islanders while the general mortality rate of these community is better than the non-indigenous.

           death in diabetes

           diabetes likelihood


           mortality rate


indigenous people refuse to take the primary healthcare as they believe in their traditional medicines

           indigenous people

           primary healthcare



           traditional medicines

the consumptions of alcohol is higher in indigenous patients compared to the non-indigenous populations

           Alcohol consumption


           indigenous patients

           non-indigenous populations


Developing Themes

In the coding process, the research gathers the raw data of Diabetes disease of indigenous people. In the theme developing process, it will reach to the actual meaning derived from the raw data set (Caulfield, 2020). By looking on the patterns of the codes, the study will combine the codes into the theme. The unnecessary codes will be eliminated while the main codes will be categorized by matching their patterns. The eliminated codes can also be combined into a theme but the researcher has to remind that the data which are relevant in regards to the research objective, only taken (Crosley & Jansen, 2020). This indicates an inductive coding while giving importance to the didactive data indicates the didactive coding. Here the data that concludes the research question, ‘the likelihood of diabetes among Australian indigenous populations’, reflects inductive coding. The data those take part in addressing common symptoms of diabetes or alcohol addiction of aboriginal people, captures different broader contexts. These are called didactive coding. The didactive codes can form themes which are not relevant to this current context. For example, the diabetics patients have common diseases like obesity and hypertension. This will create less impact while developing strategies to prevent diabetes. This can be used as symptoms. The reference of females and their age group is important to this research because it will help in medicine research (Radcliffe et al., 2020). Now the study shows how it develops themes by mapping the relationship between codes.



·         Likelihood of diabetes

·         Females

·         Mid-aged

·         Aboriginal


Likelihood of diabetes among mid-aged aboriginal females.

·         Likelihood of diabetes

·         Females

·         Pregnant

·         Aboriginal

Likelihood of diabetes among pregnant aboriginal females.

·         death in diabetes

·         diabetes likelihood

·         Torrens-islanders

The likelihood of death among Torrens-islanders in diabetes

·         indigenous people

·         primary healthcare

·         diabetes likelihood


The primary healthcare of indigenous diabetic patients

·         indigenous people

·         traditional medicines

·         diabetes likelihood


The use of traditional medicines in indigenous diabetics.

·         Alcohol consumption

·         indigenous patients

·         diabetes likelihood

Alcohol consumption among indigenous diabetic patients



From the above table it can be shown that the meaningful codes are only used which can answer the problem of this research. It avoids unnecessary themes development like mortality rate among indigenous; mortality rate among diabetics; mortality rate among alcoholic; alcoholic among indigenous; and chronic disease among diabetes. The purpose is to locate the genetic DNA of indigenous and their likelihood of developing diabetes, which is detected through this research.


As the research is conducted in a cross-cultural environment, as a researcher I feel it is very necessary to take some ethical consideration of the research. Before making any decision, I should check my biasness to any culture. Through out my research, from data collection to decision making, I am on the track of moral behaviour and justice. I have maintained the respect for all the cultures discussed in this research. Also, I select participants of healthcare from various cultural backgrounds. They were both from Indigenous and non-indigenous background. It helped me to check the consistency of their statement. Also, I tried to put the social context of indigenous people which is often ignored in the health research. I have drawn this from value coding. My research is not bounded within men, rather I have mentioned the special needs of women health in the research of Diabetes (Goins et al, 2020). I felt the inclusion of woman is very necessary in this research as the healthcare of the marginalised woman is overlooked or challenged in Australian society. I have mentioned the need of primary care among diabetes patients as I observed from the transcriptions of participants that the indigenous women often do not get the primary care in the time of child birth. From the conversation of the respondents, I came to know that the social belief among indigenous are profound. They believe in traditional medicines. So, they refuse to take the help of primary healthcare which I have highlighted in my research. I have addressed the habit of drinking among indigenous patients because alcohol can be a major driver of diabetes. I have to consider the ethical challenges of a social research as it is not purely a medical research.
Being a researcher, I am obliged to keep confide the names of the participants, their healthcare organizations and the patient’s personal case history data given by them. During the research I used my personal laptop for recording their video, as I need to watch their physical expressions also. I found it is helpful in this research as most of the participants are from different cultures and languages. Some of them have no clarity of speaking but they try to express the meaning. For this reason, a visual observation is important.


Developing codes and themes are important to make a research question. In this study, we observe only didactive coding which ideates many references. It helps to assess the proposed idea that whether diabetes occur more in indigenous. An inductive coding will answer it by gathering and connecting all the data. An inductive coding helps to reach to the conclusion of a research question and used in getting a research theory out of codes. Though the initial target of coding is to interpret the data and familiarise the data, it also reflects the value coding which indicates the cultural value through the health attitude of indigenous people.While moving from coding to analysation, the core topic qualitative data analysis comes. The researcher analyses the data and locates the code categorization. The categorization and data set of codes combinedly develop themes. The inductive coding gives a proper answer of the research question that there is a genetical connection between Diabetes and Indigenous community.


Caulfield, J. (2020). How to do thematic analysis. Scribber. How to Do Thematic Analysis | A Step-by-Step Guide & Examples (scribbr.com)[5th Aug 2021]

Cristancho, S. M., &Helmich, E. (2019). Rich pictures: a companion method for qualitative research in medical education. Medical Education, 53(9), 916–924. https://doi-org.torrens.idm.oclc.org/10.1111/medu.13890

Crosley, J., & Jansen, D. (2020).Qualitative Data Coding 101:How to code qualitative data, explained simply.Gradcoach. Qualitative Data Coding: Explained Simply (With Examples) - Grad Coach [5th Aug 2021]

Goins, R. T., Jones, J., Schure, M., Winchester, B., & Bradley, V. (2020). Type 2 diabetes management among older American Indians: beliefs, attitudes, and practices. Ethnicity & Health, 25(8), 1055–1071. https://doi-org.torrens.idm.oclc.org/10.1080/13557858.2018.1493092

Radcliffe, P., Canfield, M., Lucas D’Oliveira, A. F. P., Finch, E., Segura, L., Torrens, M., & Gilchrist, G. (2020). Patterns of alcohol use among men receiving treatment for heroin and/or cocaine use in England, Brazil and Spain. A cross-country analysis. Drugs: Education, Prevention & Policy, 27(4), 297–305. https://doi-org.torrens.idm.oclc.org/10.1080/09687637.2019.1658715

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PUBH6004 Leadership and Effecting Change in Public Health Assignment Sample

Assessment 2 - Public Health Professionals

In this nursing assignment help, you will be provided a scenario (problem) involving a public health leader that you will need to analyse using the knowledge gained from this subject for 3 modules. Subsequently, immersing yourself in the scenario, you will evaluate yourself as a public health leader. (Note: Case study will be provided after Module 2). You will be writing a 2000?word report in three parts, as follows:

Part 1:

Analyse the scenario of the public health leader, presented in the Australian public health context using the Australian Health Leadership Framework [1000 words] (Australian Health Leadership Framework: https://www.aims.org.au/documents/item/352)

Part 2:

Undertake a self?assessment using the Leadership self?assessment tool [500 words ] http://www.springboard.health.nsw.gov.au/sat/documents/leadershipassessmenttool.pdf Apply the tool to obtain your results. (The tool is not automatic – you need to apply it honestly)

Part 3:

Imagine yourself to be in the situation. Reflect on your leadership style, its strengths, and apply them to this scenario. How would you have responded to the situation based on the self?evaluation in part 2? Where do you see the gaps in your profile? Prepare an action plan. [500 words] Assessment Criteria: Your graded assignment will be assessed against the following specific criteria: • Demonstrated ability to analyse public health leadership scenario in the context, applying the Australian Health Leadership Framework to the scenario presented (40%) • Demonstrated ability to self?assess leadership style, summarise and critique (10%) • Demonstrated ability to contextualise, reflect on leadership style, assess gaps and prepare an action plan for improvement (30%) • General assessment criteria (20%): o Provides a lucid introduction o Shows a sophisticated understanding of the key issues o Shows ability to interpret relevant information and literature in relation to chosen topic o Demonstrates a capacity to explain and apply relevant concepts o Shows evidence of reading beyond the required readings o Justifies any conclusions reached with well?formed arguments and not merely assertions o Provides a conclusion or summary o Correctly uses academic writing, presentation and grammar: ? Complies with academic standards of legibility, referencing and bibliographical details(including reference list) ? Writes clearly, with accurate spelling and grammar as well as proper sentence and paragraph construction ? Uses appropriate APA style for citing and referencing research


In this assessment the analysis of the case study of the public health leader is being done by using the knowledge of the subject and further the self-assessment test for being a leader has been conducted. In the end the analysis of the self-leadership position considering the case study provided is being presented.

Part 1

Public Health Leader Role

According to research, it has been seen that the quality of health leadership tends to affect directly and indirectly the quality of patient care and is one of the most critical factors for supporting the practice that is best in the industry (aims.org.au, 2022, p3). Health leads Australia had been made by the research and dialogue and had been made on the existing and validated work of the global platform and tends to focus on the capabilities needed to deal with the health issues in Australia (Pinto, & Bloch, 2017, p3).

Health LEADS Australia: leadership framework

1. Leads Self: The leadership process is never complete, and it is always a topic of work in progress (aims.org.au, 2022, p7).

2. Engaging Others: Leaders tend to enable the people to engage with the vision or goal by stories and explanations that relate to the complexities (aims.org.au, 2022, p8).

3. Achieving the outcomes: The people who are the leader need to work to make an individual difference (aims.org.au, 2022, p8).

4. Driving Innovation: It tends to include the fundamental business changes for the business and the models of care for achieving people-centered quality services (aims.org.au, 2022, p9).

5. Shape system: Health is a complex system that is evolving where all the parts involving the services are interconnected with the legislation and the funding (org.au, 2022, p9).

Part 2

Defining Leadership

Leadership is an art through which a person can motivate a group of people for acting towards achieving a common goal (Kiral, 2020, p1). According to the report of R. T. (2021, para 28), leadership does not tend to rely on the attributes of the individuals as well as it does not focus on the relationship dyadic between the leaders and the followers that tends to be the starting point of the leadership. In other words, it can be said that leadership is essential collective by nature and involves the activities of initiating, developing, deciding, and supporting as well as challenging and executing the elements that are independent (R. T. 2021, para 28).

It has been observed from the self-assessment that often I don’t tend to be engaged with other people in order to follow proper services direction that can be made and a vision for the health (heti.nsw.gov.au, 2022, p5). I also found out that I sometimes discuss only those factors which I feel are important that can impact the future of the health of a person.In Achieving Outcomescategory I have got 3 ‘a lot of the time’, 4 ‘some of the time’ and 1 ‘very little/never’. Through the self-assessment, I have also found out that before speaking, I sometimes keep my attitudes, beliefs, and behavior of mine in consideration and how it will affect others. I continuously look for opportunities that I need to learn and develop. However, I sometimes lose my calm and fail to ‘walk the talk’ with the values and beliefs of mine.In Developing and Leading self category I have got 2 ‘a lot of the time’, 5 ‘some of the time’ and 1 ‘very little/never’.In order to solve specific problems, I sometimes spend time with the team and discuss the work together while assisting them in finding out different issues that tend to affect the performance. However, I sometimes fail to create opportunities for people from other professions so that they can learn from one another. In Engaging people and building relationship I have got 1 ‘a lot of the time’, 7 ‘some of the time’ and 0 ‘very little/never’.

I have also observed that I have failed to challenge the work related practices and has failed to inspire people to change. In Partnering and collaborating across boundaries I have got 0 ‘a lot of the time’, 5 ‘some of the time’ and 3 ‘very little/never’.I also fail to take every stakeholders perspective when making decisions. Further I ask people to come up with new ideas as well as apply new information in the delivery nut fails to put forward the solution that are designed to meet the requirements (/heti.edu.au, 2022, p17). In Transforming the system I have got 1 ‘a lot of the time’, 5 ‘some of the time’ and 2 ‘very little/never.

Part 3

Reflection according to Case Study

Leadership Style: If I was in the situation of Dr John and wanted to make changes in the hospital while making improvement in public health, then I would be using Transformational leadership as it is one of the most effective styles (Eliyana, &Ma’arif, 2019, p1).

Strengths: Some of the strengths of my leadership style include having the ability to motivate others. I can encourage the employees to move from a self-interest attitude to the mindset in which they have been working for the common good. I am also able to hold emphasis on authenticity cooperation and make clear communication.

Application: There is a difference between being a leader of the business and a leader of public health; according to (TRIMESTER 1 Module 1. (2022, p3), Rowitz stated that a successful public health leader refers to the one with vision, decisiveness and who are the excellent communication and change agents as well as who are willing to take risks. In this case, I would have been having the convictions of the value and will be committed deeply to improving the health of everyone in the community. I would also be mentoring and providing the right set of training to the team so that the desired results could be achieved (Rasa, 2022, p4). Also, my emotional intelligence is highly energetic, and I am passionate regarding my work as a health practitioner (Mollah, et al., 2018, p7). I have strong moral values and try to encourage other people to follow the same (Bonsu, &Twum-Danso, 2018, p11). I believe in working in an ethical manner and with clean values and clear priorities. Using transformational leadership will be necessary because it is a type of leadership where the leader and follower are empowered each other’s motivation and morality (Louw, Muriithi&Radloff, 2018, p 2).

Gaps: From the self-evaluation, I have found out that along with the strengths of emotional intelligence and empathy, I also have specific gaps. I tend to become nervous during times when there is enormous pressure. Often because of my busy schedule, I am not much able to assist other people in their work. I also find it challenging to negotiate with the stakeholders, and keeping everyone's perspective in mind while making decisions becomes difficult.

Action Plan


From the above analysis it has been seen that Dr John was an effective public health leader. He was able to identify the changes that were needed in the hospital and also was able to grab the opportunity of becoming an leader by meeting the bureaucrats at the public gathering. He had full determination and strong values on which he worked upon. He also treated other people equally and encouraged the team to come up with new ideas. The self assessment shows that I have strong emotional intelligence and ethical values with the help of which I can motivate and encourage the team in an effective manner. However, I need to work upon the negotiation skills and the quality to remain calm during work pressure.


Bonsu, S., &Twum-Danso, E. (2018). Leadership style in the global economy: A focus on cross-cultural and transformational leadership. Journal of Marketing and Management, 9(2), 37-52.https://gsmi-ijgb.com/wp-content/uploads/JMM-V9-N2-P04-Samuel-Bonsu-Global-Economy.pdf


Eliyana, A., &Ma’arif, S. (2019). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment effect in the transformational leadership towards employee performance. European Research on Management and Business Economics, 25(3), 144-150.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2444883418300196

Health Education and Training Institute Higher Education Academic Quality Assurance Framework. heti.edu.au. (2022). Retrieved 26 March 2022, from https://heti.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/485708/HETI-Academic-Quality-Assurance-Framework-v1.1.pdf.

Health LEADS Australia: the Australian health leadership framework. Aims.org.au. (2022). Retrieved March 23 2022, from https://www.aims.org.au/documents/item/352.

Herro, D., Quigley, C., Andrews, J., & Delacruz, G. (2017). Co-Measure: developing an assessment for student collaboration in STEAM activities. International journal of STEM education, 4(1), 1-12.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40594-017-0094-z

Kiral, E. (2020). Excellent Leadership Theory in Education. Journal of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies, 4(1), n1.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2095771817300944

Lee, C. S., Ooi, A. S., Zenn, M. R., & Song, D. H. (2018). The utility of a master of business administration degree in plastic surgery: determining motivations and outcomes of a formal business education among plastic surgeons. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Global Open, 6(6).https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6157935/

Louw, L., Muriithi, S. M., &Radloff, S. (2018). The relationship between transformational leadership and leadership effectiveness in Kenyan indigenous banks.http://dspace.daystar.ac.ke/xmlui/bitstream/handle/123456789/3609/The%20relationship%20between%20transformational.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Mollah, T. N., Antoniades, J., Lafeer, F. I., &Brijnath, B. (2018). How do mental health practitioners operationalise cultural competency in everyday practice? A qualitative analysis. BMC Health Services Research, 18(1), 1-12.https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1186/s12913-018-3296-2.pdf

Pinto, A. D., & Bloch, G. (2017). Framework for building primary care capacity to address the social determinants of health. Canadian Family Physician, 63(11), e476-e482.https://www.cfp.ca/content/63/11/e476.short

Rasa, J. (2022). Developing influential health leaders: the critical elements for success. Jhmhp.amegroups.com. Retrieved March 23 2022, from https://jhmhp.amegroups.com/article/view/5595/html.

The Leadership and Management Framework. Heti.nsw.gov.au. (2022). Retrieved 26 March 2022, from https://www.heti.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/622950/LMDED-Framework-Self-Assessment-Tool-2020_PRINT.pdf.

What is Leadership?. TRIMESTER 1 HE 2022 PUBH6004 ONLINE M1831 CRN 529 Module 1. (2022). Retrieved March 23 2022, from https://docs.google.com/document/d/1-vDbVuYJIuE9UFXCZIMV3UTxv7Px7DUsI2L40ARFEhA/edit.

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PUBH6012: Capstone B Applied Research Project in Public Health Assignment Sample

Assignment Brief

Individual/Group - Individual or Group
Length - 5,000 words

Learning Outcomes for assignment help:

This assessment addresses the following learning outcomes:

1. Integrate and apply their knowledge and skills in public health
2. Apply research skills to a public health issue
3. Analyse the results of data collected from research, taking into consideration prior evidence and theory
4. Understand the ethical implications for conducting a piece of public health research
6. Create a final research report

Submission - By 11:55pm AEST/AEDT Sunday of Week 10
Weighting - 80%
Total Marks - 100 marks 


This assessment advanced skills in reporting the justification, methods, results, and conclusions of a research project. Key understanding contained includes how to justify a research project using literature, how to implement a research proposal to collect and analyse data, how to report the results of the analysis of data, how to contextualise one’s own research in the context of the wider body of literature, and how to draw conclusions about future research and recommendations based on research. This prepares students for the conduct and reporting of research, which is an important skill set for public health practitioners.


Part 1: Due Sunday end of Module 1 Week 1

Based on the feedback from your Capstone a Research Proposal, revise your research plan and GANTT chart.

Submit these to your Capstone A facilitator by Sunday end of Module 1 Week 1. You may not proceed with your data collection until this has been approved by your supervising facilitator.

Part 2:

The final assignment for this subject will be the write-up of the findings of your research into a final report. This will be comprised of the following parts:

1) Abstract

a. Summary of your report (as you would find in a published research article)

2) Introduction

a. Introduction to and justification of the topic area, drawing upon your literature review (from Capstone A), and including the knowledge gap your project addresses
b. Your research question

3) Research design and methods

a. Summarise your research design/methods (from Capstone A) – what type of project did you do?
b. How did you collect the data (i.e. search strategy and process/ policy consultation process)? If a policy consultation, explain how any organizations/individuals that you consulted with were approached
c. How did you analyse the data (i.e. thematic analysis, systematic review process, consultation synthesis)?
d. Briefly explain the ethical issues that should be considered

4) Results

a. Report the results of your findings, e.g. key themes if a qualitative study, results in table
format if a quantitative study
b. Clearly explain key figures, tables and graphs

5) Discussion: Interpretation and contextualization of your results

a. Place your results in the context of your literature review
b. Contextualise the results within the academic literature
c. Describe any limitations of your study

6) Conclusion

a. Conclusions from this study
b. Recommendations for future research or policy change based on feasible solutions

7) Supplementary material

a. Reference List
b. Any appendices

This research report format has been based on the standard format for a journal article, and thus may be submitted to a journal in the future if the student is interested.

NOTE: due to the time constraints around submission and peer review, a submitted article will not be required as part of this subject. If you wish to develop a journal article, you may seek advice on how to do this at the end of the Capstone.

Assessment Criteria:

• Revised and approved project plan and GANTT chart (5%)
• Clear executive summary/abstract which condenses the findings of the report (10%)
• Clear justification and outline of the significance of the topic (5%)
• Justification of the research design and methods, including ethical considerations (10%)
• Clear presentation of results, with transparency of findings (20%)
• Comprehensive discussion of the results within the context of previous studies/theory, and identification of the limitations of the study, with recommendations for future research (30%)
• Conclusion with logical recommendations related to the findings and wider literature (10%)
• General assessment criteria (10%):
• Provides a lucid introduction
• Shows a sophisticated understanding of the key issues
• Shows ability to interpret relevant information and literature in relation to
chosen topic
• Demonstrates a capacity to explain and apply relevant concepts
• Shows evidence of reading beyond the required readings
• Justifies any conclusions reached with well-formed arguments and not merely assertions
• Provides a conclusion or summary
• Correctly uses academic writing, presentation and grammar:
• Complies with academic standards of legibility, referencing and bibliographical details (including reference list)
• Writes clearly, with accurate spelling and grammar as well as proper sentence and paragraph construction
• Uses appropriate APA style for citing and referencing research




In reproductive aged women, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a very common endocrine disorder. Also, PCOS is common in ethnic diversity in its manifestation. The study has focused on genetic and phenotype studies in Asian women with PCOS. It is very common that East Asians hirsutism score cutoff is lower than the Caucasian counterpart, and they are less hirsute. Across ethnicities, it is not clear about any significant differences in the characteristics of polycystic ovary (PCO), or prevalence, or severity of irregular menstruation (IM). In East Asian patients, the IM/PCO subgroup is a relatively common phenotype, but it is not the same among Caucasian patients (Kim & Choi, 2019). The prevalence of insulin resistance acts as a major determinant of PCOS among Asian women. In East Asian patients, a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome and lower body mass index (BMI) were reported. However, as per comparative report, Asian women with PCOS were likely to have metabolic complications and diabetes than Caucasian patients, despite lower BMI. South Asian patients showed severe metabolic risks and insulin resistance, an increased degree of hirsutism, early onset of symptoms compared with Caucasians. In the pathogenesis of PCOS, genetic components play an important role, and between Asian and Caucasian patients, similar genetic risk factors exist suggested by the wide association studies of PCOS. Across different ethnicities, ongoing comparative studies are required to manage PCOS and the standardization of the diagnosis (Kim & Choi, 2019).

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has clinical manifestation, which varies from mild to severe disturbance of metabolic functions and reproductive functions. As PCOS affects 1 woman out of 5 women of reproductive age, it has clinical and public health importance across the various regions. The high level of androgen in women could lead to PCOS in women. It has diverse clinical implications such as reproductive features (hirsutism and hyperandrogenism), impaired glucose tolerance, and psychological features (anxiety, depression). Moreover, itis an X-linked dominant condition. PCOS in women is widely dependent on ethnicity, environmental, genetic factors, including body weight and lifestyle of the women. Therefore, weight loss increases the chances of ovulation and pregnancy and improves the endocrine profile. With medications such as aromatase inhibitors, clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen, and gonadotrophins, PCOS can be treated. When other treatment fails, the last option for fertilization is in vitro fertilization. According to different studies based on Spain and the USA, its prevalence is estimated at 4-8%. Moreover, fertility can be improved by maintaining a lifestyle, including diet, exercise, and behavior therapy (Qureshi et al., 2016). As stoutness initiated insulin opposition fundamentally exasperates PCOS highlights, it has interesting collaborations with the steadily expanding heftiness commonness around the world. How PCOS affects long-term health should be provided to women through education. Also, this education can make the women feel physical and psychological benefits so that with their health care providers, they could engage themselves more freely (Qureshi et al., 2016).

Polycystic ovarian condition (PCOS) is believed to be the most widely recognized endocrine problem in ladies. Regular indications incorporate unpredictable polycystic ovaries, hirsutism, and feminine cycle, just as an expanded danger for a huge number of conditions, including dyslipidemia, insulin obstruction and barrenness. The commonness of polycystic ovarian disorder is by and large idea to be somewhere in the range of 3% and 10% however it is broadly obscure for explicit subpopulations dependent on geological area and race/nationality. In light of the serious level of inconstancy and irregularities between the diverse analytic standards, there is a one of a kind test that exists while deciding the commonness of this disorder. There is a huge level of people that stay undiscovered even in the wake of visiting different medical services suppliers. Most examinations led across the world are restricted by little example size, determination inclination, and absence of similarity across considers. There have been not very many investigations that have analyzed the commonness of polycystic ovary condition across the United States. In view of the National Institutes of Health (NIH's) symptomatic measures, there is a comparable commonness of PCOS recorded across the United Kingdom, United States, Greece, Spain, Mexico, and Australia. Different examinations have shown a few contrasts between geological area and race. The current data isn't enough persuading to choose if there are any basic differences in the inescapability of PCOS across geological territory, racial or ethnic get-togethers. This audit will try to decide the commonness of polycystic ovarian condition dependent on geological area and race/nationality

Justification of the study

In this study, it is essential to monitor the women's metabolic and cardiovascular wellbeing and upgraded the related dangers to distinguish ladies with the analysis. Based on geographical location and race or ethnicity, the prevalence of the polycystic ovarian syndrome is widely unknown for specific subpopulations, which is generally thought to be between 3% and 10% (Wolf et al., 2018). While deciding the predominance of this disorder, a one of a kind test exists dependent on the serious level of fluctuation and irregularities between the distinctive analytic measures. According to many researchers, South Asian women have the lowest prevalence of PCOS. The geographical location plays a key role to influence the prevalence of PCOS (Wolf et al., 2018). So here, it is important to focus on Asian Women to understand various determinants of PCOS in the regions.

Literature Review

The epigenetic change can explain the difference illustrated in the twin studies combined with the genetic loci. This could contribute to PCOS pathogenesis and symptom development if external factors alter the expression of these genes. According to the epigenetic theoretical model, an individual is more in control of his mental and physical health condition that he thinks. The vulnerability relating to PCOS condition in Asian women can be minimized by making positive changes (Raperport& Homburg, 2019).

Making lifestyle changes to curtail obesity, ensuring frequent and timely health screening and diagnosis and living in a healthy environment are few measures to control risk factors and determinant of PCOS (Ding et al., 2017). Generally, Chinese women are at the lowest risk of developing PCOS and Caucasian women and females residing in the Middle East, with Black women having the highest risks of developing the syndrome under the same diagnostic criterion of PCOS. The healthcare management priority, ethical variation in screening, and diagnosis play an integral role in influencing the prevalence of PCOS (Ding et al., 2017).

In the etiology, predominance, and adjustment of polycystic ovary condition (PCOS), an assortment of ecological variables is conceivably included. Other than this, ecological poisons, diet and nourishment, financial status, and geology are the fundamental natural variables. In upsetting conceptive wellbeing, ecological poisons assume a part is obvious in some examination, however what these poisons may mean for the advancement of PCOS has very limited research study. Much research explained that PCOS symptoms could be reduced with weight loss among obese women and certain dietary supplements (Merkin et al., 2016). Further, more research is required in preventing or mitigating the development of PCOS to compare various approaches to nutritional factors and weight loss that may play a role. Some research explains with certain PCOS phenotypes has some association with low socioeconomic status. But socio-economic conditions during youth or pre-adulthood that might be more applicable to the formative beginning of PCOS requires more focal point of the specialists (Amiri et al., 2020). The worldwide examples of PCOS are conceivably important pointers of hereditary, social, and ecological variables that may add to abundance hazard in specific districts of the world, which should be tended to the restricted extent of tantamount global investigations on PCOS (Merkin et al., 2016).

The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire (PCOSQ) and the Short Form-a day and a half (36) were managed in a cross-sectional study to 129 Caucasian ladies and 42 South Asian determined to have PCOS enrolled from the gynecology outpatient centers of two college showing clinics in Sheffield and Leeds. Extra clinical information was disconnected from clinical notes. Regularizing information, gathered as a component of the Oxford Health and Lifestyles II review, was acquired to contrast SF-36 outcomes and ethnically coordinated with ladies from the overall UK populace. Utilizing the SF-36, regulating HRQoL scores for ladies of South Asian source were lower than for Caucasian ladies. Given this lower benchmark we tried whether a similar relationship remains constant among those with PCOS

Research questions

1. What are the major driving determinants of PCOS?
2. Why this region influences the prevalence of PCOS?
3. What are the measures that can be taken to control risk factors?

Research Design and Methods

A systematic investigation and a secondary research design pertaining to the topic ‘Determinants of PCOS among Asian Women’ has been conveyed in this paper. For getting a though insight into the public health issue with involving the associated determinants, the existing data relating to the topic has been considered for the research. A huge source of secondary data has been used to gather data for the research paper on the public health issues such as journal papers, institutional library and textbooks, previous research article studies, and reports from international agencies like the World Health Organization (WHO). Secondary data are quite helpful as it helps to get already published and incorporate with this research in order to get the better understanding. Online sources are used to gather the secondary sources and after going to various studies and their data this research paper was written.

Chart-1: Gantt Chart for the designed research paper

While designing the research paper, the researcher has taken the help of Gantt chart to identify the tasks with targeting some week. According to the planned schedule in the week 1, selecting the research topic i.e. Motivation HR issue in Boots organization has been covered. In the second week, the researcher has covered designing the secondary data collection process. In the third week, the researcher has focused on the literature to conduct the research process. Next, collecting secondary sources has been conducted in the fourth week (Aversa et al., 2020). Moreover, integrating secondary data has been evaluated in the fifth week. In the sixth week, systematic data analysis has been conducted. In the seventh week, the findings have been structured appropriately. At last week that is eighth week, devised recommendations to address the issue.

Hence, the research paper is designed to understand the ladies' metabolic and cardiovascular wellbeing and improved the related dangers to distinguish ladies with the analysis and in future it can monitor properly. The main aim of the paper is to do the critical analysis of the geographical location and race or ethnicity, the prevalence of the polycystic ovarian syndrome and identify why PCOS is widely unknown for specific subpopulations. In this research paper, major driving determinants of PCOS has been analysed and it has also focus on the prevention measures that can be taken to control risk factors has been analysed and interpreted. Accordingly, the research paper is designed to cover its primary research question that is what are the major driving determinants of PCOS? Why this region influences the prevalence of PCOS? What are the measures that can be taken to control risk factors?

Data Collection process

In this research paper, the research data is collected focusing on the secondary sources of data that includes articles, reports, and institutional library and textbooks focusing on the symptom development among women, socio-economic conditions, demographic factor, clinical issues of the geographical population referred to as risk factors among the Asian women. Further, the data collection has also focused on the internal and external factors influencing the PCOS among Asian women (Chaudhari et al., 2018).

Search Strategy and Process

There are various academic sources such as ncbi, science direct, Google scholar, ijrr journal, WHO and many more has been identified over various articles and reports on PCOS among Asian women for the search strategy of systematic review. The research paper has involved various authors’ perspectives over the topic with referring the abstract and findings between 2010 and 2020 period of time. For this paper, the researcher has specified Asian women population with identifying the assessment criteria such as analysis and interpretations containing prevalence of PCOS women, key determinants and risk factors, racial and ethnic PCOS prevalence, prevention programmes and PCOS prevalence provinces. In this paper, the contributions of the secondary source of literature and their outcomes, considered for the analysis of the data. Further, the research paper has gone into more detail to find out the research gap that is discussed (Dos Santos et al., 2020). The researcher has avoided some narrative reviews, and editorials publications, which are not specific to the PCOS Asian women. Moreover, the researcher also did not consider summarized evidences for the analysis of the research (Fokunang et al., 2013).

Data Analysis

The systematic literature review of PCOS among Asian women has been considered in the analysis of the research paper. By conducting these literature reviews, the researcher has identified the research gaps in the study ofPCOS among Asian women. Further, the research gap has been helpful to analyse and interpret the major driving determinants of PCOS and the region influences the prevalence of PCOS (Lim et al., 2019). In addition, the literature reviews also helpful to interpret the prevention measures that can be taken to control risk factors with specific recommendations. In this paper, the recent ten years’ data published between 2010 to 2020period of time has been taken to updates the systematic review of the PCOS among Asian women. Various sources of articles and reports related to public health and PCOS are studied for the systematic review. The hypothesis regarding incidence rate of PCOS in Asian women, prevalence of PCOS and risk factors has been analysedthrough studying the literature review. In the next part, the study has focused on the interpretations of prevalence and incidence among women and the association among the incidence, and prevalence of the PCOS.The research paper focused on a wide range of factors that are responsible and significantly influencing the prevalence of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) in Asian women. The paper analyzed that the PCOS in women is widely dependent on ethnicity, environmental, genetic factors, including body weight and lifestyle of the women. Comprehensive approach by healthcare professionals and individuals is necessary to control its burden. Controlling factors relating to diverse aspects such as lifestyle changes, occupational factors, and individual habits are vital to curtail PCOS-related risks (Rani et al., 2021).

Brief Descriptions of the Included Literatures in the Data Analysis

According to Qureshi et al. (2016), the high level of androgen in women could lead to PCOS in women. Kim and Choi (2019), mentions that the prevalence in insulin resistance acts as a major determinant of PCOS among Asian women (Kim & Choi, 2019). According to Wolf et al. (2018), South Asian women have lowest prevalence of PCOS (Wolf et al., 2018). The geographical location plays a key role to influence the prevalence of PCOS. Andini et al., (2019), mentioned that some of the chief factors impacting PCOS in Asian women are insulin resistance, obesity, genetics, etc. According to Ding et al. (2017), the healthcare management priority, ethical variation in screening and diagnosis plays an integral role to influence PCOS (Ding et al., 2017). Merkin et al. (2016), mentioned that some of the chief environmental determinants of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome include environmental nutrition, diet and nutrition, etc. (Merkin et al., 2016) According to Kshetrimayum et al., (2019), the lifestyle factors and environmental factors play a key role to influence the PCOS condition among women (Kshetrimayum et al., 2019). According to the author, the PCOS is a genetic disorder, which is influenced by diverse factors (Ünlütürk et al., 2016). Rani et al. (2021), mentioned that hormonal imbalance is a major determinant of the medical condition (Rani et al., 2021). Raperport & Homburg (2019), explained that the ethical background of a person plays an influential role and impacts the prevalence of PCOS (Raperport & Homburg, 2019). The prevention measures require to be considered to reduce the PCOS prevalence rate among the women, looking into the risk factor examined in the research gap from the literature review.

Ethical considerations

While conducting a research work, research ethics is an essential element of the research work. A researcher must require to adopt the research ethics, which relates to the code of conduct. If a researcher is considering ethical practices in to the research study, it is always considered as the qualified research work as the adoption of ethical practices has a direct implication on the research paper quality (Buchanan& Miller, 2006). According to the public health perspective, a research ethics always supervised with providing more preferences and taking into consideration to the benefits and risks to the society along with the research participants, who are involved in the research study (Buchanan& Miller, 2006). While working on a public health research topic, there are some of the chief ethical principles that must be adopted by the researcher such as non-maleficence, beneficence, autonomy, and justice (Moghadam et al., 2018).

Key determinants of PCOS and Risk factors for high Prevalence among Asian women

The exploration of the secondary data has revealed that various determinants of PCOS exist among Asian women. Some of the chief determinants are genetic factors, obesity and insulin resistance.

Genetic factors

For the delayed follicular growth of women with PCOS, the anomalies in calcium balance may be separately responsible. Further, it may follow up to PCOS syndrome pathogenesis. In PCOS metabolic syndrome and Insulin Resistance (IR) pathogenesis, the vitamin D deficiency may be a causal factor. A major candidate gene for PCOS is the gene of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). It is also called as the calcitriol receptor NR1I1 (Andini et al., 2020). VDR is a ligand activated transcription factor to control cell functions including homeostasis of calcium phosphate and bone metabolism, and control many endocrine functions, which mediates the vitamin D genomic activities. For potential effects of complex disease susceptibility and functional significance, various VDR polymorphisms have been examined like obesity, cardiovascular disease, tuberculosis, osteoarthritis (OA), hypertension, and high myopia.


PCOS has various factors and obesity is one of the major factors among them. The obesity has three parameters for its evaluation, which are the Waist Circumference (WC), Body Fat Percentage (BFP), and Body Mass Index (BMI). These three parameters have further divided into two categories such as the PCOS group and the balanced control group (Varanasi et al., 2018). The above-discussed three parameters are important in supporting PCOS diagnosis and screening as compare to the balanced control group, in the PCOS population the BMI, WC, and PBF have increased significantly. For predicting PCOS, Rotterdam recommendations are preferred as a gold standard (Andini et al., 2020).

Insulin resistance

Jin Ju Kim and Young Min Choi (2019), mentions that the prevalence in insulin resistance acts as a major determinant of PCOS among Asian women. In East Asian patients, a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome and lower body mass index (BMI) were reported. However, a comparative study reported that Asian women with PCOS were more likely to have metabolic complications and diabetes than Caucasian patients, despite lower BMI. South Asian patients showed severe insulin resistance and metabolic risks, an increased degree of hirsutism, early onset of symptoms compared with Caucasians. In the pathogenesis of PCOS, genetic components play an important role, and between Asian and Caucasian patients, similar genetic risk factors exist suggested by the genome wide association studies of PCOS. Across different ethnicities, ongoing comparative studies are required to manage PCOS and the standardization of the diagnosis(Kim& Choi, 2019). Insulin resistance plays an important role in PCOS pathogenesis, which results in compensatory hyperinsulinemia. Therefore, the women with PCOS have an increased risk of prediabetes, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is prevalent among women with PCOS although the prevalence across background populations differs. A research report has mentioned that indicating the Asian women with PCOS have metabolic complications as they were more likely than Whites to have diabetes. Moreover, depending on the measure used and the threshold, the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) in PCOS patients differs accordingly (Kim& Choi, 2019).

Results or findings

In this research paper, various manuscripts are described in description section, from where the collected articles provided ideas for the key determinants of the PCOS and its risk factors. The manuscripts have been analysed, and defined the table-1 explaining to categorize Complications, risks stratification, biochemical abnormalities, associated clinical features in PCOS. The overall research has implemented qualitative study in the research paper (Wijeyaratne et al., 2014).

Table- 1: Complications, risks stratification, biochemical abnormalities, associated clinical features in PCOS

The table has explained the possibility biochemical derangement of acyclic oestrogen excess has associated clinical features such as menstrual irregularity or oligomenorrhoea. It has complications like ovarian cancer, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, which has probable risk, remote risk and increased risk among the PCOS Asian women. In insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia biochemical abnormalities, the associated clinical features in PCOS include acanthosis nigricans obesity, which may result in some complications such as pregnancy induced hypertension, diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes and hypertension. Accordingly, pregnancy induced hypertension has some probable risk, diabetes mellitus has increased risk, gestational diabetes has increased risk and hypertension has probable risk stratification. Moreover, the dyslipidaemia biochemical abnormalities may leads to resulting complications coronary artery disease with having probable risk stratification. Further, the high testosterone or androstenedione, decreased sex hormone binding globulin of biochemical abnormalities has associated clinical features in PCOS such as hirsutism, frontal balding, acne, and hydradenitissuppurativa. The above table has mentioned all the risk stratification, which are resulting complications among the PCOS Asian women (Dos Santos et al., 2020).

Table-2: In an unselected female population estimated prevalence of PCOS

In the table -2, an unselected female population has estimated for the prevalence of PCOS. Looking into the 1990 NIH, the estimation of 5.5% (95% CrI: 4.8–6.3%) hasthe prevalence of PCOS for White women. In the Middle East, 6.1% (95% CrI: 5.3–7.1%), and 7.4% (95% CrI: 6.3–8.7%) has taken respectively for the corresponding figures for women residing and Black women (Ding et al., 2017). Next, jumping to the 2003 Rotterdam, the Middle East women (16.0%, 95% CrI: 13.8–18.6%) and Chinese women (5.6%, 95% CrI: 4.4–7.3%) has prevalence estimation, which is feasible. Among Chinese women, the prevalence of PCOS has almost risen to the triple in the Middle East women. For females in Middle East, under the 2006 AES, prevalence of PCOS is12.0% (95% CrI: 11.3–14.2%), under the 2003 Rotterdam it is 16.0% (95% CrI: 13.8–18.6%), and under the 1990 NIH it is 6.1% (95% CrI: 5.3–7.1%). Under the 2006 AES with the prevalence is lying in-between and under Rotterdam more than doubles the prevalence that is under the 1990 NIH (Ding et al., 2017).

Graph-: Prevalence of risk factor among PCOD women in Asia

According to the research study, the urban regions have a considerably higher proportion resided among the PCOS women. The rural regions are in middle stage and the controlled regions are found very less according to the graph. The research has mentioned that lifestyle and dietary factors are attributed for the major difference in the various regions. The Asian PCOS women requires to focus on the long?term health consequences (Deswal et al., 2019). Women can be at risk of serious if they ignore the PCOS, later which can be difficult to manage in their health condition. In this context, for better management continuous surveys and lifestyle changes should be promoted with taking initiatives (Deswal et al., 2019).

In this study, it is essential to monitor the women's metabolic and cardiovascular wellbeing and streamlined the related dangers to distinguish ladies with the determination. In view of geological area and race or identity, the commonness of the polycystic ovarian disorder is generally obscure for explicit subpopulations (Wolf et al., 2018). While deciding the pervasiveness of this disorder, an interesting test exists dependent on the serious level of changeability and irregularities between the diverse demonstrative rules. According to many researchers, South Asian women have the lowest prevalence of PCOS. The geographical location plays a key role to influence the prevalence of PCOS (Wolf et al., 2018). So here, it became very important for the Asian Women to understand various determinants of PCOS in their regions and accordingly they can change their lifestyle.

In this paper, Epigenetic theory has been used to comprehend the research findings in detail. According to the epigenetic theoretical model, an individual is more in control of his mental and physical health condition that he thinks. The vulnerability relating to PCOS condition in Asian women can be reduced by making positive changes(Raperport& Homburg, 2019).A few measures to control risk factors and determinant of PCOS such as living in healthy environment, ensuring frequent and timely health screening and diagnosis and making lifestyle changes to curtail obesity(Ding et al., 2017).The Research analysis has focused on the prevalence of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome among Asian women that has influenced by a wide range of factors. It is anlysed that comprehensive approach by healthcare professionals and individuals is necessary to control its burden (Kshetrimayum et al., 2019).

The research paper has found that to curtail PCOS-related risks, controlling factors relating diverse aspects is vital and significant. These controlling factors are individual habits, occupational factors and lifestyle changes. There exist factors like generic factors and geographical placement which cannot be controlled to influence the PCOS condition (Wolf et al., 2018). The following figure has explained Safety measures to control the determinants of PCOS among women, which can be considered in the future studies and women can get serious about the issues.

Figure-1: Safety measures to control the determinants of PCOS among women

Limitations of the study

The research paper has regional boundaries to study the determinants of PCOS among women. It has given more focus on the Asian region and the study was also focused to the gender specific. This research paper can be helpful for the state interventions to identify the gaps in the public health sector. This paper helps to find out the safety measures to control the determinants of PCOS among woman, but as it’s depends up on the secondary research so finding data is major limitation of this research paper (Aversa et al., 2020).

It is concluded that, the identification of the determinants of the PCOS among the Asian women was essential for the study as it has highlighted the chief determinants such as genetic factors, obesity and insulin resistance issues. The analysis of complications, risks stratification, biochemical abnormalities, associated clinical features in the Asian women with PCOS has also discussed. A few measures to control risk factors and determinant of PCOS such as living in healthy environment, ensuring frequent and timely health screening and diagnosis and making lifestyle changes to curtail obesity can be taken into consideration for the future studies. In future there is a need to implement intervention as the research on the PCOS public health concern has highlighted its seriousness. It adversely affects the health condition of Asian women with PCOD. There is the requirement to implement measures to control its prevalence. The prevalence of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) condition among Asian women has been examined in the research, which acts as a serious public health burden. Suitable measures need to be adopted to control the associated risks and determinants. It is recommended that the government and social workers should raise various initiative programmes for the PCOS women to spread awareness. Based on the feasible solutions the controlling factors such as individual habits, occupational factors and lifestyle changes should be taken into consideration to make changes in the health policy and research.

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PUBH6004 Leadership and Effecting Change in Public Health Assignment 2 Sample

Assignment Brief

Individual/Group - Individual
Length - 2,000 words

Learning Outcomes

This assessment addresses the following learning outcomes:
1. Critique theories, styles, approaches and strategies of leadership in public health
2. Analyze the influence of diversity on leadership (gender, culture, professional discipline and community)
3. Evaluate personal leadership strengths and areas for improvement through analysis of public health leadership frameworks

Submission - Due Sunday end of Module 3 (Week 6) by 11:55pm
Weighting - 30%
Total Marks - 100 marks


In this assignment, you will be provided a scenario (problem) for assignment help involving a public health leader that you will need to analyze using the knowledge gained from this subject for 3 modules. Subsequently, immersing yourself in the scenario, you will evaluate yourself as a public health leader. (Note: Case study will be provided after Module 2).



You will be writing a 2000?word report in three parts, as follows:

Part 1: Analyze the scenario of the public health leader, presented in the Australian public health
context using the Australian Health Leadership Framework [1000 words]
(Australian Health Leadership Framework: https://www.aims.org.au/documents/item/352)

Part 2: Undertake a self?assessment using the Leadership self?assessment tool [500 words]
Apply the tool to obtain your results. (The tool is not automatic – you need to apply it honestly)

Part 3: Imagine yourself to be in the situation. Reflect on your leadership style, its strengths, and apply them to this scenario. How would you have responded to the situation based on the self?evaluation in part 2? Where do you see the gaps in your profile? Prepare an action plan. [500 words]
Assessment Criteria:

Your graded assignment will be assessed against the following specific criteria:

• Demonstrated ability to analyze public health leadership scenario in the context, applying the Australian Health Leadership Framework to the scenario presented (40%)
• Demonstrated ability to self?assess leadership style, summaries and critique (10%)
• Demonstrated ability to contextualize, reflect on leadership style, assess gaps and prepare an action plan for improvement (30%)
• General assessment criteria (20%):
o Provides a lucid introduction
o Shows a sophisticated understanding of the key issues
o Shows ability to interpret relevant information and literature in relation to
chosen topic
o Demonstrates a capacity to explain and apply relevant concepts
o Shows evidence of reading beyond the required readings
o Justifies any conclusions reached with well?formed arguments and not merely
o Provides a conclusion or summary
o Correctly uses academic writing, presentation and grammar:
• Complies with academic standards of legibility, referencing and
bibliographical details (including reference list)
• Writes clearly, with accurate spelling and grammar as well as proper
sentence and paragraph construction
• Uses appropriate APA style for citing and referencing research




The following essay will analyze the scenario of the public health leader using the Australian Health Leadership Framework. Furthermore, a self-assessment will be undertaken and a reflection based on the personal leadership style, its strengths and application to be scenario will be discussed in detail.
Part 1: Analysis of Dr. Tania’s situation

Leadership is comparable in all businesses even if the complexity and purpose of health is acknowledged. Health leaders are trying to enhance clinical, quality of life and the health system's well-being. Research demonstrates that the quality of health leadership influences the quality of patient care directly and indirectly and promotes optimal practice (Schaye, et al., 2020). Leaders impact people, their satisfaction, management confidence, dedication, personal and team effectiveness and organisational culture and environment. Leaders play an essential part in the mobilisation of people for a shared purpose, while others are significant. Health leaders work with others to affect the quality of health and welfare and the quality of treatment for birth, disease and life (Tay, et al., 2021). Capable leadership, governance and management are crucial to success in improving the quality of life and maximizing health-related investment effect. Distributed leadership involves everyone with the ability and will to lead the way to enhance their activities to create a lively and achievable vision of an equal, effective and sustainable human centre health system. Everyone may exhibit leadership in their area of influence in order to enhance health outcomes. The Australian health leadership framework comprises of five dimensions which help in understanding the leadership character of an individual in any given scenario. Hence, for the current scenario of Dr. Tania, this framework has been implemented to understand the qualities that are present in her while managing a health situation in a clinical health setting.

The first dimension suggests leading oneself in a clinical health care setting (Health Workforce Australia, 2013). Leaders are always ongoing. They recognize their skills and their limits and dedicate themselves to reflecting on themselves and improving them. Self-awareness, self-reform, drive, empathy and social competence are seen and demonstrated. In their position and context, they show integrity and perseverance in situations that are hard (Health Workforce Australia, 2013). Dr. Tania was responsible for coordinating the national response to the Nipah virus in the first occurrence of a national health catastrophe. Hence, it can be understood that Dr. Tania is self-aware and has strength of character. It is because of this she is able to understand the background of the pandemic and has ethical integrity, resilience, and courage to face the situation by her.

The second dimension displays the ability of leaders to engage others. Leaders allow others to engage with a vision or objective by use of complicated tales and explanations (Health Workforce Australia, 2013). Leaders encourage others to recognize, learn and grow possibilities. Dr. Tania identifying stakeholders shows its capacity to depict diversity of values and cultural reactivity models (Health Workforce Australia, 2013). It recognizes first Australians and guarantees that all individuals, consumers and employees in all healthcare environments are treated with decency and respect. She also enables consumers, co-workers and others to be strengthened. She motivates and allows people to exchange ideas, to take on chances for growth and leadership and to work with high-performance teams. It is with the help of this dimension that she is able to structure an appropriate action plan to deal with the pandemic in an efficient manner.

The third dimension displays the leader’s ability to achieve outcomes (Health Workforce Australia, 2013). Leaders are those who work to change things. They create an inspirational and motivational direction, they allow energy and effort to achieve and keep an eye on your objective. Health executives are compassionate about the quality of the health care system and the sustainability (Health Workforce Australia, 2013).

The fourth dimension revolves around driving innovation of leaders (Health Workforce Australia, 2013). Health innovation is not only a new product. It incorporates significant changes in business and care paradigms in order to deliver quality services centered on people. Passionate leadership, without which the status quo cannot be challenged, is a crucial component in effective innovation (Health Workforce Australia, 2013). The fifth dimension revolves around shaping systems by leaders. Health is a complex system in development that connects all components, including services, law and finance (Health Workforce Australia, 2013). A change in one element has consequences for the entire. Leaders who know patterns of interdependency are able to explain trends and to enable solutions to maximize benefits and reduce unintentional damage or injury (Health Workforce Australia, 2013).

Part 2: Undertake a self-assessment using the leadership self-assessment tool

I have assessed my own leadership potential with the help of the leadership self-assessment tool provided by the “Health Education & Training Institute”. In order to be a successful healthcare leader, the leader must have some key skills, expertise and traits. This NSW Health leadership framework helped me to assess my leadership potential on these leadership skills (heti.nsw.gov.au, 2021). I have performed the assessment through answering some survey questions and the results of my assessment have discussed below (See appendix). This framework helped me to identify the areas of improvement for strengthening my leadership capability.

Achieving outcomes (Score = 2+3+3+3+2+2+2+3 = 20) – In this domain, I have gained a score of 20, a mixed score in different areas. For instance, I found myself accountable for performance and resources, while being able to use patient outcomes and service agreement for driving performance. However, I can improve focus on what makes a difference in results and for building a common vision for health outcomes.

Developing and leading self (Score = 3+3+3+3+3+2+2+1 = 20) – In this domain, overall I have shown strength in developing and leading self, in most of areas, I have scored the maximum point. I am good at demonstrating self-awareness, actively seeking personal growth and taking responsibility of own performance and service. However, I can improve the area of modelling desired behaviour and values. Besides, I need to improve my patience, while working under pressure (Sutherland, 2014).

Engaging people and building relationships (Score = 3+3+2+3+3+3+3+2 = 22) – I am also good in engaging people and building relationships. Relationship building and communication is one of my strengths. I got the highest score in this domain, which highlights this area as my strength. I am effective in facilitating effective team process and fostering others’ development. Harnessing talent and diversity is also plus point, but I can work more on developing ability to create workplace culture environments, where people can contribute.

Partnering and collaborating across boundaries (Score = 2+2+2+2+3+3+3+3 = 20) – I have significant scope to improve this area, as I got mixed grade, showing a lot of areas with medium points. I scored well in creating cross-sectorial collaboration and encouraging fresh insight from diverse source to foster innovation. However, I need to build ability for working across formal boundaries and inspire people through my own action to collaborate for change (AU, 2020).

Transforming the system (Score = 3 + 2 + 2 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 3 + 2 = 15) – I scored poor in this domain, the minimum score among all five domains in the self-assessment framework, .e. 15. This is indicating significant need for improving this area. In demonstrating critical and system thinking I have significant room for improvement, which is crucial for a leader. I also need to improve my political astute and ability for building support for change. My score was also poor for assessing and working through resistance and other obstacles towards change.

Part 3: Reflection on leadership style and Action plan

Reviewing the scenario of Dr. Tania, I revealed that the leader has met all the necessary leadership criteria and the domains highlighted in the leadership framework by NSW. If I was in her situation, I would adopt the “transformational leadership style”. It is because, the situation Dr. Tania faced, showed that there was a significant need for change in the healthcare system for making the workforce and system ready to deal with the crisis situations effectively. Transformational leadership is a highly regarded leadership style supporting change and innovation in organizational and industrial context. The key strength of this leadership style is the integrity and fairness and its ability to inspire others to accept and face challenges. Following this leadership style in the scenario of Dr. Tania would have helped me to inspire the workforce towards bringing change in the healthcare system, transformation of the system, proper resource management, eliminate discrimination and promote diversity and inclusion, which was highly needed in the scenario of change for equalization of medical system (van Diggele et al., 2020). Additionally, it would promote collaboration and community mobilization, required for standardization of process and increased adherence of community people towards the preventive measures. I have identified some gaps in my profile, based on the above discussed self-evaluation, based on the scores I got upon attaining the self-assessment. The following action plan would help me to fill those gaps.
Action plan

Key strengths – Communication, relationship building, team building and management, openness, self-awareness, visionary

Key priorities – Developing patience, modelling desired behaviour and values, ability to create workplace culture environments, where people can contribute, ability for working across formal boundaries, problem-solving skill, analytical skill, working through resistance and other obstacles towards change.

Development needs – I have found a lot of areas for improvement, which could contribute to my future strength and leadership ability, but currently, I need to work on developing my problem solving skill and improving patience level, while working in crisis situation. It is because, a leader has to undergo crisis situations every day and patience is foremost aspect that would help the leader to be calm and handle the situation tactfully and make effective decision. For this, I also need to have excellent problem solving skill.
Goal – My key goal is to become a patient and assertive leader, with excellent problem-solving ability by next year.

S – It specifically emphasizes upon problem solving skill development.

M – It can be measured through formative and summative assessment through leadership role play

A – It is attainable via field-specific action plans listed below.

R – It is relevant for developing leadership skill and ability to handle crisis situations like the scenario of Dr. Tania.

T – It would require 6 to 8 months to be completed.

Benefits of goal – This goal is SMART and would enrich my leadership potential and would help me to work in crisis situations like Dr. Tania.

Risks involved – No such risk is involved.

Potential obstacles – Lack of resources, lack of guidance or support, political or cultural barrier
How to overcome obstacles – I would take guidance from my supervisor to access resources and support required.

Resources – Problem solving tools, training session, supervisor’s guidance, peer support, organizational simulation, internet, computer, pen, paper

Where to access resources – These resources can be accessed online, from library and from the supervisor.


In conclusion, this framework for NSW Health leadership enabled me to evaluate my leadership potential in these leadership qualities. Following a transformative style of leadership in the Dr Tania scenario, I would have helped inspire people to change the health care system, transform the system, manage the right resources, eliminate discrimination, and promote diversity and inclusion, something that was so necessary in the changing scenario for equalization of the health care system.

Reference List

AU, H. N. G. (2020). Mentoring for Leadership and Management Development. https://www.heti.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/621707/LMDED-A-Guide-for-Mentees-2020.pdf

Health Workforce Australia. (2013). Health LEADS Australia: The Australian health leadership framework.Aims.org.au. Retrieved 25 June 2021, from https://www.aims.org.au/documents/item/352.

heti.nsw.gov.au. (2021). The Leadership and Management Framework – Self-Assessment Tool. Retrieved 25 June 2021, from https://www.heti.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/622950/LMDED-Framework-Self-Assessment-Tool-2020_PRINT.pdf

Schaye, V. E., Reich, J. A., Bosworth, B. P., Stern, D. T., Volpicelli, F., Shapiro, N. M., ... & Bails, D. B. (2020). Collaborating Across Private, Public, Community, and Federal Hospital Systems: Lessons Learned from the Covid-19 Pandemic Response in NYC. NEJM Catalyst Innovations in Care Delivery, 1(6). https://catalyst.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/CAT.20.0343

Sutherland, D. (2014). Assessments Using the NSW Public Sector Capabilities Framework. https://www.duncansutherland.com.au/images/stories/downloads/PSC_Capabilities.pdf

Tay, K. H., Ooi, C. C., Mahmood, M. I. B., Aw, L. P., Chan, L. P., Ng, D. C. E., & Tan, B. S. (2021). Reconfiguring the radiology leadership team for crisis management during the COVID-19 pandemic in a large tertiary hospital in Singapore. European Radiology, 31(1), 468-474. https://lesa.on.worldcat.org/oclc/8644093669 van Diggele, C., Burgess, A., Roberts, C., & Mellis, C. (2020). Leadership in healthcare education. BMC Medical Education, 20(2), 1-6. https://lesa.on.worldcat.org/oclc/8787670639


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PUBH6003 Health systems and Economics Assignment Sample

Assignment Brief

Individual/Group - Individual
Length - 1,500 words (+/- 10%)
Learning Outcomes

This assessment addresses the following learning outcomes:

• Apply systems thinking and an intersectoral approach to public health issues.

Submission - 12-Week Module
Due week 5 on Sunday at 11:55pm AEST/AEDT*
6-week Module
Due week 3 on Sunday at 11:55pm AEST/AEDT*

Weighting - 40%
Total Marks - 100 marks

Instructions for assignment help:

To prepare for this assessment, choose one public health issue (e.g. diabetes, obesity, cancer, heart disease, mental health, substance misuse, air pollution, water and sanitation, road accidents, suicide, etc.) in any country and examine how systems thinking can help to identify the broader system issues, and recommend solutions for better management. This is a research- based assignment which requires to conduct literature review on the selected topic on the specific country context.

Then in approximately 1500 words (+/- 10%), please answer the following questions considering your selected public health issue and country context.

• Describe the public health issue from systems thinking perspective (consider all direct and indirect factors and explain the complexity of the issues or interconnectedness of the issues)

• Explain the roles of stakeholders, both within the health system and in other sectors in addressing this issue (consider intersectoral action perspective)

• Drawing on research evidence, explain the obstacles (e.g. lack of cooperation among stakeholders or lack of shared vision and leadership, feedback delay, lack of healthy policy, fragile and fragmented health system, funding limitation, time constraints) that are preventing the application of systems thinking and intersectoral approach to the issue.

Report Structure

Your report should follow the following structure. The word count includes the introduction, body and conclusion.

(Title of your assignment)
Assessment 1: PUBH6003: Student name, Student ID

Executive summary

Provide a short summary which gives the reader an overview of the report.


Provide a short introduction which gives the reader an overview of the whole assignment.
Briefly introduce the public health issue in your chosen population (country).

Influence factors

Describe the public health issue from systems thinking perspective (consider all direct and indirect factors and explain the complexity/interconnectedness of the issues.

Health system

Explain the roles of stakeholders, both within the health system and in other sectors in addressing this issue (consider intersectoral action perspective)


Drawing on research evidence, explain the obstacles (e.g. lack of shared vision a leadership/cooperation, feedback delay, lack of healthy policy, fragile and fragmented health system, funding limitation, time constraints) that are preventing the application of systems thinking and intersectoral approach to the issue.


Based on the identified obstacles and literature, offer suggestions (e.g. developing shared vision
and leadership, policy change or reform, creating supportive environment, strengthening, and
reorienting health system, increased budget allocation, empowering community and individuals)
for how systems thinking and an intersectoral approach could be applied to the issue.


In a short paragraph, provide a useful overall summary of your assignment for the reader. Do not introduce any new information/ideas.

Submission Instructions:

Submit via the Assessment 1 – Report link in Assessment on main navigation menu in Blackboard

Assessment Criteria

• Demonstrated knowledge and understanding ofsystemsthinking and anintersectoral approach (20%)
• Showsthe ability to interpret and analyse relevant information and literature on systems thinking and an intersectoral approach (30%)
• Demonstrates the ability to apply knowledge and understanding ofsystemsthinking and anintersectoral approach to a public health problem (30%)
• Use of academic conventions including appropriate resources and referencing (20%)
o Uses key readings and shows evidence of reading beyond the key reading
o There is a lucid introduction and clear conclusion or summary
o Complies with normal academic of referencing and bibliographical details (including reference list, use 6th version APA style)
o Is written clearly with accurate spelling, grammar and sentence






The global health domain is rapidly transforming and advancing. The domain of public health issue has emerged to even greater heights, posing challenges to humanity, which is evident from the surge in the recent Covid-19 pandemic. Tackling issues in the public health domain requires not only insight into the problem but also capabilities applied to resolve them easily. Systems thinking approach in public health issue is a new approach being integrated that offers more durable insight for understanding and for taking action (Johnson et al., 2018). There are various benefits offered by the systems thinking approach while other approaches are confusing due to their enormous body of theories, methods or tools they engage. Systems thinking is being currently adopted for resolving various issues related to public health as it can provide powerful language for communicating as well as investigation of complex issues (Frank et al., 2016). The current scope of discussion relates to the application of systems thinking approach to a particular issue in public health and the ways it offers beneficial solution over other methods. While there exist enormous public health issues within Australia, one prominent issue that bears a tremendous burden of costs and responsibilities on the government is Type 2 Diabetes. Though there has been various intervention mechanisms as well as methodologies for tackling the issue yet it remains one of the most prominent which is still growing in Australia amongst the aged population. This discussion reveals ways systems thinking approach can provide a better solution for the management of the public health challenge.

The public health issue of the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Australia

Influence factors

Type 2 Diabetes is a chronic condition depicted by high levels of glucose in the blood. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes amongst the aged population is associated with modifiable lifestyle factors, also genetic and family-related risk aspects. According to the National Health Survey (NHS) conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), 2014-2015 almost 1 in 6 people aged 65 years reported diabetes, amounting to almost 574,000 people. Such prevalence was seen to increase with age with men reporting higher rates of prevalence as compared to women. There were a greater prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes amongst the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people as against other Australians.

Figure 1: Rate of self-reported diabetes
Source: (AIHW, 2018)

Systems thinking perspective allows considering all direct as well as indirect factors associated with the disease type 2 diabetes (Hassmiller Lich et al., 2016). Type 2 diabetes being a large public health issue in Australia, there are various factors and system actors that have tremendous roles in this complex issue. While there remain considerable factors that leads to the challenge of type 2 diabetes, there are various system actors (participants) who are unable to tackle the issue effectively, making it a highly prevalent disease in the population. Some of the direct and indirect factors leading to type 2 diabetes are unhealthy lifestyle factors, lack of awareness of the disease, lack of physical exercise, sedentary lifestyles, genetic issues, family history of diabetes, lack of balanced diet, inefficient management of diabetes, a high body mass index (BMI), high blood pressure, lack of professional help for managing diabetes as rural locations in Australia and so on. The complexity of the issue arises from the interconnectedness of the issues and also arising from the lack of it (Keane, 2014). For instance, a lack of awareness regarding the impacts of type 2 diabetes often leads to not professionally approaching the management of the disease. Prevalence of genetic factors also sometimes the presence of type 2 diabetes individuals in the family leads to ignoring lifestyle factors, BMI, heart disease, high blood pressure that might lead to the onset of type 2 diabetes amongst aged adults and inability to tackle them as well. Australia is a country that is dominated by public health actors supported by the Federal along with State Government funding. Hence role and responsibility in tackling a public health issue by the government are of enormous importance. The public health intervention approach is primarily determined by public health policies determined centrally by Federal efforts. Hence participants (actors- stakeholders) play a predominant role in tackling the prevalent type 2 diabetes. Issues that arise in this public health issue is lack of focus of government, or governmental agencies and their healthcare providers in eliminating type 2 diabetes from Australia (Leveson, 2012). The prevalence of numerous disease and the recent outbreak of Covid-19 has to a certain extent diverted the government's attention from reducing the incidence of type 2 diabetes.

Health System

Stakeholders in the public health system include patients, GPs, doctors, hospitals, nurses, healthcare professionals, government, professional bodies and agencies aiming to tackle the challenge of type 2 diabetes. As this a dominant public health issue in Australia is primarily tackled by governmental intervention, they are the primary stakeholders apart from their healthcare providers, who in turn are supported by the policies approved by the government (Buttigieg et al., 2015). The government in the country hence has a crucial role in developing policy, procedures and fund initiatives for tackling the growing issue of type 2 diabetes amongst the aged population, which in turn bears tremendous costs on the government. The role of healthcare providers which includes doctors, nurses, and other professionals are directed by governmental policies. Hence they focus their efforts on eliminating the prevalence of the disease based on funding available or focus provided on the issue by the government. This intersectoral perspective provides relative less importance to tackling the issue as there is another major prevalent health issue in the country currently.


Hence drawing from the discussion above, it can be easily understood that the prevalence of type 2 diabetes as a public health issue has remained not due to lack of shared vision and leadership or cooperation, lack of healthy policy, delays in feedback, or fragile health system, or time constraint rather due to lack of focus and funding limitations (Battle-Fisher, 2014). There is a present tremendous intersectoral approach to the issue. The prevalence of several public health issues and especially the emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic has posed tremendous constraints on the government as well as healthcare providers to tackle the issue of type 2 diabetes (Liedtka et al., 2017). With the government having a varied focus such as controlling outbreak or coronavirus, tackling child mortality issues, comorbidity issues, prevalent public health diseases such as type 2 diabetes, heart problems or high blood pressure challenges goes to the backdrop. The importance of the issue has reduced over the years considerably with limited funding available with the government in tackling health challenges and constraint arising out of the increase in costs of healthcare.


Based on the literature and obstacles identified, certain recommendations have been developed that can assist in tackling the issue. Also, such recommendation includes systems thinking and intersectoral approach applied to the issue.

? Policy reforms: From the perspective of systems thinking, the government has a large number of different policies in healthcare. A consolidated policy on a disease affecting the aged developed can create a consolidated effort impacting the health systems to adopt an approach that is easy as well. With systems thinking approach, it is possible to realise the interconnectedness of the various disease affecting the aged and then tackling their root cause by consolidated efforts form healthcare actors can provide a solution to the challenge.

? Creating a supportive environment: Again, this is in connection with the previous point that aims at undertaking a consolidated effort from the government as well as from the side of healthcare providers. With systems thinking approach developing a supportive environment from the side of the government in the healthcare sector can render tremendous effectiveness in tackling this complex issue of type 2 diabetes amongst the aged population in Australia.

? Increasing budget allocation: With increasing costs especially in the healthcare sector, the budgetary allocation has not been revised. Budget allocation for tackling public health issues such as type 2 diabetes and other prevalent diseases amongst the aged Australian population needs a revision. This will enable creating an allocation for tackling this issue in the long-term as well.


In conclusion, the complex issue of type 2 diabetes prevalent amongst the aged population in Australia is growing tremendously. Such complex issues cannot easily be tackled by single-handed efforts which bring into role systems thinking approach. The systems thinking approach has the capabilities to handle complex issues like this one. By adopting a consolidated approach of systems thinking, this issue of type 2 diabetes can be tackled with efforts assumed by the government and healthcare providers.







AIHW. (2018). Older Australia at a glance. Australian Government – Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Accessed from [https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/older-people/older-australia-at-a-glance/contents/health-and-functioning/diabetes]

Battle-Fisher, M. (2014). Application of systems thinking to health policy & public health ethics : public health and private illness (Ser. Springerbriefs in public health). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-12203-8.

Buttigieg, S. C., Rather, C., & Eiff, W. von. (2015). International best practices in health care management (Ser. Advances in health care management, v. 17). Emerald.

Frank, M., Shaked, H., & Koral-Kordova, S. (Eds.). (2016). Systems thinking : foundation, uses and challenges (Ser. Management science: theory and applications). Nova Science Publishers.

Hassmiller Lich, K., Frerichs, L., Fischbein, D., Bogachev, G., & Pentz, M. A. (2016). Translating research into prevention of high-risk behaviors in the presence of complex systems: definitions and systems frameworks. Translational Behavioral Medicine : Practice, Policy, Research, 6(1), 17–31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13142-016-0390-z

Johnson, J. A., Anderson, D. E., & Rossow, C. C. (2018). Health systems thinking. Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. https://public.ebookcentral.proquest.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=5555416.

Keane, C. (2014). Modeling behavior in complex public health systems: simulations and games for action and evaluation. Springer Pub. Company, LLC.

Leveson, N. (2012). Engineering a safer world: systems thinking applied to safety (Ser. Engineering systems). MIT Press.

Liedtka, J., Salzman, R., & Azer, D. (2017). Design thinking for the greater good: innovation in the social sector (Ser. Columbia business school publishing). Columbia Business School Publishing.


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HAGE20005 Health Promotion For Healthy Ageing Assignment Sample

Assignment Brief

Due date:5.00pm (AEST) Wednesday, 26 May 2021 (Week 11)
Weighting: 50%
Length: 2500 words plus or minus 10% (excluding references)
Unit Coordinator: Ainslie Monson

Learning Outcomes Assessed

1.Evaluate the suitability of a current health promotion strategy to meet the needs of older people using evidence-based research.

2. Assess a current health promotion campaign related to health ageing and devise a health promotion plan to optimize well-being in older people.


The aim of this assessment is to prepare you to make a high-level contribution to health promotion policy and practice for the older person throughout the health care system.


You are writing a critical analysis of a health promotion strategy and related campaign aimed at older persons. Choose a targeted area such as physical activity, smoking cessation, obesity, mental health, or some other focus area requiring health promotion in the community of older persons.

This involves, firstly, choosing a current health promotion strategy and related campaign aimed at older persons.

Your task is to:

• critically evaluate the strategy and
• assess the campaign and
• devise a health promotion plan for the older person related to the strategy and campaign.

Please follow the steps below to complete your assessment task:

1. Introduction (250 words) – Introduce your topic. The introduction outlines the key points of your essay. It will inform the reader what you are writing about – why you are writing about it and how you will discuss this topic.

2. The main body of the essay (2000 words) identify and explain the health promotion strategy and campaign selected. Justify the selection of your strategy and campaign and how it relates to the care of older person. Critically analyze and assess the strategy and campaign selected and its relevance to the older person. Devise a health promotion plan for a local level related to the strategy and campaign. The main body of the essay should be substantiated with reference to the peer reviewed literature (no less than 10 peer reviewed articles).

3. Conclusion (250 words) – no references in this section. The conclusion should summaries the key areas that address the set task. No new information should be included.

Literature and references

In this assessment use at least 15 contemporary references (<10 years) to support your discussion. You may also use seminal scholarly literature where relevant. Suitable references include peer-reviewed journal articles as well as textbooks and credible websites. When sourcing information, consider the 5 elements of a quality reference: currency, authority, relevance, objectivity, and coverage. Grey literature sourced from the internet must be from reputable websites such as from government, university, or peak national bodies: for example,

Requirements for assignment help

• Use a conventional and legible size 12 font, such as Times New Roman or Arial, with 1.5-line spacing and 2.54cm page margins (standard pre-set margin in Microsoft Word).

• Include page numbers on each page in a header.

• Write in the third-person perspective.

• Use formal academic language.

• Use the seventh edition American Psychological Association (APA) referencing style. The University Academic Learning Centre has an online APA

Referencing Style Guide.

• The word count is considered from the first word of the introduction to the last word of the conclusion. The word count excludes the reference list but includes in-text references and direct quotations.


Submit your assessment via the unit Moodle site in Microsoft Word format only.

Marking Criteria

Refer to the marking rubric on the Moodle site for more detail on how marks will be



The current report covers the subject of health promotion for aged Australians, who are prone to vulnerable health conditions, including both mental and physical. The essay will specifically focus on the subject of mental health promotion for the older people in Australia to reduce the effects of stigma, followed by prevention of depression and suicidal tendencies. The essay will outline the fundamentals of mental health stability for older people in Australia, through the implementation of the National Mental Health Policy 2008. It aspires to capture the core intent of the subject by enabling the older people to come up with self-manageable ways to deal with the associated issues of a disturbed mental health. The survey report of the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health, conducted by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare showed that people belonging to the age group of 16-85 years are subject to the highest percentage of mental health issues with an increasing percentage of 6% to 7% on an average for the age group of 75-85 years (aihw.gov.au). This figure shows the presence and risks of mental health among the older people in Australia, causing significant mental health damages (Awaworyi Churchillet al.2019).

Mental health issues sorted by age group in Australia in the year 2007
(Source: aihw.gov.au)

This is obviously a cause of concern as it essentially affects the process of healthy aging in the country, leading to a possible rise in the number of mental health cases. The structure of the essay follows the standard structure and explains the selected health promotion strategy, along with a critical evaluation of the same, followed by a theoretical interpretation and a proposal for a Health promotion plan for the local aged people in the country.


Explanation of the health strategy and campaign: National Mental Health Policy 2008

In order to explain the details of the National Mental Health Policy 2008, it is important to understand the aims and objectives of the policy (Milner, Smith & LaMontagne, 2015). The National Mental Health Policy 2008 aims at reducing the number of cases of mental health issues among the Australians, including the younger and the aged population (aihw.gov.au). The policy design is developed to support enabling recovery, along with prevention of mental health issues, by conducting early detection and avoiding occurrences of severe cases, including depression and suicides (Edwardet al.2015).

The policy has a strategic vision of promoting the mental health and well-being of the Australian community and develops programs to support the cause of mental health issues and enable the individuals to fight social stigmas (apo.org.au). The mental health patient, in every country in the world suffer from social disconnect and are treated differently. This policy ensures a comprehensive check and monitoring of the patients, pertaining to the security of mental health problems and enable participation of the patients in the society, with equal opportunities (Barryet al.2019).

The strategy skilfully aims at maximizing the ability of the children, the teenagers and aged people to cope up, with the normal stresses and encourage the people to participate in enhancing the emotional resilience and reducing vulnerability to mental health (Van Spijkeret al.2019). This strategy encourages in have focused on delivering the coordinated programs, both at the individual , community and system levels and focus on enhancing the security of the mental health patients to ensure that they are able to participate in the functions of securing mental health (Askell-Williams& Murray-Harvey, 2016).

The campaigns under the strategy include de-stigmatisation targeted at the whole community, identifying the populations, which is at the highest risk, ensuring an access to care at the right time, prevent suicidal tendencies by encouraging the people to participate in community activities and even assign carers to them, as and when needed (Slewa-Younan et al.2017).

Justification behind the selected strategy and campaign

Mental health is a serious problem in the world and people of all ages succumb to this condition. From a survey conducted by the Black Dog institute, it has been found that one in every five of the Australians suffer from mental health issues (Mokitimiet al.2018). Approximately 20% of the Australian aged between 16-85 years are affected by mental health issues, which include depression, dementia, self-isolation and the repeated suicidal attempts (aihw.gov.au). Out of the 20% of the Australian suffering, the mental health blockage shows 11.5% of the total count having a single disorder, while the rest 8.5% have multiple mental health disorders (health.gov.au).

The findings from Mission Australia’s Youth Survey in the year, 2014 showed that the onset of mental health issues in Australians occur at the age of 18-24 years, with a significant segment having the teenagers and the aged people in the list (health.gov.au). Therefore, the most affected population in mental health issues in Australia comprise the teenagers and the aged people (Milne ret al.2015).

It has been further found that the second leading cause of death in Australia is that of suicide due to depression or self-isolation, which could be a possible outcome of mental health issues. therefore, the focus is laid on the reducing the number of deaths , along with educating the aged people to refrain from engaging in any sort of mental health issues and self-isolation, caused due to depression and social disconnect (Gupta&Sagar, 2018).

The justification behind the selected strategy is established through its possible implications of enabling recovery and preventing and detecting the mental illness, at an early stage, to prevent all sorts of possible occurrences of such condition (Astell-Burt&Feng, 2019). The policy engages in developing interventions for reducing mental health, which includes both clinical and psychological (Ho&Mussap, 2017). The plan has also been effective in helping the mental health patients, fight the social stigmas, and be a part of healthy community environment.

Therefore, the justification behind the selection of the National Mental Health Policy 2008 is developed through its patient-centric approach and its ability to take care of the mental health patients, by applying the Multi-disciplinary model of care. This Multi-disciplinary model of care caters to the implementation of both the clinical and psychological intervention pertaining to the challenges of mental health, faced by the aged population in Australia (Hashmi et al.2020).

However, critics have pointed out the loopholes in the strategy in terms of the absence of a holistic approach, and integration of an evidence-based program, which may include, use of digital tools like Artificial Intelligence, Big Data to map the exact number, Ginger and Silver Cloud to offer self-help resources and tele-therapy.

Critical analysis and assessment of the strategy

In order to conduct a critical assessment of a health promotion policy or strategy, it is important to evaluate the ratio of accomplishment with the set objectives. According to Zhou et al.(2018), the success ratio of a health promotion policy or strategy is dependent on the development and application of policy levers over time (Coates& Howe, 2015). These policy levers map the percentage of success of a health promotion policy or strategy in compliance with the set objectives (Graceet al.2015). While conducting an evaluation of a health promotion policy or strategy, it is often evident that the key focus is placed on the outcome or impact measures, which draws on the balance sheet of the selected indicators, representing the interventions, control measures and success of the interventions.

Hence, in order to assess the success and failure of the National Mental Health Policy 2008, it is important to understand the kind of interventions that had been implemented by the policy with the objectives and the loopholes. The policy shows that although the agenda behind the designing of the National Mental Health Policy 2008 had been strategic, yet it lacked the holistic approach (van Rensburg&Fourie, 2016). The strategy did focus on early detection of mental health issues among the people in Australia, including the Aged population with allocations of separate carers for them to look after, however, the holistic approach is missing.
The strategy mainly focused on external interventions like psychological and clinical, by assigning doctors to the earliest rescue. However, the emphasis on individual participation and self-education is missing in the strategy along with the absence of an evidence-based program, to continuously monitor the progress of the intervention and apply digital integration for better evaluation.

Health promotion plan for the local people

In relation to the above explanation of the selected health promotion strategy for prevention of mental health issues for the aged people in Australia, it needs to be stated that the percentage of affected people in mental health are much more among the aged compared to the teenagers (blackdoginstitute.org.au,2021). The teenagers have the support from their family members and often engaged in early interventions, likely counseling sessions, active community engagement, social communication and psychologist interventions (Syed& McLean, 2017).

The aged people on the other hand are more prone to mental health issues, as they are mostly aged , may be at the age of 70+ years wherein either of the partners have expired and the children also do not stay with them. Multiple incidents can happen, which could be the possible causes behind the mental health issues of the aged people in Australia (apo.org.au, 2021). This aged population in turn takes to clinical depression, abstinence from taking medicine and even engage in isolation and social disassociation. The eighth stage in Erikson’s model of psychosocial development shows the presence of ego integrity in war with despair. This stage comes to a person, who is above the 65 years of age, until his/her demise.

Erikson’s eight stages of psychosocial development
(Source: Syed& McLean, 2017)

At this stage, an individual invests a lot of time in thinking about the accomplishments and failures in life. It is these failures, which often push them towards mental health issues, causing depression and unprecedented suicidal attempts. Hence, this section of the population needs to be targeted to avoid unprecedented suicidal cases and depressive deaths. Therefore, from the above explanation of the selected National Mental Health Policy 2008 policy, it is obvious that although the policy had been effective in the beginning stages, yet there has been an unequal ratio between the objectives met with the policy levers.

Therefore, a separate plan needs to be developed, which will focus on the aged people of the locality and educate them to deal with mental health issues in a stronger and more self-managed manner. The plan is inspired from the National Mental Health Policy 2008 and aims at reducing the occurrence of mental health issues among the older people, at the local level.

Goal 1: To encourage the local aged people to enrol in the nearby yoga classes, ballroom dance practices and physical exercising centres

Goal 2: Select two days in a week by the community centres to encourage the older people in community interaction through casual group meets and cultivate friendship

Goal 3: Conduct weekly community centre weekly activities like painting, cooking, walking pets and encourage the aged people to participate in them


In consideration to the above literature, it is obvious that mental health issues happen to be one of the biggest issues in Australia. The highest percentages of the affected group include the aged and the teenagers. However, the findings show that the recovery rates among the teenagers are more compared to the aged population. Therefore, the selection of the aged population for the study is justified. The teenagers are said to receive quicker interventions and participations from the family guardians to help them stabilize, while the aged people mostly subside to isolation and suicidal attempts.

Therefore, the selected National Mental Health Policy 2008 ¸aimed at reducing the number of depression and suicidal cases among the older people in the country, and induce a conducive ambiance to support healthy aging in the country. The selected strategy rationalizes the inclusion of plans and actions to ensure that the mental health promotion of the aged population of the country is secured. The critical analysis of the National Mental Health Policy 2008,policy showed that the primary assessment of the success and failure rate of the National Mental Health Policy 2008 was dependent on the percentage of the objectives met, subsiding with the percentage of the intervention from policy levers.

The study showed that although the plan had been successful in the beginning, yet few areas were left untreated, which automatically questioned the overall credibility of the plan. Hence, the application of the Multi-disciplinary models of care has identified the strategy to have a holistic approach. Nonetheless, the strategy needs to be more robust with a continued focus on using the methods to monitor the mental health conditions of the older people and apply an evidence-based approach. Additionally, a recommended health promotion plan for the local aged people to combat mental health issues has been developed.


Aihw.gov.au . (2021). Mental Health of Older Australians. Retrieved from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/c2ff6c58-e05e-49ed-afd7-43bd21eef4e2/AW15-6-4-Mental-health-of-older-Australians.pdf.aspx#:~:text=From%20the%202007%20National%20Survey,85%20age%20group%20(Figure%206.4.

Apo.org.au . (2021). National Mental Health Policy 2008. Retrieved from: https://apo.org.au/node/30315

Askell-Williams, H., & Murray-Harvey, R. (2016). Sustainable professional learning for early childhood educators: Lessons from an Australia-wide mental health promotion initiative. Journal of Early Childhood Research, 14(2), 196-210.

Astell-Burt, T., &Feng, X. (2019).Association of urban green space with mental health and general health among adults in Australia. JAMA network open, 2(7), e198209-e198209.

Awaworyi Churchill, S., Farrell, L., & Smyth, R. (2019).Neighbourhood ethnic diversity and mental health in Australia. Health Economics, 28(9), 1075-1087.

Barry, M. M., Clarke, A. M., Petersen, I., & Jenkins, R. (Eds.). (2019). Implementing mental health promotion. Springer Nature.

blackdoginstitute.org.au . 2021. Retrieved from: https://www.blackdoginstitute.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/1-facts_figures.pdf

Coates, D. D., & Howe, D. (2015). The design and development of staff wellbeing initiatives: staff stressors, burnout and emotional exhaustion at children and young people’s mental health in Australia. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 42(6), 655-663.

Edward, K. L., Warelow, P., Hemingway, S., Hercelinskyj, G., Welch, A., McAndrew, S., & Stephenson, J. (2015). Motivations of nursing students regarding their educational preparation for mental health nursing in Australia and the United Kingdom: a survey evaluation. BMC nursing, 14(1), 1-5.

Grace, F. C., Meurk, C. S., Head, B. W., Hall, W. D., Carstensen, G., Harris, M. G., &Whiteford, H. A. (2015). An analysis of policy levers used to implement mental health reform in Australia 1992-2012. BMC Health Services Research, 15(1), 1-11.

Gupta, S., &Sagar, R. (2018). National Mental Health Programme-optimism and caution: A narrative review. Indian journal of psychological medicine, 40(6), 509-516.

Hashmi, R., Alam, K., &Gow, J. (2020). Socioeconomic inequalities in mental health in Australia: Explaining life shock exposure. Health Policy, 124(1), 97-105.

Health.gov.au . (2021). National Mental Health Policy 2008. Retrieved from: https://www.health.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/2020/11/national-mental-health-policy-2008.pdf

Health.gov.au. (2021). Mental Health Promotion. Retrieved from: https://www1.health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/mental-pubs-n-pol08-toc~mental-pubs-n-pol08-2~mental-pubs-n-pol08-2-2

Ho, F., &Mussap, A. J. (2017). Transgender mental health in Australia: Satisfaction with practitioners and the standards of care. Australian Psychologist, 52(3), 209-218.

Milner, A., Smith, P., &LaMontagne, A. D. (2015).Working hours and mental health in Australia: evidence from an Australian population-based cohort, 2001–2012. Occupational and environmental medicine, 72(8), 573-579.

Mokitimi, S., Schneider, M., & de Vries, P. J. (2018). Child and adolescent mental health policy in South Africa: history, current policy development and implementation, and policy analysis. International journal of mental health systems, 12(1), 1-15.

Slewa-Younan, S., Yaser, A., Guajardo, M. G. U., Mannan, H., Smith, C. A., &Mond, J. M. (2017).The mental health and help-seeking behaviour of resettled Afghan refugees in Australia. International journal of mental health systems, 11(1), 1-8.

Syed, M., & McLean, K. C. (2017).Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development.

Van Spijker, B. A., Salinas-Perez, J. A., Mendoza, J., Bell, T., Bagheri, N., Furst, M. A., ...& Salvador-Carulla, L. (2019). Service availability and capacity in rural mental health in Australia: Analysing gaps using an Integrated Mental Health Atlas. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 53(10), 1000-1012.

vanRensburg, A. J., &Fourie, P. (2016). Health policy and integrated mental health care in the SADC region: strategic clarification using the Rainbow Model. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 10(1), 1-13.

Zhou, W., Yu, Y., Yang, M., Chen, L., & Xiao, S. (2018). Policy development and challenges of global mental health: a systematic review of published studies of national-level mental health policies. BMC psychiatry, 18(1), 1-9.

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NSG3101 Rehabilitation and Community Cares Assignment Sample


“National Health Priority Areas (NHPAs) were established in response to the World Health Organization’s Global Strategy of Health for All by the year 2000 and sought to focus public attention and health policy on these areas that were considered to contribute significantly to the burden of disease in Australia" AIHW (2018). The NHPAs currently consists of nine priority areas in relation to health and chronic disease.

To demonstrate your understanding of the National Health Priority Areas in relation to chronic disease, you are required to complete Parts A & B of this assessment as outlined below.

Part A of this assessment requires you to work collaboratively in groups of 3. Each member of the group will work individually on either sections 1,2 or 3 to produce a 1000-word document that will form part of the overall presentation report. Which member of the group does which section is up to you as a group to decide.

Your individual report must be evidence-based, use current literature and use APA 7th referencing style. A minimum of 10 references is required, and references must be no older than five years except if required they come from required or recommended textbooks.

You will need to research, identify and discuss the following in your report for assignment help

Section 1 - The Australian National Health Priorities

This section should include the following:

1. Discussion of the Australian National Health Priorities, when were they formulated and why?

2. An outline of the priority areas in relation to chronic conditions and prevalence of disease in each relevant chronic disease priority area using current data and
statistics to support your discussion.

3. A brief discussion of the National Strategic Framework for chronic illness used to coordinate the management of Chronic Disease in Australia.


Question 1

The National Health Priority Area is an initiative that is formed from a collaborative effort that includes the State, the Territory, and the Commonwealth of Australia. This particular health priority seeks to put focus on health policy and public attention on the areas that are deemed to significantly contribute to the disease burden that exists in Australia (Simpson et al., 2021). After years of analysis and decisions, the Health Ministers of Australia decided to formulate a plan which would mainly focus on paying attention to typical public health concerns that exist in the country. After researching the critical health emergencies that exist in the country, this particular health priority plan was formulated.

This plan was formulated in the areas where it has a potential for gain in health (Littlejohns et al., 2018). It was identified while negotiating this plan that there are main health concerns that exist in the country. This National Health priority was implemented in 2000. The main reason behind the formulation of this particular health policy was to ensure the health and safety of the general public. This plan was implemented as an initiative to help in reducing the rates of chronic conditions among the people of Australia. This plan was crafted with the intention of eliminating the diseases that are a burden to the country.

The Australian government realized that there are various diseases that exist in the country which are still not given proper attention and cure. Diseases like mental health issues are still considered to be taboo in many places of the world. Australia wanted to take this initiative in formulating a health care plan that will mainly focus on the diseases that are still undercover and lacking proper care (Bik-Multanowska et al., 2022). This plan will help millions of people in getting better treatment and cure remedies for those diseases that fall under the nine areas of priority.

Question 2

Chronic disease is known as a condition that commonly lasts for one or more years, and it requires ongoing treatment and medical attention and also limits the activities of regular living(Seaton et al., 2019). There are various types of chronic diseases that exist in Australia, which is a burden to the country as it takes away the lives of many each year. People suffering from chronic conditions suffer both physically and mentally. Chronic conditions in cumulative forms are also known as non-communicable diseases. Non-communicable diseases have a mortality rate of 41 million per year which contributes to 71% of the total death rates. There are various types of chronic conditions that contribute to the total death rates in Australia. In the year 2014-2015, more than 3% of the total population of Australia reported having Coronary health conditions for a long period of time (Engelman et al., 2019). It is estimated that more than 1.7 million Australians are diabetic patients. This data represents the number of patients who are registered and known. Cancer is considered to be a major illness in Australia, and it has a substantial economic and social impact on the life of the individual who suffers from this illness (Nisar et al., 2021). Asthma is more common in the 0-14 age group male among which females above the age of 15 have asthma more percent (Xu, Jones & Mishra, 2020).

Figure 1: Yearly date rates in Australia due to chronic conditions
Source: (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2022)

The priority areas of chronic conditions include adherence to medication, behavioral modification, and seeking mental care. It is identified in the NHPAs that various modifications are needed to be implemented in the country's medical system so that chronic conditions can be treated. The priority areas in adherence to medication ensure that all the citizens of Australia are provided with proper medication. Behaviouralmodificationsaim in to increase or decrease a certain type of reaction or behavior. Seeking mental care is considered to be a priority due to the fact that many Australians suffer from mental illnesses that are undiagnosed.

Question 3

The National Framework is helping millions of Australian with health literacy, health workforce, extensive research, governance and leadership, and data and information regarding various chronic conditions. The initiative from the side of the National Framework is helping in reducing the rates of chronic conditions by providing them with health assistance and proper treatment so that the recovery rate can be increased. It is also identified that a lot of proper management practice is required in order to manage the way the health system in Australia works. The National Framework ensures that every chronic condition should be treated well, and it is the responsibility of the health system to ensure that effective medication is provided to all. The framework identifies all the citizens who are suffering from some type of chronic condition and then aims to diagnose that person with medication that will be provided by the Australian health system.

Figure 2: Percentage of people suffering from chronic conditions in Australia
Source: (Abc, 2022)

The National Framework for treating chronic conditions in Australia is an overarching document policy that is formulated especially for chronic conditions that exist in the country (Cardoso, Reis & Manzanares-Céspedes, 2018). This particular framework outlines the outcomes and directions through which the Australian people can be helped, and their lives can be made healthier. This can be achieved by following effective management and prevention strategies that are marked under the chronic conditions identified by the NHPAs. This particular framework moves across a disease-centric approach and helps in providing national directions and strategies that are applicable to a variety of chronic conditions. With the help of recognizing that various other similar principles that underlie the management and prevention of chronic disease do exist. This particular framework is considered to be an effective resource for every player in the space of chronic conductions (Hajat & Stein, 2018). This particular framework was crafted with the intention of providing strategic and effective measures that will aim to make the lives of the Australian people safer and healthier.

Reference list

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UMH207 Understanding Mental Health Assignment Sample

Task Summary

In this 1800-word Report, respond to the challenges and issues in the case scenario. You are asked to research and find studies/research/journal articles/government and international health agency reports relating to the case study. These peer-reviewed articles will help you support your line of reasoning.

In this report, you will describe key points in relation to legal and ethical factors and the mental health act. You will also discuss your role as a mental health nurse in this case scenario and consider how you would respond to the client in a practical situation.

Finally, you will critically evaluate the importance of the “therapeutic relationship” in a male client with chronic schizophrenia, who is currently admitted involuntarily under a community treatment order in an acute mental health ward.


1) Read the case study provided via Assessment 3 area of the subject.
2) Address the following questions in your Report.

• Discuss how and why the mental health act applies to the case scenario.

• Summarise and Identify specific examples of legal and ethical issues in relation to the patient’s rights.

• Compare the concepts of mental health, mental illness and mental disorder. Determine which category the patient in the case scenario fits. Accurately identify the main symptoms of schizophrenia as outlined in the case.

• As the registered nurse looking after the patient, explain how do you advocate for his rights as a mental health consumer?

• Identify and illustrate the main symptoms of schizophrenia as outlined in the case (this can be done in table form)

• Determine a medication that may be clinically indicated for the patient in the case scenario. Provide a rationale for why it is indicated.

• Evaluate and explain three (3) techniques you would use to develop trust, rapport and begin a therapeutic relationship with the patient when first admitted to the hospital.

• Express how you would explain the need to give the patient a depot anti-psychotic medication.

• Given the patient’s mental state at this time, identify one (1) technique you would use to ensure your personal safety (during the explanation about the depot medication outlined above).

Writing Guidelines

• Be formal and objective in your writing.

• Be analytical and demonstrate critical thinking.

• Keep to the set word limit.

• Answer all questions in your report.

• Use in-text references to support your ideas.

• Use information from academic texts and credible sources only.

• Format in-text references and the reference list according to APA 6th ed. referencing style.

• Proofread your work to check that each paragraph links to the previous or the thesis and that it is easy to read.

• Check your spelling, grammar and punctuation.

• Use a size 12 font (Times New Roman, Calibri or Arial).

• Include a footer with your name, student number and page numbers.

• Include a cover page with your name, student number, subject name, title of assessment, learning facilitator’s name and the final word count (not including referencing).

Case Scenario

“Jason” is a 32-year-old male living in housing commission in Western Sydney. He was diagnosed with schizophrenia when he was 19 years old. At that time, he was living with his parents and he increasingly experienced auditory hallucinations with voices telling him to burn his parent’s house down. Fortunately, these voices reduced when Jason started taking an antipsychotic medication.

Jason has been unemployed since he was 19 years old, and has been taking his medication every day since.

Six months ago, Jason moved out of his parent’s home and entered a shared apartment with 3 other males in the local housing commission. Jason stated he felt “fine” and decided to stop taking his antipsychotic medication.

Over the next 2 weeks, his mental state quickly deteriorated, with auditory hallucinations “louder than ever”. He became paranoid that his flatmates were poisoning his food and he believed a tracking device had been inserted under his skin and that he was being “tracked with a satellite by the CIA”.

His paranoia was so intense that he did not leave his bedroom for 3 days before the ambulance arrived.

Jason was scheduled under the Mental Health Act and admitted to the local acute mental health ward as an involuntary consumer..

You are the student nurse looking after Jason on the ward. He appears agitated, moving around erratically and is not making eye contact with you. He swears occasionally and appears frustrated at being “locked up inside the hospital”.

Jason is refusing to take his oral antipsychotic medication tablets. The doctor has charted an intramuscular “depot” antipsychotic medication, which you have been asked to give to Jason. After assessing Jason’s mental state, you agree that the depot is clinically indicated and is in Jason’s best interest, even though he has not agreed to take the medication.

After a discussion with a senior nurse and the psychiatrist, the team makes the decision that Jason should receive a depot antipsychotic medication against his will.
One week after having the depot, Jason’s mental state is stabilising and he is now agreeing to take oral anti-psychotic tablets. However, he still feels “very tired” and would sleep the whole day if he could. He is still unsure if the psychotic symptoms he recently experienced were real or not, but he is “thinking a lot about it”.

His psychiatrist reviewed Jason and he is hoping to transfer to the sub-acute mental health ward soon, and be discharged home soon as he feels “uncomfortable” in the hospital and “can’t wait to go home”.



Schizophrenia can easily be identified as a severe mental disorder that manifests in an abnormal interpretation of reality. Several studies have been conducted to establish the genetic linkage between the diseases, with little success, therefore, presently, the condition is attempted to be treated through clinical intervention strategies (ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2022). The present report is based on the case scenario of Jason, who is suffering from severe auditory hallucination, after the withdrawal from antipsychotic medications. The report addresses the mental health act applicable in the scenario, building knowledge over the difference in mental health, disorder, and illness, advocating for the patient's rights. The main schizophrenia symptoms have been outlined, along with the appropriate rationale for medication. The report also sheds light on the relationship development with the patient ensuring their personal safety for assignment help.

Application of Mental Health Act in the case scenario

Jason has been administered under the “Mental Health Act” within a local health ward specializing in acute mental health. In this situation, the Mental Health Act is the most appropriate legal aspect for the improvement of the patient. As per the Act, mental health practitioners and psychiatrists are encouraged to develop a strong relationship with the patient, which is critically needed in the present situation, as the patient is unable to trust (health.vic.gov.au, 2022). Moreover, as the Act has provisions for compulsory and voluntary treatment, makes it even more preferable in the situation, where Jason’s auditory hallucinations deteriorated leading to paranoia, and requiring compulsory intervention.

Legal and Ethical Issues Pertaining To Patient Rights

The legal rights of a patient, who has sought care within the Australian Health System, are ensured by the “Australian Charter of Healthcare Rights”, which ensures communication, respect, safety, privacy, participation, and comment of the patent (healthdirect.gov.au, 2022). According to Sperling (2021, p.25), patients bear the right to refuse medication. On the contrary, Jason has been seen to refuse medication, which has made the schizophrenia condition worsen. An additional legal right issue that emerges is the access to care facilities that are equipped to handle such critical cases, as Jason has been struggling financially owing to unemployment. The medications being forced upon the patient raises an ethical issue of patient rights (Rhodes, 2019, p.3). Taking into consideration the ethical issues, the privacy of the patient is needed to be ensured and the patient is needed to be treated with respect.

Schizophrenia Symptoms and Contrast of Mental Health, Mental Illness, and Mental Disorder

Mental health is inclusive of psychological, emotional, and social well-being. Mental health bears the potential to heavily influence the nature in which we act, feel, think, handle stress, relate to others and make choices (Happell et al., 2018, p.12). In contrast, mental illness pertains to the health conditions that bring about changes in individual behaviour, thinking, or emotions behind them. According to Zumstein & Riese (2020, p.15), the occurrence of mental illness is closely associated with problems and distress, preventing the ability to perform adequately in family, social, or work environments. According to the World Health Organization, a mental disorder is characterized by clinically significant disturbances in one's emotional regulation, behaviour, and cognition (who.int, 2022). These are associated with impairment and or distress in important areas of functioning. The case study of patient Jason and the details, therefore, provided align with the concept of mental disorder. Moreover in support of the mental disorder and linking it with schizophrenia Müller (2018) has opined that, the disorder results in a combination of delusion, hallucination, and disordered thinking, that impairs daily activities. Symptoms of schizophrenia that have been outlined in the case study are auditory hallucination and paranoia.

Advocacy of Mental Health Toward The Patient

Jason had been suffering from schizophrenia when his age was only 19. Due to his auditory hallucinations, he has been treated with antipsychotic medications. Though Jason has taken antipsychotic medicines for a long time and after stopping the medication, symptoms became aggravated he has been considered and hospitalized under Mental Health Act. The Mental health Act of Australia encourages mental health practitioners and psychiatrists to create a strong relationship with patients applying services of mental health and to give them support and information to make an informed choice about their care (Health.vic.gov.au,2022). In the case of Jason, it has been observed by the student nurse that Jason disagreed to take medications. Therefore, the student nurse has discussed with the psychiatrist and senior nurses and made the decision to provide a “depot antipsychotic drug” for Jason. It has been observed that in this case, mental health practitioners have made the decision for the patient related to taking medications. As per the opinion of Livingston (2020, p. 12), in Australia, mental health patients have the right to access support, assessment, treatment, care, services, and rehabilitation for wellbeing and recovery with the same equality as others. Jason is a mental health consumer here because he is taking services from the mental health hospital. As a nurse, the student can advocate a facilitate communication with all other healthcare members relevant to the preferences of the patient. Based on the research by Bégin et al., (2020, p. 40), it is the role of a nurse to integrate patient-oriented goals into the treatment plan and give objective guidance. Here, after observing aggravated schizophrenia symptoms the nurse has discussed with other team members and advocated the care for Jason. Reid et al., (2018, p. 1210) have stated that to promote advocacy for the mental health consumer a nurse must inform the total team, exhibit appropriate nursing care, give assistance with social problems, and teach patients about their personal advocacy. Therefore, the student nurse who is taking care of Jason has already started advocacy for the right of Jason as a mental health patient.

Identification and Illustration of Schizophrenia Symptoms (Case Scenario)

Critical analysis of the case of schizophrenia patient Jason it has been observed that different symptoms of this disease have occurred in Jason. The problem started when he lives with his parents in Western Sydney and became aggravated after moving to a shared apartment and topping medications. According to Menon (2019, p. 133), schizophrenia is a chronic disorder of the brain that appears with active symptoms like hallucinations, lack of motivation, issues with talking, delusions, disorganized speech, and others. In the case of Jason, during his 19 years of age, he suffered from auditory hallucinations, in which a voice continuously told him to burn the house of his parents. After feeling fine, six months ago, Jason stopped taking medicines and his situation became deteriorated. In the second phase, again auditory hallucination symptoms of schizophrenia have started. In this situation, Jason became paranoid that flatmates are going to poison his food. In addition to this, he has started believing that a tracking device has been inserted under his skin and that he has been tracked by CIA satellites. Moreover, not making eye contact, frustration, agitation, erratic movement, and tiredness are some other schizophrenic symptoms of Jason [Refers to appendix].
Medication and rationale

It has been obtained from the case study that, antipsychotic medicines have been taken for Jason from the start of the symptoms. Since the 19 years old, he has been taking this medication every day. Recently, to treat his deteriorated situation, the psychiatrist of a local “acute mental health ward” has prescribed “intramuscular depot antipsychotic medication”. Based on the research by Haight et al., (2019, p. 780), depot injection is a slow-release configuration of medication. The injection applies a liquid that emits the antipsychotic medication slowly and provides a long-lasting effect. Other authors have stated that depot antipsychotic medication is beneficial for schizophrenia because it overpowers the issues of covert non-compliance (Ling et al., 2019, p. 60). Therefore, depot injection is suitable for Jason in his aggravated situation.

Identified Three Techniques for Developing Trust, Therapeutic Relations, and Rapport

With respect to the case study when Jason was admitted to the local acute mental health ward under the Mental health Act of Australia, the doctor started to give intramuscular “depot” antipsychotic medication. However, Jason did not agree to take the medications rather he refused due to a poor therapeutic relationship. In this condition, three techniques can be used by the mental health ward staff to develop trust rapport with the patient for starting a therapeutic relationship. These are,

1. Accepting: It is really important to acknowledge what the patient tends to say and ensure that they have listened carefully. It is found that acceptance is the best thing to make eye contact and understand patients (van Belle et al., 2020, p.2). Patients like Jason who feels that their doctors and nurse are listening to them are more likely to become receptive to care

2. Encouraging descriptions of the perception: Sutanto (2021, p.14) opined that for patients who tend to experience hallucinations like Jason, it might be useful to ask about them nonjudgmentally. It helps patients to understand that doctors and nurses will not judge them and they can cast their perceptions in an effective manner. This results in developing better trust between patients and doctors.

3. Expressing empathy: When Jason was first admitted to the hospital he refused to take depot anti-psychotic medication. However, the doctors are required to empathize with the patients without being so emotionally overwhelmed. The doctors and nurses are required to manage their emotions so that the issues of the patients might not affect them emotionally. The goal of the mental ward staff should be related to overcoming the issue that the patient is going through. This can help them to make an objective decision during suggestions for the patient. This is how the therapeutic relationship between the doctor and patient can be built.

Explanation of The Need To Give Antipsychotic Medication

It has been found from the case study that Jason was in a bad condition when he was admitted to the mental health ward. This is because he did not leave his bedroom for 3 days and he stopped taking his anti-psychotic medications for days and held poor auditory hallucinations. His mental state was so poor and motivation for treatment was lacking in Jaso with heavier psychotic disorders like schizophrenia. This is why a patient might be less willing to take antipsychotic medications for engaging in treatment activities. As argued by Galderisi et al., (2021, p.12), as a negative symptom of schizophrenia disorder, lack of motivation to take the medication is known to be a common issue and difficult for patients as well as clinicians to recognize. The depot antipsychotic medication was in the best interest of Jason in order to raise the benefits of the treatment. This is considered to be easier to observe and holds long-lasting impacts. However, it also decreases the rates of relapse compared to oral medications. This is why it was required to give the patient a depot anti-psychotic medication.

Technique for Personal Safety

One technique to ensure the safety of the patient with respect to giving him the depot medication as discussed above includes,

1. Z-track method: This method of administrating the IM injection to give the depot anti-psychotic medication is effective (Gee et al., 2018, p.6). Since it aims to prevent the medication from being tracked via the subcutaneous tissue and swaling the medication in the area of muscle. This results in reducing any irritation from the medication. Using this method, the skin can be pulled in a lateral way from the site of infection prior to the injection, and then the medication can be injected. Followed by this the needle is removed and the skin can be released.


It can be concluded that Jason was suffering from schizophrenia issue. However, taking the antipsychotic medication regularly tended to reduce the impact of schizophrenia. On the other hand, when Jason managed to move out of his parent's house, it is seen that he tended to stop taking his antipsychotic medications. With respect to this situation, the impacts of schizophrenia were greater such as louder auditory hallucinations. However, concerning the condition of Jason, he was admitted to an acute local mental health award. It was the proper legal movement to improve the condition of the patient. Although, Jason refused to take the medication in the mental health ward and he was facing financial issues due to unemployment. Despite his unwillingness, the doctors gave him the medication. However, this situation could be improved by developing proper therapeutic relationships between doctors and patients by considering the three techniques discussed above.


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NSG3NCI Chronic Illness Management Plan Assignment Sample

Write a 1000-word report for assignment help explaining what telehealth is and why the type you chose may be beneficial for a client with the described chronic illness

Points to consider:

Definition of telehealth and different types
Why a particular type would be beneficial for your client
The multidisciplinary needs of your client
Description of the client’s chronic illness and why telehealth may be an option
Positive aspects of telehealth for the client
Negative aspects of telehealth or issues for the client


Chronic Illness

Arthritis is characterized by the painful and swollen swelling of one or more joints. Arthritis is characterized by a range of joint symptoms, the most prominent of which are pain and stiffness, which often get worse with age. Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are the two forms of arthritis that are diagnosed most frequently.


Definition of Telehealth and Different Types

Telehealth is the delivery of healthcare and related services through electronic and digital communication technologies, including but not limited to remote medical diagnosis and treatment, healthcare professional and patient education, health information services, and patient self-care. Telehealth makes use of a wide variety of technologies, including remote patient monitoring (RPM), video conferencing (both live and on-demand), "store and forward" electronic transmission, and mobile health applications (Knudsen, 2018).

The desire to stay in touch with patients, no matter where they may be, is what motivates the many manifestations of telehealth. Telehealth is the electronic exchange of health-related information between a care provider and a patient. This broad definition gives rise to several subsets of telehealth. Here are a few of the most notable:

? Patient Tracking at a Distance: In the first place, one of the most important things that telehealth is good for is keeping an eye on patients from afar. Caregivers may keep tabs on their patients' well-being from afar with the help of remote patient monitoring.

? Store-and-forward: The ability to "save and send" telehealth data is also crucial to the concept's existence. Telehealth with a "save and forward" capability improves long-distance access to patient histories and other medical data (Maeder, 2021).

? Telehealth in real time: A doctor may provide round-the-clock, anywhere-in-the-world treatment to a patient via real-time telehealth.

? Remote Monitoring: The use of telehealth to enable patients to have certain parts of their health monitored from the comfort of their own homes is becoming an increasingly popular alternative. Providers are able to address both acute and chronic diseases because to remote patient monitoring.

? Medical advice from a specialist: Because of telehealth, doctors may collaborate remotely to offer more comprehensive treatment options to their patients.

? Telehealth for Rheumatoid Arthritis: One can check in and follow up with the healthcare provider when they have rheumatoid arthritis (RA) thanks to telehealth.

? Radiology and other medical imaging: Sharing medical pictures like X-rays, scans, and more is now much quicker thanks to advancements in telehealth technology. By making these pictures accessible, any board-certified radiologist with network access can evaluate them whenever necessary (Tigerconnect, 2021).

Why a particular type would be beneficial for your client?

Our client who’s suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and has restricted mobility or significant symptoms, such as persistent pain, exhaustion, and joint stiffness, which make it difficult to attend in-person consultations, may find that telehealth’s remote monitoring is an intriguing choice. Telehealth’s remote monitoring has the potential to make receiving treatment for RA less intimidating, which may encourage people living with the illness to seek treatment sooner for any changes in the symptoms they are experiencing (Bergman, 2021).

Because they don't need to take time off from work or pay for transportation to go to their appointments, persons who have RA (Rheumatoid Arthritis) can save a considerable amount of time and money by using telehealth’s remote monitoring. Appointments with a healthcare provider are also made a great deal more convenient for this patient demographic as a result of this (Saini, 2022).

The multidisciplinary needs of your client

With the help of a team of professionals from different fields working together, patients can get the best possible treatment. With everyone's input, the team as a whole can provide better care to its patients. This strategy is effective because it guarantees that each patient receives personalized attention (Freeman, 2021).
Although members of a multidisciplinary team have to put in more time, the patient benefits from coordinated services and a standard operating procedure (SOP) that enhances the quality of care they get. Communication within a multidisciplinary team makes coordinating efforts simpler, even if not all team members are present when a patient is being treated (Healthie, 2022).

Describe the client's chronic ailment and explain how it might be treated via remote monitoring

There are more than a hundred different varieties of arthritis and related disorders, and our client has a form of arthritis that is not a single disease but rather specifies a mix of symptoms including pain and inflammation in the joints. Arthritis affects people of all ages, races, and sexes equally, making it the biggest cause of disability in the United States. Despite the fact that some forms of arthritis are more prevalent among the elderly, arthritis itself is not a disease that is tied to advancing age (Gogia, 2019).

It's possible that remote monitoring is something brand new for both us and patients. Knowing as much as possible about the tools that will be utilizing to treat patients is the most effective way to provide care. This includes how they operate as well as how the data will be transmitted from the device (Reifsnider, 2020).

Advantages of telehealth from the patient's perspective

Benefits from telehealth remote monitoring is that they are easily accessible. As was previously said, no travel is necessary, and participation is global. Both of these factors contribute to the efficiency of telehealth visits, since they minimize the time away from work or school that would otherwise be required (Arthritis, 2021).

Concerns or drawbacks that the patient may have when using telehealth

Utilizing these technologies, on the other hand, comes with both positives and negatives, just like any other emerging or cutting-edge technology would. Some of the disadvantages (or restrictions) of remote monitoring are relatively insignificant problems that can be circumvented by service providers or resolved by IT departments.

? There are a few disadvantages associated with remote patient monitoring, such as the fact that it is dependent on expensive technology that not all patients can afford.

? Connections to the internet that can be relied upon are required for RPM systems. It's possible that some of the patients don't have access to broadband internet, which makes it more difficult for them to engage in RPM settings. However, basic vital signs data transmission does not always necessitate the use of broadband. (D’Silva, 2021).


Rapid adoption of digital health records (DHR), which are essential for providing remote care, has accompanied telehealth investments. Half of healthcare leaders (49%) cite digital health records as a major investment, reflecting government attempts to make healthcare data-driven, the report found.

Patients in remote locations now have easier access to care thanks to the widespread use of telehealth following the COVID-19 epidemic. According to the report, the attention is now more on technology driven healthcare, and healthcare leaders are overwhelmingly supportive of the adoption of remote care solutions, with 33% listing a shift to virtual care as one of their top priorities and 51% listing telehealth as a top investment area.


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PUBH6002 Global and Environmental Health Issue Assignment Sample

Individual/Group - Individual
Length - 1000 words (+/- 10%)

Learning Outcomes - The Subject Learning Outcomes demonstrated by successful completion of the task below include:

a) Examine environmental factors from the local to the global levels that influence health and interpret the relevance to the health of populations.

b) Interpret and analyse the impacts of globalisation on the social, economic, and political determinants of global and local health.

c) Critically analyse ethical elements relevant to environmental health protections, policies, and industry practices, including identification of vulnerable groups

d) Investigate the relationships between environmental risk factors and social, economic, and political determinants of illness and injury.


Review the given policy provided by your lecturer. Public health policies are evidence-base
structured targets, aiming to provide the practical strategies that governments can apply to regulate key structural factors that contribute to the burden of, and the risk factors associated with the disease that is targeted by the policy.

To review the given policy, read carefully the given policy provided by your Learning facilitator.

Research the academic literature related to the policy and then conduct a review in 1000 words
(±10%) a report guided by the following four questions:

Introduction/Background (Approx. 150 words)

- In the introduction present the burden of disease and risk factors before the implementation of the current policy.

- Finally, briefly discuss the impact of the health-related issues related to the specific burden of disease(s) and population.

- Include an overview of the assessment as part of the introduction. Policy analysis (Approx. 600 words)

- Discuss how the policy was developed? Who were the key stakeholders in this development and what were their role?

- Describe the expected outcomes and the strengths of policy based on its successful achievements?

- Discuss 2 challenges or strategies that have been less successful or unsuccessful related to the policy. Recommendations and conclusions (Approx. 250 words)

- Provide 3 evidence-based recommendations to improve the implementation and/or efficacy of the policy based on your policy analysis.




Though in comparison with most of the countries of the world, Australia can boast of a clean and healthier quality of air, it has almost 5000 of its citizens that succumb every year due to diseases caused due to air pollution. The increase in population, urbanization, industrialization, air mode of transport, deterioration of the climate, and injudicious use of energy resources has been contributory factors to Australian air pollution. It has been predicted that with any remedial steps, a substantial increase in summer smog will be noticed after the year 2030, along with drought-driven bushfires and dust storms (science.org.au, 2022). Prolonged exposure to air pollution can increase the chances of respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and lung cancer. The vulnerable population like children, the elderly, the economically backward, and people with an already compromised immune system are more at risk of health hazards caused by air pollution (Who. int, 2022). Glencross et al (2020), researched that air pollution has a severe adverse impact on the immune system of the population. This report for assignment help will cover an analysis of the National Clean Air Agreement, Australia which was formed in December 2015.

Policy Analysis

In April 2014 Commonwealth Environment Minister of Australia Greg Hunt Conceptualized this agreement with the proposal of united efforts of all Environmental authorities of Australia for improving the air quality. Though the primary responsibility lies with the local governing authorities, all the levels of statutory and government authorities play a significant role in improving air quality. The Commonwealth, state government, and the local territorial government were identified as the key stakeholders responsible for the successful implementation of this agreement. This agreement was formulated to identify the main areas that contributed to poor air quality and to set priorities to work on those identified target areas. Identification of key air pollutants and their sources, and strategies to mitigate their impact was the objective of this agreement. Strategies to reduce air pollution need to be devised. This agreement aimed to meet three fundamental outcomes: improvement in environmental condition and health of citizens of Australia, society empowerment through increased awareness, access to authentic and genuine information and ways to combat air pollution, and an updated tracking system of air quality based on information, evidence, scientific principles and facts specifically for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and ozone. This agreement is a complementary tool for other government and commonwealth-enabled initiatives for environmental sustainability. The Commonwealth Government launched a National Environmental Science Programme that has a dedicated fund of $8.88 million for ensuring air quality in urban areas. An additional fund of $2.55 billion has been created to reduce the emission of harmful gases and air pollutants to establish the Emissions. Some notable achievements of the agreement over the years include the establishment of standards for emissions from marine engines and power equipment that will operate outdoors, and an increase in the quality of air for particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone gases (dcceew.gov.au, 2022). Various air champions have been identified who will work for this cause, and spread awareness and education. Non–statutory initiatives to improve air quality have also been identified (awe.gov.au, 2022). The main strength of this agreement is its holistic and comprehensive approach to dealing with the poor air quality whereby it attempts to garner support and collaboration at all levels of multiple stakeholders. Participation from local to national level improves the commitment towards the objective and reduces the resistance if any. Another strength is not only its short-term objective that will be met with a reduction in emissions but also a long-term vision of creating a culture or lifestyle change in the citizens of the country through awareness and education which is going to yield long-term sustainable benefits in maintaining air quality.

There has been criticism of this agreement by various environmental groups on the ground that the standards laid down by the Australian government in its clean air agreement do not comply with the norms established by the World Health Organization. Owing to this criticism, Australia has now set upper limits on the air pollutants PM10 which denotes the coal dust, fumes, and other coarse air particles, and PM2.5. a limit of 25 micrograms per cubic meter has been set for PM 10 (Abc.net.au, 2022). Another shortcoming of this policy is the lack of focus on industrialization as a contributor to air quality. There should be a stringent upper limit on the industries in the emission of air pollutants, the type of air pollutants, and also the consumption of natural resources.

Recommendations and Conclusions

The standards set in this policy should be following the standards set by the WHO for a universal and global approach and adherence to air quality. WHO has set various upper limits for different gases, fumes, and air pollutants which can serve as a benchmark for this agreement (C40knowledgehub.org, 2022).

The Australian government can also study the cases of other developing countries that have been facing air quality issues and understand the initiatives taken by them to curb this growing menace.

Figure 1: Initiatives to improve air quality across various countries
(Source: Safety4sea.com 2022)

Eco-friendly public transport systems that are pedestrian- and cycle-oriented, purchasing energy-efficient electronic appliances and machinery, reduction in domestic as well as industrial waste, and reduction in agro incineration, are some of the steps that can be undertaken at the community level (Financialexpress.com, 2022).

Australia has been frequently criticized for its lack of regulation and enforcement of air pollution. The harmful impact of air pollutants, even when under the permissible limit, cannot simply be ignored. The agreement along with other environmental pacts are found to be lacking in monitoring mechanisms, established universal standards, and lack of coordination between government authorities. The main cause of air pollution in Australia is particulate matter (PM) which is generated by industry and transport vehicles, mining, and coal-related activities. The National Clean Air agreement should have it in its priority area as the adverse impacts of PM on health such as neurodevelopment disorders, lung, and respiratory diseases and increased mortality cannot be ignored. The Agreement must identify high threat zones through the data related to air quality and the cost of health damages in that area and treat those areas as a high priority. The agreement should reflect the financial burden of health hazards on the economy of the country. The agreement ignores the huge expenditure incurred because of health hazards due to air pollution. Approximately $5.9 billion is spent on health issues due to transport and energy per annum in Australia and its economic impact on the bottom line of the country should be reflected in the agreement (Vlies, 2022). The agreement should also focus on vulnerable areas like Hunter Valley in New South Wales which is targeted not only by environmental pollution but also by social and economic disparity. Being a hub for coal mining, it causes tremendous air pollution due to the emission of hazardous and toxic fumes, and huge amounts of waste (amansw.com.au, 2022).


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HCT199 Evidencing Learning in Specialist Professional Assignment Sample

Assignment aims:

1. To enable students to recognise and optimise professional learning opportunities in relation to the practice setting;

2. To enable students to critically evaluate their professional practice, synthesise this in relation to their on-going role and professional development; and

3. To articulate the critical evaluation of professional practice through oral and written presentation of reflections on practice/practice related issues.

On completion of the module a student should be able to:

• Knowledge and Understanding [K)
• Intellectual Skills [S 1]
• Discipline Specific (including practical) Skills. [S 2]
• Transferable Skills [T]

1. Define and articulate personal learning outcomes via a learning contract relating to an aspect of their professional practice (K).

2. Use case studies/specific examples of practice to engage in a structured process of individual, critical and dialogic reflection on their own advanced, professional decision making in relation to this aspect of practice (S1).

3. Recognise and articulate through formative and summative assessment personal and professional learning, linked to personalised learning outcomes (S1, S2).

4. Clarify issues which define generic versus specialist practice, acknowledging professional identity whilst understanding where skills merge and others’ roles supersede in practice (S2).

5. Synthesise understanding of the philosophy of the relevant profession in order to suggest future advancements/changes to their own professional practice and where appropriate, that of the profession (K, S2).

Syllabus content:

The majority of content will be directed by the chosen specialist study, but the following areas will be explored for all:

Concepts underpinning professional development in the workplace:

- Individual responsibility for professional development
- Identification of professional development needs reconciling individual professional development needs and organisational / service development needs
- Clarification of generic versus specialist practice
- Concept of reflection and processes of reflective practice
- Evidence-based practice / Evidence-based decision making.

Processes of formalising work-based learning:

- Defining and writing individual learning outcomes through learning contract design
- Approaches to evidencing learning through work-based practice e.g. portfolios, professional diaries and significant incidents
- Using case studies as an approach to critical, dialogic reflection
- Principles of accreditation of work-based learning, if applicable


A Critical Reflection on the Development in Management of Neurophysiological changes in Autism from the Perspective of an Aspiring Advanced Physiotherapy Practitioner


Most Forth Valley primary care surgeries now employ Advanced Physiotherapy Practitioners (APPs). To address any musculoskeletal issue, APPs serve as patients' first point of contact. Patients may bypass the doctor's office and schedule an appointment with the APP via the clinic's front desk (Tawiah et al. 2021). Advanced physiotherapy practitioner has a broader autonomy of practice, allowing them to triage, assess, evaluate independently, and diagnose patients with extremely complex illnesses and maybe numerous pathologies across the health and social care landscape to enable integrated treatment (McGowan et al. 2018).

While expert physiotherapists still strive to give their patients as much autonomy as possible, they also take on leadership and management roles, deal with complicated decision-making processes, and know how to mitigate risk. Expert physiotherapists have advanced knowledge and training in a narrow field of medicine, such as injectable therapy; some even have prescription skills and the ability to diagnose and treat complex capabilities (Tawiah et al. 2018). In addition to directing the client's rehabilitation, their duties include collaborating closely with medical experts and acting as the initial point of contact, with the power to request diagnostic practitioners such as x-rays, scans, and blood tests.


My earnest goal is to become a successfully advanced physiotherapy practitioner whose main focus will be on the neurophysiological changes that occur from Autism. This paper is reflective in nature, discovering and broadening my continued professional development (CPD) perceptions to date, which has allowed me to broaden my clinical skills, knowledge, and comprehension of the topic of neurophysiological changes that occur from Autism. This paper is intended to be read by healthcare professionals. According to the Health and Care Professionals Council (2019), continuing professional development may be broken down into the following four categories. These are self-directed learning, work-based learning, formal education and professional activity. Reflection is at the core of all continuing professional development (CPD), and doing so is necessary in order to make sense of my experiences and advance my work for assignment help.

Self-reflection is analogous to explaining what one sees while staring into one's own eyes. It is a method for gauging how I operate in the world and how I study. To think about something is to engage in "reflection," in the simplest sense. Writing a reflective essay or study on one's own experiences is a vital part of the educational self in modern times (Roy and Uekusa, 2020). Instead of doing things with the same effectiveness I always have, reflecting may help me improve my skills and review how well they work. Positivity in this context refers to asking oneself whether there is a better or more efficient way to accomplish something and then acting on that inquiry (Chen et al. 2019). The ability to reflect on oneself is personal for development. Without it, we respond automatically to our surroundings and to our own selves. If I have ever had an intense reaction to something or said something that I have since come to regret, then I may acknowledge how reflection can assist me to use the better nutritious feedback and modification lifestyles (even opinions) which are not providing me. If this is the case, then I may also comprehend how it can support me in changing behaviours that are not serving me. We all self-reflect regularly, almost subconsciously, and we also do it on purpose when we want to learn something new about ourselves (Stefan and Cheie, 2022). What we see when we reflect on our own activities or routines is usually not a skewed reflection of reality but rather a minor distortion.

Clinical criteria for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) include deficits in the ability to communicate, engage socially, and adapt communication (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). As per my understanding, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined as the process that encompasses the whole group of effects from the most severe form of the condition, autism, to the milder forms, such as pervasive developmental disorder and Asperger syndrome (AS) not elsewhere defined (PDD-NOS) (PDD, NOS). A broad variety of IQs may coexist inside a single autism diagnosis. In other words, there is no universal ASD diagnosis (Miyazaki et al. 2007). Also, I realised that there are several potential causes of the ASD phenotype, including genetic disorders and ecological exposures and preterm delivery.

Variation in phenotype is also shown in areas such as the rate of language acquisition, the prevalence of epilepsy, and the spectrum of cognitive capacity. Nonetheless, abnormal responses to sensory information seem to be shared by those on all ends of the spectrum (Coskun et al. 2009). I came to know that over ninety-six per cent of children with ASD report both hyper- and hypo-sensitivities. There is a broad range of severity throughout the spectrum for sensory and behavioural impairments, just as there is for communication and social deficiencies, and these differences may persist into adulthood (Minshew et al. 2002).

From the two original fundamental findings by Asperger (1994) and Kanner (1943) through first-person experiences, sensory processing difficulties have been a consistent theme in clinical diagnoses of ASD (Asperger, 1994). I acquired that those who are unable to express their discomfort when confronted by certain sensory inputs may resort to self-harm or violent conduct. Hyper- and hyporesponsiveness to sensory input are not limited to those with ASD, although they do seem to be more common in this community than in those with other developmental disabilities (Leekam et al. 2007). It is less well known how these sensory abnormalities are distributed in individuals with ASD. In the past, it was believed that the more local senses were more susceptible to damage and served as indications of immaturity in development (Baranek et al. 2006). According to my understanding, despite increased evidence for disturbance in auditory and visual processing pathways and a renaissance in interest in multimodal integration, these individuals ’ experience are frequently the ones that get the least amount of research. This is the case in many cases (MSI).

There is evidence in the literature that points to observable changes occurring in early auditory circuitry, especially in response to increasingly complex stimuli. However, anomalies in the cerebellum do not appear to be sufficient to explain the inadequacies for all individuals who fall within the autism spectrum (Roberts et al. 2010). I realised that the ability to take in and make sense of a variety of incoming sounds is the fundamental prerequisite for both language and effective communication. Therefore, it is very necessary to have an understanding of the characteristics of this preliminary stage in the auditory sensory stream. Ordinarily, event-related potentials (ERPs) obtained using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) have been utilised in order to explore cortical auditory sensory processing that occurs further than the brainstem (Koh et al. 2010). I learned that brain responses are gathered across numerous trials to simple auditory stimuli and averaged to produce information on the temporal and spatial resolution of responses.

The main and association auditory cortices are assumed to be responsible for the abnormally late peaks seen in both EEG and MEG investigations (150 ms). These findings, unfortunately, disclosed to me that there are directional disparities in delay. Cortical latencies were shown to be shorter for longer tones at 1000 Hz in two separate investigations. Tone durations of 100 and 4 milliseconds were utilised, respectively, by Ferri et al. (2003) and Martineau et al. (1984). Delays in onset and latency in others have been observed compared to controls. Bruneau et al. (2003) demonstrated late auditory evoked potentials using a tone with a frequency of 750 Hz and a duration of 200 milliseconds. MEG was employed by Roberts et al. (2010) to report a delay in the M100 response of the right hemisphere to tones of various frequencies lasting 300 milliseconds (200, 300, 500, and 1000 Hz).

Whitehouse and Bishop (2008) observed, in instance, that the early peak latencies of the typical repeating tones varied across vowel sounds, sophisticated nonspeech sounds, and complex tones. This was the case regardless of whether the sounds were speech or nonspeech. This was the case despite the fact that each of the noises was considered to be a tone that repeated itself. Researchers Bruneau et al. (2003) and Oram Cardy et al. (2008) observed that stronger language ability was reflected in this area of low-level processing by greater and earlier right hemisphere cortical peaks. This discovery was made by the researcher Martineau et al. (1984). Differences in age, diagnosis and research paradigms may account for contradictory results. The future of this study is expected to benefit from the incorporation of behavioural phenotyping and correlations.

When Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler developed the term "autism" to describe an individual who withdrew into their own world, he drew inspiration from the Greek word for "self" (Blatt, 2012). As per my knowledge, due to sensory processing difficulties, autistic youngsters may seem to be living in a separate universe from their peers. These kids won't stop talking about the same thing, do the same things again and over (such as wring their hands or rock their bodies), say the same words over and over, and refuse to change to new situations. Psychiatrist Leo Kanner analysed the cases of 11 very bright kids who all showed characteristics of autism, including an intense need for isolation and sameness (Kanner, 1968). Kanner hypothesised that these children lacked the capacity for social-emotional development from birth (Grandin and Panek, 2013).

The frequency of the autism phenotype has remained consistent, but the number of people who are clinically diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder has grown significantly, according to a 2015 study conducted in Sweden that looked back over a 10-year period (Lundstrom et al. 2015). Because it is based on the observation of gene expression in people and their relationships to genetic variables, phenotyping is a valid method for evaluating autism neurophysiology. I understood that the significant rise in autism diagnoses is due to the fact that phenotyping has been largely abandoned in favour of a subjective checklist of symptoms, with little to no knowledge of the probable origins of these symptoms.

According to a nationwide study conducted in the United States in 2015, many children who were first labelled with autism spectrum disorder were subsequently determined not to be autistic (Bloomberg et al. 2016). I acquired that children who were given an incorrect diagnosis were less likely to be sent to a professional for further evaluation and treatment, and they were also less likely to have ever been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder or Asperger syndrome. According to a study published in Psychology Today in 2015, many children initially labelled with autism really suffer from a mix of language delay, sensory difficulties, and apraxia (Schrader, 2015). If a kid has apraxia, it means that he or she (a) understands language conceptually but has trouble expressing it vocally and (b) has trouble blending sounds in words to make meaningful communication. I also learned that it is true that some of these youngsters have trouble paying attention during tests. Others have difficulties digesting information and hence cannot reply in time to be assessed.

From an article published in 2016, I witnessed that Between 2006 and 2012, the number of people in Germany who were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder rose by almost 70 per cent. The authors of this study clearly imply (Bachman, 2018) that a substantial percentage of this huge rise was attributable to an incorrect diagnosis. Some researchers speculate that rather than having autism, many of these kids just had a low IQ, learning problems, or ADHD (Knight, 2017). Overdiagnosis of autism is common, according to the results of a 2019 thorough study published in JAMA Psychiatry (Rodgaard et al. 2019). There has been an over-expansion of the autism umbrella. I understood how autism is increasingly used as a catchall term for a wide range of conditions in neurology and child psychology that have just a superficial relationship with autism. In many cases, medical professionals will diagnose autism symptoms in people whose presenting symptoms are really just ADHD and poor social skills.

Many youngsters with sensory processing disorder (SPD) are given a diagnosis with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to a story in the Irish Times from 2019 (McDonagh, 2019). I acquired that poor eye contact, disliking hugs, poor play, and meltdowns are being used to label children with autism.

The German government provides financial assistance to autistic children and their families and provides special services in the classroom for autistic students. However, the vast majority of kids who have autism can succeed in a traditional classroom setting without any additional support. In Ireland, children with an autism diagnosis have better access to special care and education programmes tailored to their unique needs than children with other diagnoses. Due to this advantage, doctors are more likely to identify a kid with autism rather than another disorder (Rose, 2016).

Autistic children who live in the United Kingdom and need special assistance get a Disability Living Allowance. I learned that in order for the parents to obtain this benefit, neither a diagnosis nor proof of financial need is necessary. In the United States, parents may have Risperidone and Aripiprazole prescribed for their children if they have been diagnosed with autism. The antipsychotic medications approved for use in the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression cannot possibly help those with autism. The only reason parents give their kids medication is so they can behave (Talsma et al. 2010).

As per my research, children who are antisocial, struggle with anxiety and refuse education are often incorrectly classified as autistic in the United Kingdom. To the mother's benefit, a fraudulent diagnosis of autism might be used in custody proceedings (Garber, 2011). The autistic brain has the same basic neurological structure as any other brain. The neurophysiology of the autistic brain is what sets it apart. The cingulate gyrus (CG) is like an automated transmission that smoothly shifts focus between the frontal lobes in a neurotypical brain. However, in autism, a dysfunctional CG prevents access to the emotional/creative processing right frontal lobe, which is pivotal in spontaneity, social behaviour, and nonverbal abilities. While some neurotypical individuals are primarily right-brain thinkers, others tend to favour the left side of the brain. However, autistic individuals can't function well without using their left brain exclusively (Rolland, 2020). This may take up to a day. Anxiety is a distressing physiological reaction (not an emotion) that goes straight to the body and ignores the brain.

I understood that an autistic person's hyperfocus is so strong that they are unable to juggle competing thoughts. An autistic individual will accept your every statement at face value since they lack the cognitive capacity to process two sets of information at once. Autistic persons are unable to monitor how they are being received or viewed by their audience when speaking at length about a favourite subject (Kallstrand et al. 2010). I learned that people on the autism spectrum need organised activities because they cannot focus on both the task at hand and the task of predicting what could happen next.

Different forms of sensory overload are also brought on by hyperfocus. As a result of their hyperfocus, autistic people hear loud or high-pitched noises with far more intensity than their neurotypical counterparts. An autistic individual may experience cognitive impairment and a frightening void of thought if exposed to too many words on a page (Jemel et al. 2010). From my knowledge, I understood that anxiety might be brought on by shopping for too long or by overhearing private conversations. Anxiety attacks are often triggered by hardware shop lighting displays. Some people find that their hyperfocus amplifies their sensation of touch, which may make wearing tight clothes or receiving a hug uncomfortable.

These 52 autistic characteristics are all attributable to autism's distinguishing feature: hyperfocus (Churches et al. 2010). The mental state of hyperfocus consists of undying, laser-like attention on a single thinking process to the exclusion of all others. My research says that about a third of the following characteristics may also be attributed to other factors. This is why collecting a list of symptoms isn't a reliable diagnostic tool. The categorization of symptoms leads to more questions than answers if we don't know what's causing them (Vlamings et al. 2010). Autism's distinctive symptoms result from hyperfocus, a condition that is causally unique. If I suffer from hyperfocus, I won't be able to process several inputs or thoughts at once. The autistic person on the other end of the line cannot sense anything you or I am saying to them right now.

The concept of an autism spectrum needs to be abandoned because it is unproductive. Many erroneous autism diagnoses may be traced back to this flawed idea. The condition of autism does not belong on any gradable spectrum (Monk et al. 2010). I understood that autism is not a spectrum disorder but rather only has one form. No autistic autism disorders exist, and neither do autistic tendencies. True autism exists at a one hundred per cent rate. The sole difference between people with autism is the degree to which they experience hyperfocus. Individuals with autism disorder (low functioning) tend to be completely inaccessible due to their intense attention (Annaz et al. 2010). While communicating with people with Asperger syndrome who are high functioning, I understood that they exhibit hyperfocus less severely. If a visual representation is to be of any use, it must take the form of a vertical bar chart, with the highest intensity (lowest functioning) at the bottom and the lowest intensity (maximum functioning) at the top.

Children with autism who are unable to communicate are especially vulnerable to being stuck in a state of hyperfocus from which they cannot be rescued. Some severely autistic youngsters, as Einstein did at age four, develop an interest in communication and begin speaking on their own (Iarocci et al. 2010). Children with developmental, learning, language, communication, or social disorders not associated with autism are the only ones who can be taught to talk. When compared to the clinical phenotypic approach that was the norm in the 1960s, the symptom survey method of autism diagnosis represents a huge step backwards. Phenotyping relies on studying gene expression in people and establishing links between circumstances and genetics.


Autism is a neurophysiological disorder that affects how the brain processes information and is not caused by external factors. The inability to react to external or social stimuli is a major problem for a brain that is stuck in hyperfocus. Similarly, it cannot be treated using behaviour change techniques. Autism-related hyperfocus cannot be reasoned away. Hyperfocus, or intense, single-minded attention on one thought pattern at a time, to the exclusion of everything else, including one's own emotions, is a defining characteristic of autism. It seems that the cingulate gyrus (CG), the brain region responsible for focusing attention, is malfunctioning in those with hyperfocus. When compared to the clinical phenotypic approach that was the norm in autism diagnosis in the 1960s, the symptom survey method has been a severe setback.

Phenotyping relies on studying gene expression in people and establishing links between circumstances and genetics. Autism is a neurophysiological disorder that affects how the brain processes information and is not caused by external factors. The inability to react to external or social stimuli is a major problem for a brain that is stuck in hyperfocus. Similarly, it cannot be treated using behaviour change techniques. Autism-related hyperfocus cannot be reasoned away. Hyperfocus, or intense, single-minded attention on one thought pattern at a time, to the exclusion of everything else, including one's own emotions, is a defining characteristic of autism. The brain of the attention-focusing cingulate gyrus (CG) seems to be at the root of hyperfocus. 


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HCT343 Research Methods and Data Analysis in Healthcare Assignment Sample

Assignment Task

Title: - Correlation of socioeconomic status and health-related quality of life in parents of children with Autism in India


The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between health- related quality of life and socioeconomic status in caregivers of autism children in India.


1) To assess the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores of HRQoL using SF 12 in parents of children with Autism in India
2) To evaluate the association between socioeconomic status and Health- related quality of life (HRQoL) in caregivers of children with Autism in India.

• Inclusion Criteria:-

Parents of children with Autism
Child with autism should be from the age of 4 yrs to 18yrs.

• Exclusion Criteria:- Parents of children with autism who have morbidities.

Methods: -

Study design: - A cross-sectional, non-experimental design. The primary variables of interest are HRQoL and socioeconomic status by modified Kuppuswamy socioeconomic scale

• Data Analysis: - Paired sample t-tests will be used to assess the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores of HRQoL.
• The Pearson Product Moment Correlation will be used to measure the relationship between socioeconomic status and HRQol in caregivers of children with Autism.


1) There is no correlation between health-related quality of life and socioeconomic status in caregivers of children who are autistic in India.


1. Project laid Summary

Autism is one of the most severe neuropsychiatric disorders that affect children. The subject's Autistic can be characterised by the impairments of interactive social behaviour in a stereotypical manner (Joseph et al., 2022). The absence of the ability to perform tasks properly can impact oral health. The sense and constant care of helplessness drastically affect the quality of life. The respective disease occurs due to the neurodevelopment that is identified at the early stages of growth of the children and prior to attaining three years of age of a child. The presence of the condition Autism delayed the development of social and communication skills and fixed or restricted behavioural patterns. Many types of research are carried out to understand the condition of Autism in India and provide the information that around 18 million people in the country are suffering from the condition of Autism. It is also reported that the number of children affected by Autism is increasing day by day (Divan et al., 2021). Some of the researchers also claim that socioeconomic status and health-related quality of life of the parents of children are correlated with Autism; however, most of them are unable to provide deep information. A lack of primary research is also found regarding Autism to establish a correlation between this and socioeconomic status and health-related quality of life in parents of children for assignment help.

The issue with most of the previous studies is that those consider small sample sizes and also consider healthy parents, so the aim of the research is not gratified. Hence, the respective study aims to investigate the relationship between the health-related quality of life in parents and socioeconomic status in a total of 50 participants. All the participants have at least one child with Autism. The data is collected by using 12 scales of HRQL, and the socioeconomic status of the participants is modified and collected through the scale of Kuppuswamy. The collected data is presented in tabular form, followed by statistical analysis to establish the research objectives.

2. Background of the study

The disorder of Autism is a type of complex disability that is increasing day by day throughout the world and also in the country of India. The disability of children not only brings a financial burden for the family members, especially the parents; it also impacts the social health, psychological health and physical health of the families (Goldberg, McCormick and Virginia, 2021). In most cases, parents with Autism affected children revealed a lower quality of life if that is compared with the other parents who have healthy children and also the parents with physically disabled children.

Physicians and caregivers provide the information that children with the condition ASD not only develop neuro-developmental disorders yet also lead to problems that require proper treatment and medical attention (Keeley, 2021). Hence it can be stated that it impacted the quality of life of the parents due to the pressure of treatment of the child and related expenses. However, the respective disease develops a lifelong disability that limits the child's educational, social, and occupational demands in all stages of life. Hence the children require lifelong support from parents, which is a kind of burden for the family. The World Health Organisation also shows worry regarding the condition of Autism because it not only affects children and families, it also dismantles the growth of society (Grinker, 2020).

The diagnosis process of Autism is also complicated and difficult due to the absence of specific medical tests. There are various tools discovered by physicians to test Autism in children. WHO recommended the requirements for a diagnosis of behaviour and mental conditions. The ICD-10 test is preferable in the UK, while the USA prefers DSM-5. “The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS)” is used in India (Kim et al., 2022). At the same time, there are various risk factors that are associated with Autism, parental age, heredity or family history and so on. The research provides the information parents who have one child affected through Autism also have the chance of having Autism in a second child also. Consequently, a clear understanding of Autism and its correlation with socioeconomic status and health-related quality of life require enlightenment to change the lifestyle of parents (Prakash et al., 2021). Recommended improvement of quality-of-life families with children of Autism also supports the growth of societies.

a) Data Search

b) Critical appraisal of research literature, Analysis, synthesis and evaluation of research literature

Autism is the third most developed disability in the world. According to Abbeduto et al. (2014), the developed countries, due to a lack of awareness regarding Autism, are affected mostly. Not only lack of awareness, poor diagnosis and lack of primary needs for Autism also increase the risks and numbers of affected people. As per some of the studies, the condition of Autism is developed due to genetic and environmental causes. While some others provide the information that low birth rate, viral infections during the time of pregnancy, metabolic imbalances and family history are responsible for the development of Autism. Detection of Autism in the early stage of childhood is challenging. However, the condition is properly diagnosed at the age of two years. As per Adler and Ostrove's (1999) view, though Autism cannot be diagnosed at an early stage, it can be understood through observation, as most of them develop difficulties in communication and the development of appropriate social relationships. Parents try to hide their conditions of Autism due to a lack of awareness about their mental health. Even many people are unaware that their conditions can impact newborn children. The affected children with age exhibit various abnormal behaviours and are subjected to filthy remarks, humiliation, bullying and so on.

There is no such cure for the condition of Autism in children due to the absence of drugs. However, appropriate awareness is effective for performing and adopting appropriate requirements to manage Autism. Based on the view of Bromley et al. (2014), Cognitive behaviour therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy, behavioural management therapy and so on. On the contrary, another research provides the information that Autism in children can be managed through medication treatment, school-based therapy, nutritious food and so on. Speech therapy is also considered by the physician in most cases of Autism. There upon it can be stated that the supportive system of Autism requires appropriate investment, which brings huge economic pressure upon the parents and to family. Children with Autism can lead happy lives if they are raised in a proper healthy, and happy environment. However, economic pressure, in most cases, brings disturbance within the environment of the home (Ahmed, Buheji and Fardan, 2020). In some of the cases, it is also observed that parents lose their ability to parent due to the economic pressure of treatment in a place where psychiatric and physical challenges take place.

As opined by Harman (2014), mothers experienced higher levels of stress. Some societies blamed mothers for the condition of Autism. At the same time, some parents try to find out the reason for Autism that, delays the whole process of diagnosis. With the reference of Hicks, Jason, (2018), incorrect diagnosis also increases the issues of the parents and family members. Secondly, children with Autism require support on their everyday chores, which decreases the occupational involvement of parents and ultimately impact economic conditions (Hastings et al., 2005). The schools that are run by the country's government are not effective due to the absence of infrastructure, which ultimately leads the parents to take private support services. Socioeconomic conditions are also impacted because Autism affected children are unable to travel by public transport in most cases for their mental and physical conditions. Thus, it can be stated that socioeconomic conditions are related to the life of parents of children with Autism.

The health-related quality of life means HRQoL is one of the most important measures that are not only effective for understanding the health of people with Autism, but it is also effective for understanding mental health. Based on the view of Algahtani et al. (2021), HRQoL is a kind of approach that is effective in measuring various health outcomes by proper evaluation of an individual's emotional, psychosocial and physical well-being as well. As stated by Meadan, Halle and Ebata, (2010), Paediatric Quality of life systematically addresses various problems such as social functioning, school functioning, and emotional functioning. Further, every domain of this is broken down into various factors. All of this is to support the children with Autism as well as the parents.

Most of the literature focuses on the families and parents with Autism and also disabilities and disorders. However, very few focus on increasing the quality of life of the affected children and their family members (rehab council.nic.in, 2022). While detection of Autism is quite difficult, increasing the quality of life can be able to support the parents and also the affected child. Treatment of Autism has also involved the education of parents and the spreading of awareness and also of caregivers. According to Rizk, Pizur-Barnekow and Darragh (2011), Caregivers are able to support children with Autism. However, lack of knowledge and investments from the sides of Government and infrastructure related to the respective care increase the issues of them. Pharmacological treatment for Autism is mostly preferred and widely practised in developed countries like India.

3. Purpose of study

The aim of the respective study is to evaluate the correlation between socioeconomic status and health-related quality of life in the family members and parents of children with Autism on the basis of a case study of the country India. The aim of the research is to recommend to parents with Autism children some remedies that are effective in maintaining the quality of life of themselves and also of their children.

a) Null hypothesis

There is no such correlation between socioeconomic status and health-related quality of life in the parents of children with Autism in country India.

b) Objectives

The objectives of the respective study are as follows:

? To evaluate the correlation of socioeconomic status of life in parents of children with Autism in India
? To evaluate health-related quality of life in health-related quality of life in parents of children with Autism in India
? To develop appropriate awareness in a married couple to manage the risks of Autism in pregnancy
? To recommend some remedies to the parents for managing the lifestyle of Autism Children

4. Research design

The socioeconomic status of the individual is an important parameter for determining the status of the individual in society (Wani, 2019).In this regard, importance is given to occupation, earnings as well as education. Henceforth it can be regarded that these parameters play a pivotal role in shaping the nutritional condition and the subsequent health condition of individuals and families in general (Nielsen et al., 2021). In the current topic, thus, it becomes imperative to determine the socioeconomic status of the parents of the children who are suffering from Autism in India. Thus, this determination of socioeconomic status would help to reflect the quality of life that the parents of autistic children are leading in India. Thus, the correlation study helps to understand the association that exists between socioeconomic status and the quality of life that these parents are leading.

In this regard, it is essential to formulate the categories in which these parents can be classified. These categories would help to understand the exact choice of the participants who will be chosen for conducting this study (Patino and Ferreira, 2018). The inclusion and exclusion criteria for the selection of the participants are as follows

a)Inclusion Criteria:

• Parents who have children suffering from Autism
• Parents are strictly from India
• Parents who have given consent to participate in the survey
• The parent can respond to the questions of the survey.
• The different parameters of threw socioeconomic status have been taken into consideration.

b) Exclusion Criteria

• Parents who do not have children suffering from Autism.

• Parents who are residing outside of India.

• Since Autism is a sensitive topic, the parents who have not given consent to participate in the survey have been excluded from the survey.

• The parents who are not in a mental or physical situation to respond to the questions have been excluded from the survey.

• The socioeconomic status of the patients has been considered in this respect, and the other aspects of life, like the physiological or the psychological parameters of the concerned, have been excluded from the survey since the focus is on the determination of the socioeconomic status of the parents and their relation with the quality of life that they are leading.

Thus, it can be inferred that the study is strictly concentrated on evaluating the socioeconomic status of the parents whose children are suffering from Autism. The parents of autistic children are only taken for conducting this survey. Moreover, it can be inferred that the parents' consent was taken before conducting the survey since Autism is a sensitive issue and ethical consideration must be given utter priority in this regard. The parents who have not opted to answer the questions of the survey have not been included in this research study. The study is this directed towards the goal, and it diverts itself from the unnecessary consideration of the aspects unrelated to the survey. For instance, this study avoids focusing on the parents who are residing outside India and thus focuses only on the estimation of the scenario of the parents who are residing in India. Furthermore, the physiological or psychological aspects of the parents have not been considered in this regard. The focus of the study is thus centred on finding the socio-economic status of the parents whose children are suffering from Autism in India.

c) Sample size

In this case, it is essential to determine the appropriate sample size, and this can be determined by the calculation of G power. The sample size is a crucial factor in the determination of the statistical accuracy of the results (Kang, 2021). The difference between the alternate and the null hypothesis is also determined by the sample size, and this can be predicted with the help of G power. Thus, the G power estimation is quite essential in the development of the research design of the scientific study.

The sample of 50 participants was taken by considering the G power of the population. In this case, the previous research has shown that the result of the correlation test has a tendency to have a positive value (Kivimäki et al.,2020). The p-value of 0.05 has been considered in this regard since the 5% level of significance is taken. In this kind of condition, the power of 0.8 is quite instrumental in diminishing the occurrence of the type-II error, and the effective sample size is 0.3. Thus, by considering all the necessary coefficients of correlation(r), the effective size is 0.478, and thus, in this respect, the sample size of approximately 35 would be quite conducive for performing the statistical analysis. Thus, we have considered the sample size of 50, and this is in good agreement with the G power of the sample size. In this respect, it must be noted that the smaller sample size would lead to the depleted statistical accuracy of the calculation that would be conducted, and this would also imply that the standard deviation from the mean would also be low. Thus, an accurate idea about the G power will help in ensuring that the size is adequate and it does not lead to the generation of excessive standard deviation, which can be regarded as an impediment to the accuracy of the statistical analysis. As discussed earlier ethical considerations have been taken into consideration, and thus it is essential to take the consent of the parents. The sample number of 50 reflects the number of participants who have agreed to participate in the study. A total of 62 participants had been approached for the survey, and among them, 12 participants opted to stay out of the survey. Henceforth the sample size of 50 has been considered for conducting this survey.
d) Data Collection

It is essential to evaluate the appropriate research methodology that will be conducive to procuring the research goals and objectives. The two types of research methods that are predominant in the scientific world are quantitative and qualitative types of research (Thelwall, and Nevill, 2021). In this research context, it was essential to evaluate the relationship between the socio-economic status and the healthy life of the parents whose children have been suffering from Autism. Firstly, it can be noted that the survey was conducted with the aid of the randomly chosen 50 parents whose children have suffered from Autism. This survey was conducted to evaluate the correlation between the socio-economic status and the healthy lifestyle of the concerned individuals. Thus, in this context, primary quantitative research has been performed to determine the effect of socioeconomic status on the health-related quality of life of the parents whose children have been suffering from Autism in India.

In this respect, the modified Kuppuswamy scale will be used, and 5the scoring will be done accordingly to measure the different parameters of the socio-economic status of the participants in India. The first aspect of measurement is the educational qualities of the parents of autistic children. In indicating this regard, the highest education is awarded a score of 7, while the illiterate participants are given a score of 1. The occupation of the participants will also be marked accordingly, with the people holding important positions in the government or private sectors getting a score of 10 while the unemployed participants are awarded 1. Again, in the case of income, the people belonging to the highest income categories will be awarded a score of 12, while people earning the least amount will be awarded a score of 1. Furthermore, it should be noted that according to the latest Kuppuswamy scale, the upper classes of the society are awarded a score of 26-29, while the people belonging to the lowest strata of the economic ladder will be given a score of 5. Thus, the higher scores of the participants indicate that they enjoy a better socio-economic position in society than the other participants.

The datasets will be properly estimated with the aid of the appropriate methods, and this will be instrumental in establishing the research goals (Sovacool, Axsen, and Sorrell, 2018). In the current research, the randomly selected parents whose children have been suffering from Autism were chosen, and their socio-economic status was estimated with the aid of the SF-12 and taking the modified Kuppuswamy scale for determining the socio-economic status of the parents. The data was collected after the completion of the survey, and it contained information related to the economics and education of the participants. The appropriate statistical test will help to depict the scores of the participants in the survey.

In this regard, the descriptive statistics will be calculated with the aid of Excel, and this will help to form a comprehensive idea about the responses that will be collected from the participants, and this will reflect the overall socio-economic status of the participants. A blank model 0f descriptive statistics is given below.

Table 1: A blank model of descriptive statistics
(Source-Self created)

The statistical analysis of the data collected from the survey will help to analyze the effect of the socio-economic status on the health-related quality of life. Here in this context, the Excel analysis was performed to conduct the correlation of the data that was collected from the survey (Miot, 2018). Table 2 determines the meaning of the values that are obtained from the statistical analysis of the data set which is available. Again, this relationship can be both; positive and negative (Mat Roni et al., 2020). The positive value determines that the variables in question get increased with the enhancement of the variable. A negative association can also exist, which implies that with the increase in one variable, another variable gets diminished.

Table 2: Meaning of the correlation values
(Source-Self created)

5. Ethical governance and consideration

Ethical consideration has been taken by the Ministry of Health and family welfare under the government of India. In this case, 50 people have been considered for undertaking the survey since it deals with a sensitive issue like child autism. Thus, the parents will be made to sign a petition of consent to affirm that they do not have any issues with sharing the relevant personal information. In this regard, the research design of the study has been made in consideration of the ethical aspects, and the consent forms of the parents will be submitted to the ministry of health and family welfare. The parents will be sent the questions through email, and this inline survey will ensure that the parents won't have to bear unnecessary trouble for participating in the survey. The parents whose children have been suffering from Autism can respond to the questions from the comfort of their homes since the survey will be conducted online mode. Thus, the parents would also feel comfortable sharing their personal details since this project will be conducted under the governance of an appropriate state agency. The reliability of the project would ensure the proper response from all the participants. Moreover, a detailed report about the progress of the survey will be presented to the learned experts after conducting the survey. These experts will review the scenario of the project properly and will also strategize some necessary recommendations that are related to the research study. These recommendations, according to the review of the scenario by then experts in the field, will be submitted to the government organization from time to time. Thus, the project related to the evaluation of the socioeconomic status and the quality of life of the parents whose children are suffering from Autism has been depicted by considering the ethical aspects and the proper governance of the project. The supervision of the concerned experts and the government agency would aid in fulfilling the research goals.



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CAM520 Global Health System Assignment Sample

Prepare a written report for assignment help to improve the capacity of the Australian health care system to address the evolving health needs of a target population. Choose one of the 31 Australian Primary Health Networks as the context for your report. Draw upon the epidemiological and demographic information in the most recent PHN needs assessment done by your chosen PHN. Your report will make four (4) evidence-based recommendations for change in the primary health care sector and discuss possible implementation strategies. Justify the proposed changes against Duckett’s criteria for an ideal health system – equity of outcomes, quality of care, efficiency, and acceptability for health consumers.



The Primary Health networks or PHNs are funded by the Department of Health of the Australian government in order to manage and coordinate the delivery of Primary Health care within the diverse regions of Australia. PHNs serves as an independent organization which focuses on assessing and evaluating the health needs of a community and providing significant health services to the general population according to their need as well as their favourable situation (Bates et al. 2022 p. 4). There are two significant goals of a Primary Health network which guide and account for the services the particular organization conducts. It focuses on improving and enhancing the effectiveness of the significant health services provided to people with a high risk of depraved health outcomes (Australian Government, 2022, p. 1). It also aims on improvising and supports the coordination of significant and necessary health-related services to the people in need along with increasing available and easy access to better care along with ensured quality service delivery. There are 31 Primary Health networks within Australia which function independently with an aim to minimize the risk of poor health outcomes as well as connect people with significant health services and maintain appropriate care delivery to people within significant time and locality (Australian Government, 2022, p. 1). In the following assessment, North Coast PHN has been selected out of the 31 Primary Health care networks in order to evaluate its significance in maintaining significant health service and quality care delivery within a certain target population of Australia. The assessment will thus focus on assessing the significant target population based on the epidemiological and demographic information accounted for by the north coast PHN in order to provide better health services and facilities to the general population of Australia.

Target population and health needs:

With growing age, the risk of several health issues and conditions develops in an elderly individual. According to World Health Organization, the common health issues or conditions witnessed by an elderly individual throughout the world account for osteoarthritis, diabetes, depression, hearing issues, loss of vision, dementia, a chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, joint pains as well as refractive error (WHO, 2022, p. 1). Within the premises of Australia, one in every five older individuals accounting for 22% of the overall population have reported the issues defies related to stroke, as well as heart or vascular complications. It has been found that 7% of the population sustains the risk of cancer while 15% are accounted to live with diabetes. Also, glaucoma, cataracts, blindness or muscular degeneration are also some of the issues witnessed by the elderly population living in Australia which develops a state of deprived quality of life and unhealthy ageing. With growing age the risk to sustain multiple health issues increases which serve as a depriving factor within their health conditions as well as the quality of living (Israeli et al. 2022, p. 3). The elderly population also sustains the development of several health conditions or stability which comes with growing age and they are generally accounted as geriatric syndromes. These syndromes serve as a prime factor in the development of different health issues and sufferings within an elderly individual such as the risk of falls, pressure ulcers, frailty, delirium as well as urinary incontinence. With growing age as well as significant health complications the basic needs and requirements of aged individual accounts for personal security, safety, financial stability, physical and mental health, significant health care services, management of health challenges along with self-actualization (Nguyen et al. 2022, p. 6). Thus this aged population explains the need of maintaining healthy ageing with growing time which explains the need of enhancing and improvising the significant physical environment they are ageing, the services they are provided with as well as the opportunities they sustain in order to maintain a healthy lifestyle as well as management of their health issues. It has been found that acknowledging the ageing population and significant planning for their benefit is one of the necessary investments for the future of the Australian population as it can ensure benefits for the younger generations as well as those who are growing older (Davern et al. 2020, p. 17).

According to the North Coast PHN, it has been found that more than 20% of the overall population of North Coast belongs to the age group of 65 and above when compared to those of Australia and NSW where the statistics are 15.7% and 18.5% respectively. It also highlights that more than 15.8% of the age population explains the need for assistance in conducting their core activities (North Coast Collective, 2022, p. 1). It was found that healthy ageing and living was the second health issue faced by the population of North Coast as well as a significant regional strategy in order to ensure better ageing within the elderly population. The health need assessment conducted by North Coast PHN highlighted the need for significant collaboration and partnership of health professionals with the elderly population in order to manage their health as well as the risk of sustaining illness. It was found that the elderly population mainly needs assistance based on non-disease approaches such as health care expenses or cost, overcoming the barrier of distance to seek services, and informed and well-guided services based on residential care or home-based care (North Coast PHN, 2022, p. 1).

Evidence-based recommendations and implementation strategies against Duckett’s health system criteria

Recommendation 1:

Access to transportation as well as health care services are two prime factors that serve as a barrier in the process of healthy ageing in the older population it has been found that travelling long distances to seek health care services often becomes a major issue for the older population as with growing edge several disabilities and mobility issues increases (North Coast Collective, 2022, p. 1). Also according to the North Coast PHN, it has been found that distance of travel was one of the issues reported by the general population which serves as a barrier to accessing significant health services. It was found that in order to seek specialist care and service, 42.9% of the population reported having issues due to the distance of travel that they had to meet (North Coast PHN, 2022, p. 1). Also in terms of allied health services such as podiatrists, dentists or physiotherapists the distance of travel was also a common barrier reported by 29.9% of the population. the population living on the North Coast explain the need to travel distance to seek better services in relation to their mental health condition as they lacked significant counselling and psychiatric services within their local premises. Approximately 40.3% of the population reported having a lack of services in their mental health facilities which has a direct association with the increased need for travelling distance (North Coast PHN, 2022, p.1). Hence focusing on the issues of travelling long distances as well as lack of services it is recommended that significant home-based or residential care services are provided to the elderly population on the northern coast. It is necessary that the elderly population or the population with a demand for healthy ageing are provided with significant attention and resources within their homes instead of nursing homes to seek better health conditions and undergo healthy ageing (Gordon et al. 2020, p. 75). Thus the North Coast PHN needs to develop a significant health care team which precisely functions on providing home-based care or residential care two people with increased health needs. In order to implement the strategy, it is necessary to develop a significant proposal with collaboration from other stakeholders such as local government, national government, NGOs, the Primary Health network as well as professionals with skills and experience in delivering home-based care. The intervention or the strategy will highlight the delivery of services to people in relation to their health needs living in every demographic condition in order to maintain equitable outcomes (Siette et al. 2021, p. 997). According to Duckett’s health system criteria equity of outcome explains that every individual belonging to every demographic or epidemiological condition is provided with equal and rightful opportunities in terms of their health and well being. Home-based care and residential care explains the significant delivery of services and health needs to the aged population with disability issues or mobility barriers within their living premises. It serves by minimizing or removing the need of traveling distances in order to seek better services as well as bringing effective specialist care and interventions at home to the people in need (Doh, Smith and Gevers, 2020, p. 1371). The recommendation in relation to the Primary Health network will ensure that people living on the North Coast with the need for home-based care will sustain a significant opportunity for healthy ageing with minimized risk of travel discomfort. Also, home-based care will reduce the increased health expenditure which rises with the need to travel long distances in order to seek specialists and professionals in relation to their health issues such as mental health, physiotherapies as well as other underlying health issues.

Recommendation 2:

It was found from the elderly population of the North Coast explains the lack of understanding and guidance related to the services as well as resources that are available in relation to their health issues. From the North Coast PHN, it was found that in relation to mental health services 35.3% of the population reported that they do not understand or are sure about what kind of services are available for their treatment (North Coast PHN, 2022, p. 1). In relation to alcohol and other drug services it has been found that out of 50.4% belonging to the age group of 15 to 64 years, 38.1% reported a similar issue of having a knowledge barrier about the services or facilities that are available. Also, 35.2% of the population belonging to 15 to 64 years reported that in relation to age-specific services these sustain and charity as well as lack of understanding of the diverse range of services or treatment facilities that are available within their communities (North Coast PHN 2022, p. 1). Thus, based on this statistical evidence it is recommended that significant awareness and guidance strategies or measures should be taken into account in order to guide and educate the population regarding the services as well as facilities that are available (Archibald and Kitson 2020, p. 99). According to Duckett health system criteria, acceptability for health consumers explains the suitable and appropriate guidance or services delivery to health consumers in relation to their health and well beings. Thus their recommendation explains that the North Coast Primary Health services need to guide the population regarding the services and treatments that are available to respective illnesses two people in need the implementation strategies for the recommendation explain the usage of primary healthcare services which will function in delivering appropriate guidance and knowledge to the local people as well as the communities.

Recommendation 3:

On assessing the North Coast PHN evidence on the local Health Network as well as services attainment by the general population as well as the issues they witnessed while seeking access to health services it was found that cost was one of the common factors which was identified in each aspect of health service. In terms of seeking specialist care, allied health, mental health services, alcohol and drug services, general practice as well as age-specific services. In each of the health service aspects, more than 25% of the population reported witnessing issues with cost in terms of their health care (North Coast PHN 2022, p. 1). With a lack of knowledge about available services the increased risk of spending a higher amount of economy on inappropriate diagnoses, medicines as well as services (Le et al. 2021, p. 5). By providing significant guidance and knowledge in relation to the available services the elderly population sustains the ability to invest their healthcare funds and economy in relatable and appropriate health services in terms of their underlying issues. Also, elderly health care funds must be ensured to people with financial instability in order to assist them in seeking better ageing and sustain efficient and effective services in terms of health according to Duckett’s criteria.

Recommendation 4:

It was also found from the North Coast PHN statistics it was found that in terms of age-specific services approximately 31.1% of the population reported having difficulty in organizing their services and care along with the daily necessities. They reported having issues with managing doctors’ appointments, normal domestic support and assistance as well as care packages with funding. Thus, it is recommended that significant home-based nursing care is provided to patients with deteriorating health conditions where they lose their ability to manage home-based services as well as their health care needs (North Coast PHN 2022, p. 1). According to ducats criteria, the recommendation will focus on providing effective and efficient services to elderly people and guide them through healthy ageing.


It can be stated that the elderly population of Australia explains the increased need for significant and necessary services related to their health and well being in order to restore the process of healthy ageing. The North Coast PHN highlighted the significant needs explained by the elderly population of the North Coast related to their health and the ageing process. Thus focusing on the needs as well as the risks sustained by these populations significant recommendations had been made and guided in the assessment which will serve in ensuring the process of healthy ageing. These recommendations are maintained using buckets health system criteria which guide equity of outcomes, quality of cash, efficacy as well as acceptability. The North Coast PHN explains the need for certain recommendations which highlight the implementation of advanced and well-organized home-based or residential care for age populations, cost-effective treatment intervention or health care funds as well as maintaining education and awareness in terms of health services available.


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PBHL20003 Social Epidemiology and Statistics Assignment Sample

Task description

The literature review provides an overview of the social epidemiological aspects of your topic that you chose for Assessment 2. It summarises broad trends in the literature on your topic and highlights important points in selected articles. The review task includes:

The literature review is due in the last week of Term. However, your preparation should commence at Week 1 to familiarize yourself with the Library and its academic databases, how to conduct literature searches, select material and structure your Review. The University library and CQU Student Learning Support provide online guides and individual sessions; and workshops on academic writing, academic integrity and referencing. You also have access to resources such as Studiosity.

Choosing the literature to include in your assignment help is important. Only peer-reviewed scholarly material should be used. You need to note various views and approaches contained in the literature and to choose works to include without bias or preconceived ideas. Journal articles are often more relevant than books due to the long lead time between the writing and publication of books and because journals are often the forum where the latest thinking on a topic appears.




Malaria has been accounted as one of the major global health priorities as the prevalence of malaria has been affected worldwide nations. According to World Malaria Report published in the year 2020, it has been found that approximately 229,000,000 case reports of malaria have been witnessed in the year 2019 (World Health Organization 2022, p. 1). The report highlights that children belonging to the age of five and below are one of the most susceptible and vulnerable target populations for malaria. Also, the report highlights that in the year 2019 approximately 67% of death cases were identified associated with malaria throughout the world (World Health Organization 2022 p. 1). The National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System and NNBSS reported the identification of 9291 case reports of diseases that are suspected to be transmitted by mosquitoes from the year 2010 to 2011 (Knope 2013, p. 3). It has also been evaluated and acknowledged that malaria has been one of the historical endemics for the population of Australia which was significantly declared eradicated since they are 1981. As the condition of malaria has no longer been accounted as an endemic condition, there are still 700 to 800 cases of malaria reported each year within the population of Australia who are accounted as frequent travellers.

One of the target populations of malaria within the premises of Australia accounts for Papua New Guinea’s population has it has been found that more than 95% of the population belonging to the New Guinea are found living in regions where the risk of malaria transmission is significantly higher than any other communities. The case reports of malaria within the premises of the Western Pacific region of Australia highlight that more than three fourth of the cases of malaria on identified within the Papua New Guinea population (Australian High Commission Papua New Guinea 2022, p. 1). The National Health and Medical Research Council has provided $21,860,617.00 to the field of malaria research in the year 2020 which is divided among ideas grants and investigator grants (NHMRC 2022, p. 1). Focusing on the rising prevalence of malaria as well as the increased risk of the infection within the Papua New Guinea population as well as other communities of Australia, the following literature review will focus on assessing significant literature evidence available in terms of malaria in the Australian population. It is necessary to develop significant literature analysis to evaluate the conditions sustained by the general population of Australia as well as Papua New Guinea as well as significant strategies and supportive actions that the government must take into account to provide them with safer and secured health outcomes. The increased prevalence of malaria within the target population, the significant factors which are associated with the increased risk of the condition as well as the services that are provided as well as those that need to be enhanced within the target population will be evaluated in the following Literature review.


To conduct a significant literature review, it will be necessary to identify, select and further evaluate sets of literature evidence with the help of inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as a literature search. The inclusion criteria focus on highlighting the criteria based on which the research articles will be selected from electronic databases. Articles which are published between the year 2010 to 2022 will be selected as well as those which are published in the English language (Patino and Ferreira 2018, p. 1). Also, the articles discuss the prevalence of malaria as well as associated factors within the target population such as Australia and Papua New Guinea to be precise. Electronic databases such as PubMed will be used to attain a significant set of literature articles which are peer-reviewed and authentic (Patino and Ferreira 2018, p. 2). The literature review will focus on the methodology target population, significant findings as well as the research gap that are identified within the selected research articles to evaluate a significant set of evidence for the assessment.

Literature analysis:

Theme 1: socioeconomic stability and diversity associated with increased risk of malaria in Papua New Guinea population

According to the research carried out by Davy et al. (2010, p. 1), it has been found that malaria has been one of the major burdens of health within nations with low-income values and standards first up the research was carried out focusing on the treatment-seeking behaviour in terms of malaria within one of the low-income population of Australia accounting for Papua New Guinea. The research was carried out focusing on a cross-sectional survey between two linguistically, culturally as well as demographically different regions where the Papua New Guinea population were residing. The cross-sectional survey relied on household evidence which was taken from both sides accounting for approximately 928 individuals (Davy et al. 2010, p. 3). These individuals were suspected and reported to be suffering from malaria within the past month and those evidence were taken into account based on the associated factors. These factors highlighted the significant treatment day accounted for, the factors that were associated with their living condition as well as other environmental aspects which are highly associated with the prevalence of malaria. The results of the study highlighted that formal health care treatment facilities, as well as cultural values, had a significant factor in the treatment-seeking behaviour of these target populations (Davy et al. 2010, p. 3). It was found that traditional healers, cultural practices as well as formal health care facilities are counted as the major treatment factors in terms of malaria within the target population. The research developed a significant gap in highlighting the precise cultural values and perspectives that serves as a major contributing factor to the risk of malaria as well as treatment-seeking behavior within the Papua New Guinea population (Davy et al. 2010, p, 5).

It was also found in a different research studies carried out by Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al. (2019, p. 3) that one of the significant causes of the increased risk of malaria within the Papua New Guinea population was lack of significant hygiene maintained within the general household activities. It was also found that personal hygiene, as well as environmental cleanliness, was significantly low within the population which increased the favourable setting of water contamination and further growth of mosquitoes breeding. Also maintaining significant hygiene such as hand cleaning, cooking with clean water, drinking clean water or maintaining sanitation throughout the surrounding was highly associated with the increased risk of malaria as these practices were effectively low within the target population (Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al. 2019, p. 3). It was found that behavioural factors such as drinking clean water, eating healthy food as well as maintaining nutritional value were appropriately and effectively low within the target population which does expose them to increased risk of malaria when compared to other populations. it was assessed that poverty as well as diversity web significantly functioning within the target population which exposes them to inappropriate cleanliness maintenance as well as safety measures implementation within a their daily routine (Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al. 2019, p. 3).

Theme 2: Climate change, and biodiversity within Papua New Guinea and other Australian communities

It has been found from a research study conducted by Imai et al. (2016, p 4), that climate change, as well as biodiversity, has a significant impact on the pop one new journey population increased prevalence of malaria. It has also been evaluated that malaria being a public health concern in the selected population highlights the vulnerability towards the change in climate as well as their increased sensitivity towards malarial mosquitoes. The research was carried out focusing on the time series method which was intended to evaluate the incidence of malaria associated with the weather as well as changing climate. The changing climate, as well as weather, accounted for increased or fluctuation in temperature, precipitation as well as change in global phenomena associated with climate (Imai et al. 2016, p 4). The research findings confirm that change in local weather has an increased influence on the increased risk of malaria within the target population along with a significant association with the change in global climate. The research highlighted a major literature gap where it appropriately discusses the local weather which is highly identified within the selected region’s weather in Papua New Guinea population colonized (Imai et al. 2016, p 4).

Another significant research was carried out by a researcher Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al. (2021, p. 2), which highlighted the transmission of malaria within the depopulation of Papua New Guinea. It focused on assessing the social, cultural as well as other demographic factors which have a significant impact on the change in the epidemiology of malaria within the target population. The research was carried out using a mixed-method design where two significant sites in the Papua New Guinea population were selected as the target sample. These selected target populations were involved in in-depth interviews, and discussions as well as cross-sectional survey based on malaria indicators but further implemented in the research to sustain a wide range of evidence (Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al. 2021, p. 2). The reason for the study identified that majority of the population spends this substantial amount of time in the outdoor settings which increased their risk to get exposed to increase mosquito bites. It was found that living within the outdoor setting, sleeping in the outdoor environment as well as increased mosquito bites were the factors highly associated with the increased prevalence of malaria within the Papua New Guinea population. It was also found that adult men had an increased risk of malaria due to working in the outdoor settings still late at night and also sleeping outside (Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al. 2021, p. 2).

Synthesis Table:


To conclude it can be stated that Australia has an increased prevalence of malaria despite eradication of the condition as one of the major public health concerns. It has been found that the Papua New Guinea population under administrative rule of Australian territory sustains an increased prevalence of malaria and thus serves as a public health concern. It has been found that there are several factors which serve in increased risk of malaria within the population such as poverty, climate change, diversity, cultural values as well as maintaining significant hygiene and healthy routine. After conducting the literature it has been found that there is a significant gap in the literature which precisely focuses on the Papua New general population as well as the biodiversity and the socio-economic condition they live which exposes them to increased risk of malaria and associated complications first of all so further research must be carried out to assess the significant treatment facilities and policies that are provided to them to fight against the prevalence of malaria.


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HND731 Learning and Teaching for Health Professionals Assignment Sample

Task description

For this assessment task you are required to apply your knowledge of education program planning to the design of an education session. You have been asked to provide an education session to a local mothers’ group about gestational diabetes.

Explain how you would plan the education session, including:

• The information you need to know about your participants and how you would conduct a learning needs assessment for the group and explain why this information is important.

• Write 3 learning objectives for the session.

• Select 3 different teaching methods and explain the rationale for your choices in relation to the learning objectives, participant characteristics and adult learning principles.

• Explain the reasons for evaluating education and how you might conduct process and
content evaluation for this session.

Instructions for this assessment task:

• Draw on information and references provided in the unit.

• You are also expected to do your own research of peer-reviewed journals, textbooks and evidence-based guidelines.

• Websites, consumer information, Wikipedia are not appropriate for assessment tasks.

• Make sure you self-assess your assignment against the marking rubric and presentation requirements before submission. This enables you to ensure all the required areas have been covered.



The purpose of this study is to make an education session for the Mothers' Groups regarding the significance of Gestational Diabetes. Gestational Diabetes refers to a type of high sugar level in the blood of pregnant women which usually starts between weeks 24 to week 28 during pregnancy. It is during this period when the body is unable to produce an ample amount of insulin which is a hormone that helps in the metamorphosis of glucose into glucose. This study will highlight the information of the participants in the education session along with various ways of conducting the assessment. Moreover, the importance of the session, learning objectives, different teaching methods and demonstration of the rationale will also be concentrated here. It will examine the logic for the assignment help of the session and the manifold ways through which the content and process of the session will be evaluated.

Information of the Participants

The participants in this education session are mothers who are aged between 25 to 30 years of age. These women who have participated in this education session are unaware of gestational diabetes and its impressions on the life of women. The participants who participated in the session were either pregnant women or they were post-partum.It is to note that most of the women who have participated in this educational session have developed symptoms like fatigue, excessive appetite and thirst. It is even significant that pregnant women are more prone to this disease during the time of pregnancy as the level of insulin reduces making complications for pregnant women (Giannakou et al., 2019). All the participants joined the educational session so as to know the symptoms and treatments of Gestational Diabetes. The educational session was conducted physically to the participants are from Richmond area of Melbourne.

Way of conducting the learning needs assessment

Assessment of the learning needs has a distinctive role in training and education. It is important to observe that the requirement of learning helps in underpinning any educational apparatus. Some of the ways through which the assessments of learning needs will be done are as follows:

Analysis of Discrepancy: This is a form of assessment in which the Mothers’ group who are taking lessons on Gestational Diabetes are assessed regularly. This is concerned with the comparison of the performance level along with the self-assessment, assessment of peers and assessment of objectives and outcomes (Cortez et al., 2019). It also helps in comparing the scores of different Mothers based on their intellectual abilities. Earlier, the schools in most of the developed countries were using this model for demonstrating the difference in the learning ability of a child than others.

Reflection on action and in action: It refers to the factors of learning experiments that comprise critical thinking of the standards of performance such as audio and videotapes (Giannakou et al., 2019). Reflection in action is concerned with the assessments of the groups and their actual staging’s (Moghaddam et al., 2020). It also helps in the identification of the strengths and weaknesses of the Mothers’ Group so that they can be able to reduce these problems and make their performances better.

Accessing the learning needs: The learning needs of the participants will be accessed by conducting an interview round. Every participant will be asked a set of 10 questions in order to understand their knowledge and concept of Gestational Diabetes. After the interview round, the results will be evaluated so that the knowledge gap in the participants can be filled.

Peer Review: This has become one of the most important ways of assessing learning needs. It refers to a way in which the teachers usually assess the practices of each other and give reviews and advice on each other's performance (Horntvedt et al., 2018). It makes the process of teach more interesting (Hillier et al., 2021). There are five forms of peer review which consist of external, informal, internal, physician and multidisciplinary assessments. This helps to boost their validity, acceptability and reliability.Learning needs can be assessed to get a knowledge what mothers’ groups has gathered from the entire education session. It needs to be evaluated as it helps to offer clarity and ability to the mothers’ groups. The considerations that are needed to make during the time of education session is that first of all a proper plan must be figured out. Later, the learning objectives, plans of the learning session, assessment of the participants and implementation of the required resources are needed for conducting an entire education session.

The needs, avulses, characteristics and preferences of the participants interest needs to be considered while implementing the learning session. The length of the program and its setting also needs to be fixed before starting the learning session. The aim gaols and expected results of the learning session must be outlined along with considerations of the environmental and organisational context.

Overview of the evaluation plan

The evaluation process is helpful in understanding the main goal of the plan, the questions that this session is aiming to answer and identifying the key stakeholders of the plan. The evaluation process also helps in understanding the types of inputs and resources that are required to implement in the program. The identification of structure and processes while implementing the plan. The activities that are required to be conducted in the learning session, the expected results of the session can also be analysed through the evaluation process.

Importance of the session

Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that women usually develop at the time of pregnancy. This disease can be developed even in those women who do not have diabetes. In Australia, it is observed that nearly 2% to 10% of pregnant women have developed gestational diabetes (Sorce& Chamberlain, 2019). The session is important for various reasons which are given below

It aids in offering a comprehensive guideline of the entire session: The education session helps in imparting to all participants the exact regulations of the session plans that help in offering an understandable vision and objective of the entire education session (Sorce& Chamberlain, 2019).

Enhance effective Communication: Education sessions are generally conducted so as to make a group of individuals aware of a particular topic which is unknown to them at times. It helps in making the process of interaction between the educator and the learner more effective. Effective educators adopt manifold strategies for making education plenary more interesting (Adiewere et al., 2018). The communication process is generally enhanced when the participants in such educational plenary ask queries to the educator regarding the topic so as to enhance their knowledge regarding the specific subject matter.

Needs of Learners: An educational plenary is essential as participants from different cultural backgrounds speaking manifold languages possess various requirements and choices. Hence, an educational session which is conducted to provide certain information to a specific group of individuals helps in catering for their needs (Adiewere et al., 2018). In this case, educational sessions are conducted in order to impart knowledge of gestational diabetes - its symptoms and process of treatment to local mothers’ groups. Moreover, it also aids the mothers’ groups in enhancing their skills and apprehension regarding gestational diabetes and its implications (Goodall et al., 2020). The mother groups were postpartum group and the main focus that this session has given is on educating the mothers on the risk associated with GDM and also the risk of T2DM for those mothers who were already diagnosed with Gestational Diabetes.

In addition, educational sessions on gestational diabetes help the mothers’ groups in identifying the threats that gestational diabetes poses to mothers during pregnancy. This also aids mothers’ groups in developing ideas regarding the strategies that mothers must implement during pregnancy in order to lead a healthy life so that gestational diabetes can be avoided. Here, educating the mothers’ groups regarding gestational diabetes helps in reducing complications during pregnancy and makes the quality of viability better (Goodall et al., 2020). The education session is important as it helps in improving the knowledge of the learners who are the mothers’ groups in this case.

Learning aims and objectives of the session


The main aim of this learning session is to empower and support pregnant women to optimize their lifestyle with Gestational Diabetes.


The three learning objectives of this education session are:
To evaluate the action plans that the mothers’ groups must take to reduce the challenges of gestational diabetes.

Goal: To educate the mothers on gestational diabetes prevention measures. In order to achieve this objective, the preventive measures of gestational diabetes will be informed to all the participants.

To identify the higher risks that women face during pregnancy due to gestational diabetes.

Goal: To inform the participants about the health risk of gestational diabetes especially during pregnancy. This objective will be achieved by evaluating the knowledge that the participants have regarding the health risk of gestational diabetes and then educate them in the health risk tat are unknown to them.
To identify the basic symptoms and treatment policies of gestational diabetes.

Goal: To educate the participants about the early symptom of gestational diabetes and the treatments that is available. This objective will be fulfilled by educating the participants regarding the health symptoms of gestational diabetes and providing them with information regarding he available treatments.

The learning sessions included pregnancy-specific food recommendations as well as messages about healthy eating and physical activity. Furthermore, modest behavioural modification tactics were gradually implemented in order to set short-term goals and promote self-efficacy and self-monitoring. Individual goals were set by participants, guided by lifestyle messages, and included objectives such as lowering high fat or convenience foods, increasing fruit and vegetable intake, and increasing physical exercise frequency. Pedometers and weight increase charts based on IOM recommendations for weight growth throughout pregnancy were used as self-monitoring tools. Participants in the intervention got the same textual material as controls, as well as resources promoting optimal health, GWG, and lifestyle.

The women who participated in the program were aged between 25-30 and they did not have an in detailed knowledge of Gestational Diabetes. In addition to this, pregnant women have increased chance of Gestational Diabetes and complications in pregnancy might occur. The complications might occur since during pregnancy, the insulin level in the body is reduced which increases the time for glucose to break down and turn to glucose (El Toony, Khalifa &Ghazaly, 2018). This factor might result in health complications, especially during pregnancy. The learning session that was conducted aimed at communicating the measures or steps that these women can take in order to prevent themselves from suffering from Gestational Diabetes during their pregnancy (Guo et al., 2018). The learning session also helps in developing the knowledge of those women regarding this health issue. There are certain factors that will be considered while accessing the learning needs of the mothers. The main factors include language, cultural differences and education. In the learning session, many participants participated and among them, many had different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. The learning session will keep this in mind while educating and communicating with these participants. In addition to this, many participants also didn’t have good education due to which they didn’t know the concept of Gestational Diabetes.

Different teaching methods

There are various teaching methods that can be applied to develop the learning session conducted for communicating the awareness of Gestational Diabetes to women. The three learning methods are mentioned below.

Learner-centred method: In the learner-centred method, the teacher becomes both the educator and the learner. In this process, education plays a dual role so that the classroom extends instead of limiting the educator's intellectual horizons (Choi, Lee & Kim, 2019). In this method, the teacher gets to learn new things and gathers new information about contents that were unknown to him. This process makes the teacher a resource instead of an authority. In the learning session, if this method is followed the educator will teach and educate the participants on Gestational Diabetes and the teacher in this process will also learn and take outputs from the participants.

Content-focused method: The content-focused method requires both the learner and the teacher to fit well into the content of the learning session. In this method, the main focus is given to the content of the learning session instead of the learner or the teacher. The skills and information that will be learned through this process will reflect the content of the learning session. Huge importance is given to the analysis and clarity of the content that is being taught (Correnti et al., 2021). Both the learner and the teacher in this process will not be able to become critical or alter anything about the content. In the learning session, the teacher will mainly focus on the content of the learning session following this process.

Participatory method: The participatory teaching method is different from learner-centred and content-focused methods since this method does not lay any emphasis on the learner or the content.

This method mainly focuses on learning through participation. In this method, both the learner and the teacher collaborate and engage in the learning process (Gal et al., 2018). The contribution of the learner and the teacher plays a significant role in this method. This method is quite effective since it helps in the development of both the learner and the teacher wherein, both can learn from each other through participation. In this method, both the teacher and the learners in the leaning session of Gestational Diabetes will participate together in the learning process and will gain more knowledge on the health issue.
Explanation of the rationale in association with the choices of participants, learning principles of adults and learning outcomes

Choice of participants: The participants that were mainly chosen for this included women aged between 25-30. The main topic that this significant study focuses on is Gestational Diabetes which is a health issue that might occur during pregnancy. Pregnant women are prone to this health issue and this health issue develops in women when they are 24-18 weeks pregnant (Thomas, Pienyu&Rajan, 2020). In Australia, around 2-10% of pregnant women suffer from this health issue every year. During pregnancy, the body fails to produce enough insulin that is required to break down glucose into glucose. This increases the level of sugar in the blood which then gives rise to Gestational Diabetes. The participants were chosen since most of the participants were women and they which increases the chance of Gestational Diabetes in them when they are pregnant. These women were did not have an in-depth knowledge of Gestational Diabetes and they also did not have any knowledge of the preventive measures of this health concern which showcases that most women in Australia would not know about Gestational Diabetes (Dalfrà et al., 2020). If women develop Gestational Diabetes in them, they might face complications during their pregnancy which will be bad for both the mother and the child’s health.

Learning principles: The learning session focused on various learning principles. The educator of the awareness program understood that all the participants are not that well aware of these health issues and educating them about Gestational Diabetes from the root is important in developing their knowledge regarding the health issue (Biswas et al., 2020). The main learning principle followed in the session was in the form of a participatory method. In this process, both the learner and the educator collaboratively participated in the learning process so that through communication all the queries related to the health issue can be solved. Participants from varied cultural origins and speaking numerous languages have different needs and options participated in the learning session. As a result, an educational session was held to deliver specific information to a specific set of people aids in meeting their needs. In this scenario, educational seminars are held to teach local mothers' groups about gestational diabetes, its symptoms, and the treatment process. Furthermore, it assists mothers' groups in improving their knowledge and anxiety about gestational diabetes and its consequences (Saboula, Ahmed & Rashad, 2018).

Learning outcomes: The learning session assisted in instilling in all the participants the expected outcome of the learning session which helped in providing an understandable vision and purpose of the awareness program (Guo et al., 2018). Furthermore, gestational diabetes educational programmes assisted mothers' groups in detecting the hazards that gestational diabetes poses to moms throughout pregnancy. These also helped mothers' groups establish ideas on the techniques that mothers must apply throughout pregnancy in order to live a healthy life and avoid gestational diabetes. The need for leading a healthy life was also discussed as it was noticed that most of the women who participated in the learning session didn’t have in-depth knowledge about the symptoms and preventative cure for this health concern (El Toony, Khalifa &Ghazaly, 2018). The learning session also helped the participants in knowing the accurate treatment that they need to access if they notice any early symptoms of Gestational Diabetes in them.
Reasons for the evaluation of the session

Evaluating a certain activity or a program is quite essential as it helps in identifying the outcomes of the process (Carr, Loucks &Blöschl, 2018). The evaluation also helps in understanding the strength and weaknesses of a certain activity so that improvements can be made accordingly. The evaluation process also helps in understanding the knowledge that has been gained and how that knowledge can be applied in its specific field. Conducting the learning session was quite essential as it helps in understanding the level of knowledge that women have regarding Gestational Diabetes. The evaluation of the session is quite important in understanding the knowledge gap that exists among women (Carr, Loucks &Blöschl, 2018). The way the women were able to understand the health complications of the health issue needs to be evaluated so that the effectiveness of the learning process can be understood(Arora et al., 2021).An educational program must be evaluated to understand whether the learners understand the basic concepts taught during the session. It also helps in showcasing the effectiveness of the session to the learners as well as to the community. Sessions need to be evaluated so that the there must be more engagement of participants.

Process Evaluation: It refers to the assessment of the education session to examine whether the planned session was executed as it was planned. The intention behind this education program is to reach all the population of the target area and to identify the major risks and strategies taken to combat these risks.
Outcome Evaluation: It assesses what changes the community has undergone after the education session has been implemented.

The three teaching methods are Content-focused method where the educator gives more focus on the content that is gestational diabetes here. Moreover, Participative method and teacher-centric methods are also followed for this education session.

The ways of assessing the content and process of the session

Optimal adjustment to diabetic living: The fundamental objective of education on diabetes is optimal adjustments. This is what the learning session tortoises as the chief goal of circulating educational resources (Saravanan et al., 2020). The learners have to address the problems that are responsible for the emergence of the problems. Identification of the problems is to the cohesive orientation of the needs of the learners that is fundamental to self-management. Therefore, the role of need assessment is important for determining the pattern of the disease that shapes that provides the patients with sufficient information. On the other hand, the repetition of information must be avoided that the learner has already acquainted with. Acknowledgment of the learners' needs must be prioritised as it lessens the chances of risks, anxiety, and concerns for panic.

Avoiding hypoglycaemia: The first criterion for avoiding hypoglycaemia is to make sure to monitor the blood sugar and not skip the necessary meals. The concentration of fibres minimises the dangers related to diabetics and this is hopeful to save the lives of both women and the child (AlKhaldi et al., 2019). The prevention of hypoglycaemia is the agent of the learning session that also has its message of the promotion of physical activities. Staying physically active increases good food habits and controls the fluctuation in the sugar level. The assessment of learning can be done by observing if the women are maintaining the nutritional food charts and the enriched foods. The awareness programme categorises the must-take and the prohibited food habits.

Knowledge on Insulin: The consciousness programme focussed on the diabetic problems emerging out of the irregular intake of insulin. The women were given knowledge of the adverse effects of the insulin being missed or not taken on time. The reactions of the imperfect push of injection could bring negative effects and this can lead to changes in the skin colours (McIntyre et al., 2010). The serious side effects are posited depending on the necessities for insulin therapy originate. The unintentional use of insulin more than necessary might bring on serious dangers and damage to the psyche. An education survey must be properly planned so that participants get more knowledge regarding the preventive factors of gestational diabetes.


It can hence be concluded that Gestational Diabetes is a health issue that around 2-10% of women in Australia differ from every year. The plan to conduct an awareness program to educate the participants regarding this health issue was quite necessary. The learning session helped in generating awareness regarding Gestational Diabetes and also helped in developing the knowledge of women regarding Gestational Diabetes and its early symptoms. The learning session also helped the participants in understanding the right treatment that they can seek if they witness any symptoms of Gestational Diabetes in themselves or in others.

Reference List


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SHI104 Sociology of Health and Illness Assignment Sample

Assignment details

Individual/Group Individual
Length 2,000 words (+/- 10%)

Your report should cover the following:

1. Choose 4 social and environmental determinants of health from the listing below, and explain how they may influence your chosen health issue from the video case study used in Assessment 1 and 2 (i.e. Video 1: David - hypertension, Video 2: Rhonda – diabetes and Video 3: Theo – depression).

• social gradient
• poverty and deprivation
• where you live (housing and neighbourhood)
• education
• environment (climate, pollution, sanitation)
• employment status (and conditions of employment)
• transport,
• early childhood life
• personal health strategies
• social support and exclusion
• food
• health systems
• gender and violence

1. Describe examples of ways in which to engage and empower the community and increase health literacy on the health issue presented in your chosen case study video. Consider what communication and cultural issues need to be considered?

2. What impact on a nurse might there be when working with this health population and what self-care strategies could be employed to maintain own well-being and model self- care?

Please note: this report should contain an introduction, body and conclusion (see below for further information on writing reports).


It is essential that you use appropriate APA style for citing and referencing research. Please see more information on referencing here https://library.laureate.net.au/research_skills/referencing

• Assessments cannot be emailed directly to the lecturer.

• If you are late with your assessment submission, you need to follow the late assessment procedure relevant to your campus.

• Feedback can be viewed in My Grades on Blackboard.



The socioeconomic, environmental, demographic, as well as cultural elements that affect people's daily lives and places of employment are all considered social and environmental predictors of health, along with the health system (Who.int, 2022). In this context, for assignment help a comprehensive discussion would be done where the social determinants of health would be related to the case study of David, Rhonda and Theo.


Social determinants of health and depression

It has been seen that health of individuals in a society is significantly associated with social determinants of health. It has been seen that the social determinants of health might contribute largely and directly impact on physical and mental health of population, well-being of them and the SDOH might include safe areas, transportation, and housing, racial bias, prejudice, violence, education, employment prospects, and income, possibilities for engaging in physical exercise and access to healthy meals, contaminated water and air as well as reading and language abilities (Health.gov, 2022). In this context, the social and environmental determinants which would be focused are poverty and deprivation, education, social support and exclusion, as well as gender and violence that are directly related to the case studies.

The first determinant is the poverty. Globally, there is a direct correlation between poverty and unhealthy lifestyles. The health of individuals is at danger due to inadequate nourishment, overcrowding, a lack of clean water, and other severe conditions. In addition, being sick makes it more difficult to work and puts families in a tough financial situation while trying to pay for medical expenses (Braveman & Gottlieb, 2014). Diseases that afflict the broader populace, such as mental problems, can affect persons living in poverty at a far greater incidence. The same is true with depression. Although depression may affect everyone, regardless of socioeconomic level, poverty exacerbates the condition and makes it more difficult for a person to get the proper medical care. However, if the aspects of poverty that fuel sadness are lessened, then fewer people should experience depression.

The following SDOH is education, which plays a significant influence in health through influencing possibilities, employment, and income, which are all substantially correlated with average lifespan, morbidity, and lifestyle factors (Adler et al., 2016). Teenagers who struggle with depression grow social phobias as a result of social contact, which can happen in a school environment. Depression in adolescents causes a feeling of numbness that makes them fear social interaction and failure. Having less education increases your likelihood of developing depressed symptoms.

The following factor is social exclusion that refers to social disadvantage and a lack of opportunities, resources, involvement, and skills that significantly affect the health condition of the patients and lead to development of acute or chronic diseases (Braveman & Gottlieb, 2014). In hierarchical multiple regression, social exclusion characteristics such as lower income sufficiency, unfavorable living conditions, and loneliness substantially linked with higher depressed symptoms after controlling for demographic and health factors.

Lastly, gender and violence are major determinants as females often experience discrimination in accessing the health and other services compared to males and more prevalently experience violence that largely affect their mental health condition. After puberty, girls are more likely than boys to experience depression. Girls are more prone than males to experience depression at a younger age since they generally hit puberty sooner. There is data that suggests the gender discrepancy in depression may persist throughout the course of a person's life. Some girls' risk of experiencing depression may rise when they enter puberty due to hormonal changes. One of the most pervasive societal problems in the world is domestic violence. It causes a number of issues in society, including those related to lifestyle, physical health, family, children, and even mental health. In actuality, there is a strong correlation between domestic violence and depression.

Methods to engage and empower community and increase health literacy about depression

Individual health education

Doctors and nurses have many possibilities for individualized health education since they have daily interaction with patients and their families. The subject chosen must be appropriate for the circumstance. For example, a woman who is seeking treatment for depression should be informed about depression and its effects rather than malaria (Hurley et al., 2020). The ability to debate, argue, and persuade the individual to alter his behaviour is the primary benefit of individual health instruction. The fact that we only reach tiny numbers is a drawback.

Group health education

There are several groups at whom we might target health education, including moms, students, patients, and industrial employees. In group health education, the topic selection is crucial and must closely correspond to the group's interests. For instance, mothers of teenagers might learn about the causes, signs, and situations that can lead to depression in children; school children might learn about sexual abuse that can result in mental illness and depression; a group of patients might learn about mental health that can lead to depression as a result of chronic illness; and industrial workers might learn about work-life balance and burnout (Morrison et al., 2019).

Group discussions are regarded as a very effective teaching strategy for health as a part of group health education. It is a “tow-way technique” of instruction (Zhou et al., 2019). By exchanging ideas and experiences, people grow. The group should consist of at least 6 and no more than 12 persons in order to be effective. A group leader should be present who introduces the topic, guides the talk in the right direction, stops side discussions, motivates everyone to engage, and wraps up the discussion.

Lectures from doctors to a mass population of institution

The most common format for teaching about health is lectures. The majority of the communication in this is one-way, meaning that the individuals are only passive listeners and are not actively engaging in the learning process. The speaker's personality and reputation will have an impact on how impressive and successful the speech is (Tay et al., 2018). A lecture does convey the fundamental knowledge on the matter, but it might not succeed in altering peoples' attitudes toward their health. Nevertheless, lectures play a significant role in small group health education.


There are several meetings that make up the Workshop. Small groups will be formed for the duration of the session, and each group will elect a chairman and a recorder. With the assistance of resource employees and experts, each group resolves a portion of the issue. Under the direction of experts, learning takes place in a welcoming, joyful, and democratic environment.

Education for mass approach

The health care professionals can use "mass mediums of communication" such as posters, health periodicals, movies, radio, television, health exhibitions, and museums to educate the general public. In general, group or individual tactics are more effective in changing people's behaviour than mass media (Liu et al., 2020). However, they are really helpful in connecting with a lot of individuals who may otherwise be out of reach. Media should be utilized in conjunction with other strategies for health education to be effective.

Communication and cultural issues associated with health literacy

A common communication challenge for people and their healthcare professionals is inadequate health literacy. Ineffective decision-making, non-adherence, negative results, and a loss of confidence in the medical community can all be caused by patients' incapacity to adequately absorb, process, comprehend, and act on health information (McQuaid & Landier, 2018). Inadequate health literacy can also result in patient expectations being misunderstood and managed incorrectly, increasing the liability risk for healthcare professionals.

Speaking simply, avoiding jargon, using terms that patients understand, decreasing repetition and ambiguity, and other tactics are frequently used as strategies for increasing health literacy. Even while these tactics are essential, cultural competency, another important component of effective communication, is occasionally disregarded.

Although cultural competency and health literacy are occasionally seen as distinct concerns, a patient's views, values, and experiences may greatly affect how they interpret and comprehend health information, which in turn affects their level of health literacy. Furthermore, cultural variations between patients and clinicians can cause misunderstandings, interpersonal problems, divergent opinions about health issues and treatments, and poor results, just as low health literacy does.
Impact on nurses while working with patient with depression

The provision of safe and high-quality treatment and the retention of healthcare workers are both impacted by the workplace environment. Professional settings may have an impact on nurse satisfaction and retention, care quality, and patient safety. When compared to mental health nurses working in the community, institutional nurses had a more unfavorable perception of the workplace. When nurses work in mental facilities, there are decreased perceptions of job motivation, leadership, and autonomy. As a result, it is probable that using an appropriate model for problem-solving and making decisions, such the nursing process, will help RNs recognize depressive symptoms and/or depression (Kim et al., 2021).

Self-care related to depression

The more the patient neglects their own needs and self-care, such as obtaining enough rest, eating wholesome meals, and relaxing, the more likely the symptoms of depression are to worsen. Although the patient may wish to speak with a mental health professional for support and treatment choices, a healthy self-care practice can also assist the patient manage day-to-day living. Depression may be difficult to manage, particularly if the patient is plagued by gloomy, pessimistic thoughts. The patient could feel guilty, unworthy, despondent, and unable to change their mental condition (lovino et al., 2020). That is normal. However, the patient might be able to rewrite or replace these ideas with more uplifting ones rather than just ignoring them. The patient may find it difficult to care about anything at all when the people, places, or things that used to make them happy no longer seem appealing. Self-care may become more challenging as a result.

Giving oneself the chance to try something novel, though, could be the secret to reviving interest in the patient's life.


Social determinants of health might contribute largely and directly impact on physical and mental health of population, well-being of them. In this study, the assessment was done on the basis of three patients David, Rhonda and Theo and the factors that has been associated with the patients are: poverty and deprivation, education, social support and exclusion, as well as gender and violence.


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CAM528 Introduction To Epidemiology Assignment Sample

Task description

For this task, you are required to critique a journal article. A number of articles will be made available towards the middle of the semester. They will be chosen to reflect some of the key areas of interest that emerge from the first discussion board.

Task length

Maximum 1500 words.

Please follow CASP report as a format to write critique of journal and find the answer from the article “Early life determinants of cardiovascular health in adulthood. The Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study".

There are some questions on the following pages are designed to help you think about these issues systematically.

1. Did the study address a clearly focused issue?
2. Was the cohort recruited in an acceptable way?
3. Was the exposure accurately measured to minimise bias?
4. Was the outcome accurately measured to minimise bias?
5. (a) Have the authors identified all-important confounding factors

(b) Have they take account of the confounding factors in the design and/or analysis?

6 Was the follow up of subjects complete enough?

Early life determinants of cardiovascular health in adulthood. The Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study

1. Introduction

Life expectancy for the Indigenous population in Australia in 2010– 2012 was 10.6 years lower for males and 9.5 years lower for females when compared to the non-Indigenous population. The differences are particularly high in the Northern Territory (NT), where death rates for Indigenous Australians are 2.3 times the non-Indigenous rates.

2. Methods

. Participants

Details of the recruitment and follow-up of the ABC have been previously published in detail [15, 16]. Of all Aboriginal children born between 1987 and 1990 at the Royal Darwin Hospital, 686 of the possible 1238 were recruited into the study. There were no differences for mean birth weights or sex ratios between those recruited and those not recruited.

3. Results

The baseline characteristics of the study participants are presented in Table according to sex. Among female participants, baseline house- hold size was higher compared to males. Attrition analyses comparing baseline characteristics of follow-up study participants and non- participants were performed. Compared to non-participants, those participating in the follow-up were more often females, and they had higher IRSEO scores

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Sjoholm P et al. Early life determinants of ca... (688.02



The journal critiqued for this report is "Sjoholm P et al. Early determinants of cardiovascular health in adulthood. The Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study. International Journal of Cardiology 269 (2018) 304-309." The CASP appraisal tool is used to correctly assess the validity of the author/s interpretation of results and conclusions. The aim of this article was to 1) illustrate the occurrence of perfect cardiovascular wellbeing metrics utilising the AHA guide and its factors and 2) to investigate the association of socioeconomic aspects and birthweight with cardiovascular wellbeing in old age in the ABC.


The study addressed a focused issue. The study had a particular population Indigenous population in Australia and studied Early life variables of Wellbeing in the middle age of this population. The study highlighted the risk factors, including tobacco smoking, inactive way of life, harmful food behaviour, psychosocial pressure, extreme body heavy, dyslipidaemia, and hypertension. The study tried to detect the harmful effects of these risk factors on the heart health of indigenous adults in Australia (Sjöholm et al., 2018). The outcomes of the study are also considered for best assignment help. The present study showed a relationship between early life forecasters associated with socioeconomic and familial rank and upcoming CV wellbeing in the indigenous populace.

The cohort was recruited acceptably. Of all indigenous kids born between 1987 and 1990 at the Royal Darwin Hospital, six hundred eighty-six of the likely twelve hundred thirty-eight were hired into the research. There were no disparities in mean birth mass or sex quotient among those hired and persons not employed. All actions adding to this research meet with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as amended in 2008. All contestants offered printed clued-upper mission to contribute to this research, and all actions were accepted by the Human Research Ethics Board of the Northern Territory section of Health and the Menzies School of Health Research, counting the indigenous Ethical Sub-committee which has the authority to reject (Sjöholmet al., 2018). Families in metropolitan regions were categorised as metropolitan and persons in distant sites as not cities. The similarity of the mom on the occasion of the contestant's birth was documented. Family dimension was assessed through a survey by enquiring the contestants how many individuals were sleeping in their homes the previous night.

The measurements used in the study have been validated by the Helsinki Declaration of 1975. However, there are no additional considerations visible in the study.

The outcome was accurately measured to minimise bias. A proper analysis like Attrition analysis was used to assess the outcomes. After that multivariate model attuned for age, sexual category, metropolitan/not metropolitan, and groups for birthweight, motherly BMI, IRSEO rank, family volume, and similarity were examined (Sjöholm et al., 2018).

The authors have listed important confounding factors. Relations between numerous in utero features in addition to ecological aspects in both early days and parenthood and afterwards cardiovascular wellbeing have been accepted. These aspects comprise weight at the time of birth, postnatal development outlines, motherly obesity, parental smoking, familial socioeconomic rank and neighbourhood weakness, amongst others. The authors have also listed the American Heart Association (AHA) factors (Sjöholm et al., 2018). It described a sum of seven perfect cardiovascular fitness actions or features for describing and checking cardiovascular wellbeing. These incorporated not smoking, being bodily energetic, keeping standard body mass, blood pressure, blood glucose plus cholesterol stages, and consuming a healthy food habit.

Socioeconomic factors were considered during the analysis. At delivery, birth weight was calculated and information was collected regarding the families and their livelihood circumstances. Families existing in city regions were categorised as metropolitan and individuals in secluded places as not metropolitan. Equivalence of the mother at the instance of birth of the contributor was traced. For areal drawbacks, the Indigenous Relative Socioeconomic Outcomes (IRSEO)directory was utilised. Links between socioeconomic aspects and perfect cardiovascular fitness levels were examined utilising multivariable logistic regression (Sjöholm et al., 2018). Initially, univariate analyses attuned to age and sexual category were done. After that, multivariate models accustomed for age, sexual category, urban/not metropolitan, and groups for birthweight, motherly BMI, IRSEO count, household volume, and uniformity were examined.

The final follow-up occurred in 2014–2016 and offered a follow-up pace of seventy per cent of existing contestants. The follow up might not be complete. The current follow-up inhabitants might not symbolise the creative birth group, since follow-up contributors were further frequently women and had superior IRSEO scores evaluated to non-contributors. At last, the contributors were yet young grown-upsthroughout the previous follow-up (Sjoholm et al., 2018).

The follow-ups are not long enough. It is recommended that following upcoming follow-ups, cardiovascular morbidity and clinical actions might be examined for even enhanced consideration of the scientific significance of the cardiovascular danger outlined in this group (Sjoholm et al., 2018).

The current study demonstrates that perfect cardiovascular fitness was unusual in the ABC grown-up inhabitants. The most ordinary score gathered were ultimate glucose (eighty-three per cent), cholesterol (seventy-four per cent) as well as blood pressure (seventy-three per cent) levels. The slightest ordinary metrics were linked to fitness actions: non-smoking, perfect food, as well as best stages of bodily movement were gathered by not more than half of the group. Major sex distinctions were seen in both the full score in addition to blood pressure and bodily action. Numerous early life variables were seen to separately forecast upcoming cardiovascular wellbeing (Sjöholm et al., 2018). Family dimension and motherly BMI foresee BMI in parenthood. The areal difficulty is linked with potential blood pressure and stages of bodily movement. Metropolitan livelihood surroundings were linked with non-ultimate blood pressure stages. Family volume was linked with the smoking position in middle age. Similar to the results, both family and areal socio-financial positions have been significant variables of cardio metabolic threat aspects. Regarding the scientific and community health standpoint, the current results offer significant backdrop knowledge on the premature existence determinants of cardio metabolic wellbeing in an aboriginal neighbourhood. The current research demonstrates a link between early-life forecasters correlated to socioeconomic as well as familial position and upcoming cardiovascular wellbeing in the indigenous inhabitants (Sjoholm et al., 2018). This research demonstrates that exceptional consideration requires to be placed on health actions such as smoking and dietary lifestyle and gender parity in well-being to attain these objectives.

8. The results of the study are pretty accurate as the results match with the statistics from longitudinal groups in Australia, Finland, and the USA (Sjöholmet al., 2018).

The longitudinal character and well-prearranged follow-ups with comparatively excellent maintenance rates permit us to consider the outcomes established. though, because of the alterations completed to the innovative AHA description of perfect cardiovascular fitness concerning proper food and glucose stages that were required for this research, the outcomes might not be straight equivalent to former alike resaerches (Sjoholm et al., 2018). There was no bias in selecting the participants or measuring the outcomes. The participants also went through a follow-up, which made it easier to believe the results.

The results cannot be applied to a local population. This is because the conventional variables of family earnings and learning were not accessible and might not forever be well-appropriate in distant neighbourhoods. The study populace though is comparatively small causing a few restrictions to afterwards understanding of the outcomes. consequently, it might be right to relate the outcomes to a diverse populace (Sjoholm et al., 2018).These dissimilarities might be of even well-built implication in a comparatively minute cohort. The current follow-up populace might not entirely symbolise the creative birth cohort.

The results fit other evidence. The relationship between site and cardiovascular danger outlines in indigenous Australians has been beforehand learnt in the Heart of the Heart research. It was seen that contestants from city surroundings (Alice Springs) had elevated blood pressure, superior lipid stages and inferior kidney roles than their isolated livelihood complements. Superior earnings were linked with the prominent danger of CVD in city sites but not in Alice Springs or distant neighbourhoods (Sjoholm et al., 2018). Related findings are observed in the ABC group, where city inhabitants had elevated blood pressure. Contestants from generally further privileged regions consistent with the IRSEO countpresented with superior blood pressure andinferiorstages of physical movement in this research.

Research inferences propose how the resultsmight be significant for policy, exercise, hypothesis, and following research. This research demonstrates that unique concentration requires to be placed on health actionssuch as smoking and food behaviour and sexual category equality in well-being. From the findings, policies can be put in place to help improve the CVD health of Australians. With the help of policy implementations, malnutrition can be taken into account. Cardiovascular morbidity and clinical actions might be examined in the following study for even enhanced consideration of the clinical significance of the cardiovascular danger reports in this group. The insinuations can be authenticated by study, for instance earlier research.


It can be said that the article follows all the criteria of the CASP checklist. The article has a focused issue that it discusses throughout the article. Many of the previous research also matches the article and therefore it can be said that the article is valid and genuine.


Sjoholm, P., Pahkala, K., Davison, B., Juonala, M., & Singh, G. R. (2018). Early life determinants of cardiovascular health in adulthood. The Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study. International Journal of Cardiology, 269, 304-309. https://ris.cdu.edu.au/ws/files/26063476/21264048.pdf

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PUBH6007 Program, Design Implementation, and Evaluation Assignment Sample

Assessment Task

Needs assessments are crucial in program design, implementation and evaluation in public health, as they form the foundation for the evidence-based approach required to design and evaluate relevant, credible and contextually appropriate programs.

In this assessment, each individual in the group will need to perform a needs assessment associated with your group’s chosen health challenge/target population. To generate a comprehensive understanding of the community need, the group discussion should inform the different areas that each student will focus on under a particular public health theme. Each individual will submit a 1,000 word (+/–10%) needs assessment report.

Task Instructions

Your needs assessment report should include the following information:

1. Background

This should include:
- A clear title of your allocated problem/topic.
- A brief literature review of the current literature that outlines the types of needs (e.g., normative, expressed, comparative or felt) in your chosen population.
- A brief discussion about the need analysis and methodological approaches (e.g., quantitative and qualitative research and systematic reviews) you have chosen to use.

2. Prioritisation of Needs

- In this section, you will prioritise the needs based on the current evidence reviewed and develop and present a problem and solution tree.

3. Justification

In this section, you need to justify your choice of priorities and outline how your needs
assessment will benefit the population.

4. SWOT Analysis

In this section, you will need to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of your needs assessment:

a. Strengths: What unique needs did you identify that others have not?

b. Weaknesses: What are some things that your needs assessment failed to consider?

c. Opportunities: What are some areas in which you could thrive that are not currently taken advantage of?

d. Threats: What are some external factors (e.g., competitors, consumer demand or economic conditions) that could make it more difficult for you to do a needs assessment?


1. Background

1.1. Background Information

The problem of anxiety in the younger is has been one of the common concerns in recent times where the young people artificial is centered on the body looks, social acceptance, and the conflict about independence. The avoidance of usual activities or refusal to the engagement in new experiences becomes the key signs of anxiety in college-going students. Some of the symptoms of anxiety in college-going students include irritability, trouble concentrating, withdrawal from social activity, avoidance of difficult or new situations, and chronic complaints above the stomach and headaches. Anxiety is regarded as one of the most common mental health conditions in Australia with an average of 1 in 4 people (ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2022). The graph given below shows the number of people experiencing mental and behavioral conditions in Australia in 2018:

Figure 1: People experiencing mental health conditions in Australia
(Source: Statista, 2022)

The above graph for assignment help presents the statistical data of people experiencing mental and behavioral conditions in Australia in 2018 which shows that around 2.5 million Australians have suffered from aggression or feeling depressed (Statista, 2022). The percentage of anxiety in college-going students is increasing in Australia at a variable rate which shows a spike in the mental health impacts in 2021 (ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2022). It also creates concern about the growing rate of mental disabilities in the younger ones and therefore becomes a matter of concern.

1.2. Need Analysis and methodological approaches

The need analysis involves the overall process of the identification and evaluation of the needs with a successful development in the effective training program. It is a systematic process for determining and addressing the needs or gaps between the current conditions and desired conditions (Anderson et al. 2017). The need analysis becomes a formal and systematic process in order to identify and evaluate training with an individual group of employees with consumers and suppliers. The main purpose of this analysis is to provide user satisfaction focusing on the needs of the human and need analysis addressing the requirements of the software. Therefore qualitative and quantitative secondary data analyses were done in order to focus on the background information and understand the relationship between the issues and the availability of the resources. The steps utilized in this paper to understand and analyze the need of the Young communities of Australia are shown in the figure given below created by the author:

Figure 2: Process developed by the author in order to execute the anxiety needs in the assessment dealing with the Australian population of the University students

2. Prioritization of Needs

The problem analysis proposed the appropriate data collection which is extremely important to understand the effective relationship between the cause and effect along with the contribution of the problem to the specific population. The key understanding is to have the specific knowledge of the population of the university-going students in Sydney and different use of problems and solutions for the various situations to identify and prioritize the potential interventions (Stocker et al. 2021).

It also uses Maslow's hierarchy of needs to understand the problem and prepare a solution in order to have the community's needs of the physical self-fulfillment understanding the impact on the population.

The figure shows the problem and solution tree for the anxiety problems in the university-going students of Australia given as below:

Figure 3: Problem and Solution tree for Anxiety disorders in college going students of Australia
Priority 1: Relaxation Practice initiatives

- Solutions: The community supports the educational program regarding the relaxation practices and yoga in order to support the community leaders along with the University initiatives and social media

- Problems addressed: Poor education in relaxation techniques, psychological factors, a healthy diet, and having a busy lifestyle

Priority 2: Exercise

- Solutions: The community exercise program

- Problems addressed: lack of exercise which results in both psychological, physical, and psychosomatic factors

Priority 3: Education on healthy eating and opening-up

- Solutions: Increase the frequency of the health services in the remote communities and educate on the healthy eating habits and opening up in order to relieve stress

- Problems addressed: Stress, limited access to the Healthcare services, Busy life

3. Justification

The target population addressed in this case study is the university-going students in Sydney, Australia and therefore several environmental factors impact the individual and the community such as economic, social, and physical (Reavley et al. 2011). The problem and solution tree are created for the needs of the community in order to understand the prioritization of the initiatives that are based on the areas of efficiency, flexibility, and acceptability.

The first priority is based on the relaxation of the mind and promoting the relaxation practice initiatives in order to create peace in mental health. It increases the awareness of the mental health situation which is being faced by the young population of Australia. The end priority focuses on Exercising as a basic need that has been lost in the younger generation promoting the use of social media in order to address the problem and have a higher chance of bringing the benefits. The third prioritization is based on the healthy eating habits opening up which focuses on building strong community relations and addressing the problems that are related to psychological, physical, and psychosomatic disorders.

4. SWOT Analysis

The SWOT analysis presented below presents the various factors that potentially impact the study and therefore the evaluation is done through the process and outcomes.


5. Conclusion

This paper is focused on understanding the potential initiatives by knowing the root causes of the problem of Anxiety in the young minds of Australia. It analyses the main priorities focusing on the population-based Healthcare services and education. It also includes the SWOT analysis to evaluate the outcome of the process in order to have a sustainable benefit in the overall process and the situation promoting improvement. The result concludes with several initiatives taken by the community and the government in order to reduce the problem of anxiety in the growing population.

Reference List

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PUBH7033 Foundations of Public Health Assignment Sample

Assignment Details

12 – 15 references should be included in the literature review.

Need to select two contrasting determinants to make title of report. Chose different title than sample report.

Title (10 words)

- Introduction -100-150 words

- The health status of [insert your chosen population] (approximately 150 words)

- Social determinants and their influence on the health outcomes of [insert your chosen population] (approximately 300 words)

- How these social determinants interact with each other to impact health outcomes of [your chosen population] (approximately 300 words)

- Conclusion (approximately 100-150 Words)

- Academic Honesty and Integrity (approximately 150-200 words)

Types of social determinant of health
(Please take notes of what are some starting points to discuss under)

- Education
- Health Literacy
- Class
- Gender
- Culture
- Employment
- Location
- Social Exclusion
- Restricted Finance
- Discrimination



Indigenous people in Australia have experienced great suffering in the last two hundred years of the history of Australia since the arrival of the Europeans accompanied by genocide, subjugation, dispossession, segregation and the introduction of European diseases. This had a huge impact on the Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders who made up the majority of Australia's indigenous population, saw their numbers plummet by more than 90% during the next 200 years (Jalata, 2013). The aim of this literature review has been steered to comprehend the long-term effects of Racism and Health Literacy among the Indigenous population of Australia. The literature review discusses the effects of social determinants like racism and lower levels of health literacy among the indigenous population like Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders for assignment help.

Health Status of the Indigenous Australian population

Research has indicated that before European colonisation more than 15,000 indigenous inhabitants of Australia used to live in Victoria, but that figure was devastatingly shrunken to a meagre 850 by the year 1901(Russell, 2015). This is evidence of the institutional and interpersonal racism that the indigenous Australian people have faced over the years and continue to face in present times. This has reduced their socioeconomic status drastically along with their exclusion from land ownership and economic rights. It has been found that the life expectancy gap between Indigenous men and women is 8 years lower than the non-indigenous population (AIHW, 2021). There are numerous researches that depict institutional racism as the basic determinant of health among the indigenous Australian population, yet most of the existing aspect in today's discourse based on racism completely denies its existence (Kairuz, et al., 2020). The indigenous population of Australia is burdened with diseases twice that of their non-indigenous counterparts which include chronic ailments, mental illness, respiratory, cardiovascular diseases and renal as some of the main concerns. The life expectancy of Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders remains to be 17 years lower than other Australian populations (Marmot, 2011).

Social Determinants and their influence on the health outcomes of the Indigenous Population of Australia


Institutional Racism has led to the suppression of political efforts in addressing racism while making a way to strengthen racism within society and communities. 17% of the Indigenous adult population in the state of Victoria have experienced racism from 2011 to 2014 when compared to the non-indigenous population (4.5%) have been found in a study. This shows that indigenous adults are four times more probable to experience racism than non-indigenous people in Australia. These statistics increased by 7 times when the experience of racism by Indigenous Australians was compared with the largely white Anglo-Celtic origin people of Australia as only 2.8% of them had experienced racism which was mostly based on the religious background rather than ethnicity, race or culture (Markwick, et al., 2019).

In research, it has been found that there is an association between health outcomes and racism depending on the severity of racism experienced as indigenous people who have been racially abused severely had a higher risk of psychological distress (Markwick, et al., 2019). Racism has been associated with numerous health issues through research like depression, sleeping difficulties, hyperactivity, obesity, asthma and cigarette consumption among indigenous adults and children (Kairuz, et al., 2021).

Health Literacy

Health literacy has been defined as a social construct where the ability or skill of a person to understand the basic services and information regarding healthcare is limited while being unable to decide on suitable resolutions regarding health concerns (Liu, et al., 2020). There is very little exploration of the effects of health literacy on the indigenous population of Australia but they indicate the significantly lower score in education attainment, numeracy scores and school-based literacy programs than the general population of Australia. The indigenous Australians experience hindrances in an array of socio-economic pointers like employment, education and income and thus making them highly susceptible to lower individual health literacy (ACSQHC, 2014). One of the prime reasons for the exhibition of low health literacy among indigenous Australians is the difficulty in understanding, navigating or accessing mainstream healthcare systems as the healthcare system is not designed concerning the culture or language of the indigenous people. The healthcare providers do not try to understand their traditional healing techniques and are culturally sensitive about such issues. Thus, making it one of the prime reasons for the lack of propagation of health literacy among the indigenous people (Thewes, et al., 2018).

Interactions between Racism and Heath Literacy for the Indigenous population in Australia

There is significant racism directed towards indigenous Australians which cannot be attributed to any specific determinant like lifestyle risk factors or socioeconomic status. The policymaking approach which is characterised by human rights aimed at eliminating interpersonal and institutional racism towards indigenous Australians is dominated by a paternalistic approach which in turn reinforces inequalities and racism within the policies rather than eliminating them (AHRC, 2015). The government with its initiatives like the "Close the Gap" initiative has considerably failed to accomplish what it was intended for and such inadequacies in bureaucratic requirements had not been accounted for the cultural differences among the indigenous people. The Indigenous Australians do not have the right to proclaim their right to accept information and unbiased treatment as racism is deeply seated within the bureaucracy of the healthcare system. The health providers and government have also been found to have normalised policies and practices which tried to discriminate against the Indigenous Australians irrespective of their level of health literacy (Durey & Thompson, 2012).

Because of a lack of health literacy, indigenous patients have difficulty understanding terminologies when dealing with primary care providers, which leads to a lack of follow-up care. The lack of cultural sensitivity among primary care providers can be classified as a form of interpersonal racism. It displays the rescindment of accountability for unacceptablehealth literacy communication towards indigenous people and disdain for their cultural associations within the healthcare system. This displays a form of interpersonal and institutional racism against indigenous people and also the existing lack of heath literary education among the indigenous population (Henry, Houston, & Mooney, 2004).


The Australian government needs to respect the connection between racism and health literacy as the former needs to be abolished institutionally and the latter needs to be reinforced within the healthcare systems. Problems of racism and paternalistic approach to policymaking have been discovered within the government policies is the biggest challenge, which has been forcing the indigenous people to adapt or wither away rather than trying to understand their predicament. The report suggests that without abolishing institutional and interpersonal racism, the government cannot be able to bring about health literacy among the indigenous people.

Academic Honesty and Integrity

The above report has been compiled while upholding the University Academic Honesty policy through accurate representation of APA guidelines throughout the report. The topic was assumed through a thorough background study of the history and struggles of Indigenous Australians. The information, concept and thoughts have been attained through the study of current trends of healthcare policies in Australia and the various journal articles, online reports and proceedings of the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care, Australian Human Rights Commission (AHRC), Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) and published medical journals on the Australian healthcare system. Some of the trends have also been accumulated through personal experiences of fieldwork done through Youth Work.


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PUBHLTH7113 Environmental and Occupation Health Assignment Sample

Imagine you are a Public Health Officer in a government health department and you receive a call from a local general medical practitioner (GP). The GP informs you that they have attended to several patients with food poisoning where they have identified Salmonella spp as the causative factor. Salmonella infections are a Notifiable infectious disease in your jurisdiction. The GP further informs you that all cases reported consumption of orange juice from a local manufacturer prior to getting sick.

Using the human health risk assessment model and basic epidemiological principles what steps would you take to investigate this public health concern?

Note that you will need to inform the Health Minister of this matter in a brief. What would you say?

Consider also that you would need to:

• Provide a prompt response time frame
• Provide a media note to the Minister
• Confirm the extent of the problem
• Understand the human health risks (exposure, outcome)
• Identify the most sensitive population (who is at most risk?)
• Initiate communication protocols (risk communication)
• Confirm the source of the problem (where is it originating from?)
• Initiate corrective action (What, when, who and how?)


Potential sources of lead exposure

The potential sources of lead exposure in the community where child care centre is located are as follows:


Lead in residential paint and dust is a major source of lead exposure in the community. Most of the houses in the community are painted with lead-based paints. Moreover, the paint in several houses is peeling off or has deteriorated. Young children often take this paint in their mouths, or the paint falls on meals which exposes people to lead.


The factories beside the childcare centre and the depositing of lead-based gasoline often contaminate the soil. Children breathe in this lead-contaminated soil when they are playing outside. Consumption of vegetables or fruits that grow near or in contaminated soil also exposes the children to lead.

Drinking Water:

Drinking water can be a major source of lead as the service lines to which the main water lines of the centre are connected lead-based. Lead faucets, plumbing materials, and pipes carry the drinking water to the centre. However, a chemical reaction that happens in lead plumbing fixtures called corrosion results in the mixing of the metal into the drinking water, making it contaminated with lead.
Population health impacts of lead exposure

Most likely to be affected

The most vulnerable population to lead exposure are children, specifically below six years of age. It has been reported that even a minor level of lead in a child's blood can have severe, devastating effects, and usually, these effects are permanent (Kuang et al., 2020).

The main impacts of lead exposure in children are as follows:

- The nervous system and brain can be damaged.
- The children would face difficulties in learning.
- The development and growth will be allowed down.
- The children would have problems in speaking and hearing.

How would we know

Since no immediate symptoms of lead exposure can be identified, it is necessary that the parents or the guardian consult their child's doctor the very first time they predict a change in a child's behavior or health. They should get their blood tested for lead.
Steps for conducting an environmental health risk assessment for assignment help of lead exposure
An accurate environmental health risk assessment of lead exposure demands a specific understanding of the sources, highly-vulnerable populations, and appropriate medical testing. In the immediate case, the assessment is to be conducted in a childcare center. The steps taken for the purpose are listed below:

Identification of sources of lead poisoning:

Since the child care centre is an old building, it is most likely that the paint on the building's interior and exterior and window sills have deteriorated. Even if the paint was fixed later, it is possible that leaded paints have been used for the purpose. Moreover, the building is situated near a busy main road which was formerly an industrial area. This means that the centre is likely to be exposed to additional sources of lead, such as deposits of lead-based gasoline, dust, and contaminated soil. The drinking water may also be a source of lead since the area has a significant indigenous community who are often exposed to lead sources.

Risk groups assessment:

Since a larger population that is vulnerable to lead in the child care centre involves children, they would be identified as the target groups for the assessment. To conduct the assessments, a few questions to gain an understanding of the current situation would be asked to the caretakers and managers of the child care centre. The questions would be related to the hobbies of the children, their habits, both good and bad, their field of interest, and their health profile. The analysis of the responses will provide insights into the level of lead the children are exposed to.

Medical testing:

Usually, the symptoms of lead poisoning are difficult to identify at the initial stage. Therefore, a blood lead test can be conducted to examine the effect of lead on children (Reuben et al.m 2019). The blood sample for the test can be collected by two methods, namely, heel-prick or finger-prick sample collection and the Venus blood straw collection method. The healthcare providers can test and provide a report on the level of lead in the child's blood. Once the reports confirm the effects of identified sources, steps to mitigate the severe impacts on children's health can be taken. 


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PBHL20006 Participatory Health Research Assignment Sample

This is an individual task assessment. You will be required to write a reflective essay (1500-2500 words). You will reflect on the application of your learning related to the readings, lectures, tutorials, and prior assessments. You will be tasked to address these two points:

• Your positionality and what you thought to be true in relation to public health research.
• How you would seek to undertake research with Indigenous communities.


Research Positionality

Public Health Research


Figure 1- Positionality
(Source- Author)

Concrete experience:

I had been a part of this research related to the public health for assignment help risk rising in Australia. The issue that I focused on was diabetes. While doing my research on this topic and looking for resources, I came across and learnt that diabetes is one of the major issues rising in Australia. This disease has affected not only adults but also children till 14 years of age. To deal with this issue, the government of Australia has also been working proactively. As much as they can do, they have done and are still trying to do. To help individuals who have diabetes, the government is trying to provide the best medical help and high-quality and affordable medicines. After finding out the number of people affected by this disease, I feel this research is important to be worked on. I feel bad that about 1 million, more than half of the population residing in Australia, have been affected by this growing disease which also leads to deaths. So Australia ranks 10th among all other countries for the deaths that are taking place due to type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Reflective observation:

As per research on this issue, I have understood that diabetes, more than just being a disease, has turned out to be a silent pandemic rising daily and affecting both adults and children. As per the research, it has also been seen that there are two variants of diabetes type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes is seen to arise in the early stage. It is common to see it arising in childhood but can affect individuals of any age. It arises when the tissues in the human body and the autoimmune in the pancreas are disrupted. Whereas type 2 has been seen spreading recently among both adults and children. The reason behind type 2 diabetes is when the body tissues are unable to respond to the insulin. Thus, as per my finding, I have seen that type 1 diabetes is highly common among children aged 0-14 years and is the 6th highest incidence. Of all, Australia is considered to be 7th highest in the cases related to diabetes.

Abstract conceptualisation:

Per my understanding, diabetes is not just a public health risk arising in Australia. It also affects the psychological health of individuals already affected by it. When they feel unable to cure their problem, they go through stress, depression, anxiety, and feel ‘burnout’. This is the major issue that is also leading to many deaths. If I were allowed to work on resolving this issue, I would have first advised the individuals who were diagnosed with diabetes to go and seek psychological help first. Because seeing the cases and researching them, I understood that any health issue, even if it can be controlled, if the individual is psychologically being affected, would still lead to death. More than just giving a list of medicines which is also a way of de-motivates an individual who is already in trauma, simple ways should be suggested, such as drinking a lot of water, working out more to reduce extra weight and quitting smoking if they do. Many other things are related to daily life. All this would help the individual to feel motivated and work on curing themselves.

Active experimentation:

In my opinion, people facing the issue should not be treated differently and should not be made to feel like a fish out of water. Rather every individual should be provided with a proper understanding of this, and they should be encouraged to fight against it. Campaigns should be set up to provide the people diagnosed with diabetes with a proper understanding of what it is, how it is caused, and how they can fight against it. This is a disease which cannot be completely cured but rather controlled. Rather than just providing them with high-dose medication, they should be advised to follow a normal life routine where they are required to keep themselves fit, consume sugar-free products, follow a strict diet, keep themselves hydrated, etc. To encourage them, they should be named some famous people who face the same issue but still lead a very normal life. While doing my research, I also came through that even the government of Australia has taken the initiative to provide essential required help to the people and children in terms of medical health.

Research with Indigenous Communities


Figure 2- Research with Indigenous Communities
(Source- Author)

Concrete experience:

My finding relayed the spread of diabetes among the people belonging to the Indigenous community. I have understood the risk of diabetes is higher among the people of Indigenous people of Australia than among the people belonging to the non-Indigenous community. In my finding, I came across the reason behind the rising cases of diabetes among them, which are reduced physical activities, increased obesity, changes in diet, and the high risk among the ageing population of the Indigenous community. The cases have also reflected that people are mostly affected by type diabetes, which is caused when the body tissues cannot control the insulin present in the body, leading to type 2 diseases. This has increased the rate of deaths taking place between the years 2015-2019.

The people of the Indigenous community residing in remote areas have a high risk of blood pressure, kidney failure, and diabetes. This research work is important being it is important to figure out the main cause of this issue, and recommendations need to be provided or suggested to control the spread of diabetes in the Indigenous community.

Reflective observation:

It was shocking to see the rising cases of diabetes in the indigenous community in Australia. Australia ranks 7th position, which is the highest in diabetes cases. Some of the other reasons due to increased cases of diabetes among the people of the Indigenous community involve alcohol consumption, mental health issues, and smoking. Most of the deaths are caused in the Indigenous community due to avoidance of health care effectively and timely.

In my opinion, public health issue needs to be educated to the people of the Indigenous community. In my finding, I understood that Indigenous people are spiritual and believe in orthodoxy. For them, good health is more than the absence of illness and diseases. They believe that diseases are caused within an individual when they are cursed. Thus, rather than help fight the disease, they distance the person believing they would cure it naturally or die.

My research is based on first educating the Indigenous individuals about the rising diseases. They need to understand what public health is, what risks it can lead to, and what measures need to be taken to cure it. They also need to understand the reasons behind the increased cases of type 2 diabetes in their community: increased obesity, decreased physical activity, and constant changes in their diet. This highly affects the body's immune system and weakens the body tissues. In my research, I will try to find strategies to help the people of the Indigenous community fight diabetes. To make them understand the importance, I have to plan a strategy to link with their spiritual beliefs and help them understand easily.

Abstract conceptualisation:

To cure the issue of type 2 diabetes, which is seen to be high among people, the major issue is the beliefs that these people have surrounded themselves with. The cases are not to be seen as high among the non-Indigenous people because they try to understand things more practically and immediately take precautions. The only problem with the Indigenous people is that they focus on spiritual understanding, and diabetes is an issue which cannot be linked with spiritual reasoning.
As a researcher, if I want to work on improving this issue, the major thing that I need to focus on is their understanding level, what they believe or understand about diseases, and what measures d they take to cure or fight against them. They need to be provided with natural medications which would help cure them. They need to understand what activities would help them cure this rising issue.

Active experimentation:

In my research work, I have understood that special ways need to be strategised to make the Indigenous people understand the issues related to diabetes, especially the reason behind the rising type 2 diabetes among them. Usually, they should not try to accept it or would look for religious reasons for it.

In my opinion, they should be recommended naturally grown medication which might not help them fully but still have some effect. They need to be introduced to the percentage of deaths that occur in their community due to negligence of medical health for the people affected by type 2, diabetes.


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GAL613 Grief and Loss Assignment Sample

Assessment Brief

Length 800 words (+/- 10%)
Learning Outcomes

The Subject Learning Outcomes demonstrated by successful completion of the task below include:

a) Identify the needs and appropriate support services for people experiencing grief and loss.
b) Develop a plan for a holistic approach to grief and loss counselling


This assignment requires you to produce a two paragraph scenario and a corresponding session plan for a client experiencing a complex emotional response to the experience of complicated or disenfranchised grief and/or on-going and ambiguous loss. (200 words +/-20%)

For the purposes of this assessment you are required to assume that you have seen the client over a number of weeks (at least 6) and that you are aware of triggers. Ensure you identify at least 5 possible strategies for working with the client. For example, you may decide that you wish to work with metaphor, or encourage connection with the subconscious via a particular technique, or use a narrative or story telling method or use a focusing technique to connect with something you have observed the client to be shying away from. This should be presented as a table. Please refer to the Task Instructions for details on how to complete this task.


To complete this assessment task you must:

Consider the following questions/elements:

• Write a two paragraph scenario introducing a client who is experiencing complex or disenfranchised grief and /or ambiguous loss and who is not in touch with their feelings and emotions. (200 words +/-)

• Produce a session plan for working with the client that includes 5 possible strategies for working with the client. For example, you may suggest a mindfulness based Hakomi strategy to encourage the client to re-experience an event in a safe space.

• You will be assessed on your ability to

o Use your creative abilities to write a scenario that describes an experience of a complex emotional response to the complicated or disenfranchised grief and/or ongoing and ambiguous loss.

o Provide a session plan that includes 5 potential approaches to support a client to work though elements of their functioning that could realistically be associated with complex grief.


It is essential that you use appropriate APA style for citing and referencing research. Please see more information on referencing in the Academic Skills webpage. However, References are not required for this assessment.


Introduction to Case Study

Denise, 59, is a widow who had been living alone for the previous 12 months. After Denise's husband was diagnosed with brain cancer three years ago, he passed away a year ago. She raised two children, both are now adults (27 and 25) but were neither married nor in the military and were instead pursuing jobs in various regions of the nation. Denise finished her bachelor's degree and worked until she was 30, when she got married. Denise's main issues are isolation, sadness (which she'd been experiencing for a year and a half), and trouble dealing with everyday life. She is having a significant depression once before, around the time she was 25 years old, when her father had passed away.

Denise said that she had been more reclusive since her husband's sickness had begun (brain cancer). She had typical childhood, adolescent and early adulthood friendships. Together, she and her husband had enjoyed a tranquil life, devoted to their children and their careers.
During their leisure time, they had participated in academic and cultural pursuits together with great enjoyment (museums, lectures, concerts, and fine restaurants). However, amid the husband's sickness, the couple's few close acquaintances had gone to places like Florida and Arizona, leaving them socially isolated. Her major depressive symptoms were a lack of enjoyment, impatience, retreat from social situations, indecisiveness, exhaustion, guilt, a lack of motivation, and loneliness.

Session plan for assignment help

Session 1: Denise will start by discussing her "sad sentiments." I will quickly elicit Denise's instinctive thoughts.

Session 2: In Denise's second appointment, I will develop an agenda together.

Session 3: I will guide to be socialise


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PUBH6008: Capstone A: Applied Research Project in Public Health Sample


By the end of module 3, student must provide to their learning facilitator a brief review of the literature on their chosen topic. The literature review must contain key references/theorists/researchers for the public health topic chosen. The literature review assignment must be designed to address the following questions:

• Who are the key theorists/researchers in your public health topic?
• What are the key issues?
• What are the gaps in the existing body of knowledge?

The literature review should provide a basis for justifying a clear research question or hypothesis to be explored further.

You must also indicate the search strategy used for your literature review. For example, what were the key words you searched for, and which key databases or other sources did you use to conduct your literature review? (e.g. CINAHL, Proquest Public Health, Informit, Medline, Google Scholar).

Assessment Criteria:

• Critical and comprehensive review of the literature (70%) Clarity of research question/hypothesis (10%) General assessment criteria (20%):

• Provides a lucid introduction

• Shows a sophisticated understanding of the key issues

• Shows ability to interpret relevant information and literature in relation to chosen topic

• Demonstrates a capacity to explain and apply relevant concepts o Shows evidence of reading beyond the required readings

• Justifies any conclusions reached with well-formed arguments and not merely assertions

• Provides a conclusion or summary o Correctly uses academic writing, presentation and grammar:

• Complies with academic standards of legibility, referencing and bibliographical details (including reference list)

• Writes clearly, with accurate spelling and grammar as well as proper sentence and paragraph construction

• Uses appropriate APA style for citing and referencing research



Sexual abuse of minors has long been recognised as critical issue in India. As a result, the "Protection of Children against Sexual Offenses" law was passed, making CSA actions like rape, pornographic exploiting, abduction, and so on illegal. This study will provide a quick review of the reasons for the rise in child abuse cases in India. For Assignment help, There are 430 million toddlers in India as per the official calculations. Children are seen as an important pillar in the growth of a country. Since independence, India's legislation and judiciary have worked hard to ensure that children have fundamental rights from conception until the legal age of adulthood. According to a report, there are four stages of developmental psychology in which an individual not only undergoes physical or biological modifications, but also undergoes changes in psychological, mental, and emotional health, as well as diversity in morals, theories, and language skills.

Protecting these younger generations is thought to be important since it leads to a healthy life for a person and the development of the country as a whole (Atim 2017). A child's essential human rights must be secured from all forms of abuse, including emotional and physical assault, as well as unscrupulous and defenceless conditions. Childhood is the most vulnerable time of a person's life. Children are regarded as a nation's most valuable asset since they are the ones who will define the development and children are the ones who will determine the nation's well-being. In the nation, the child is thought to have personal rights and responsibilities.

The study's goal is to examine the state of child safety by emphasising on incidences of sexual abuse involving Indian children. The research will look into the Indian government's preventative strategies. The goal of the study is to determine what is needed to improve India's current child abuse problem. In this contrary, the research will describe the current situation of Indian society in child abuse cases. The proportion of child abuse cases in rural and urban areas are analysed gradually (IGI Global. 2018).

Search Strategy

Several keywords regarding the child abuse in India are searched on various online platforms such as “Proquest”, “Google Scholar” and much more. Some methodologies are followed to conduct this study. In this regard, a research onion is selected to pick the most suitable methods for this study. The idea is to pick the most representative journals and articles in the field of child abuse within the Indian context. All selected journals are chosen from the 2017-2021 timeframe to avoid the chances of old journal inclusion. Reference and reviews of the selected journals are analysed before the inclusion of relevant data along with the monitored citation.

A "descriptive" study design has been followed to include a detailed explanation of the chosen topic. Selective study philosophy and approach are followed to take part in this study in detail. Special attention has been provided in including relevant data that can support reaching a concrete conclusion in this matter (Cockbain, & Bowers, 2019). All relevant information is included to strengthen the discussion to understand the current condition of Indian child abuse cases. Journals concentrating in prevention strategies of child sexual abuse in Indian framework are prioritised in the search strategy.


Harming, ill-treatment, cruelty, abandonment, or starvation of any kid is considered child abuse. Physical, emotional, sexual, and psychological abuse can all be perpetrated against a kid. According to the "National Crime Record Bureau", one hundred and nine minors were sexually molested every day in India in 2018, which shows a 22% increase in the statistics of child abuse cases from the previous year (Tiwari et al. 2018). According to a UNICEF study, Indian parents utilise 30 distinct types of physical and verbal abuse on children aged 0 to 6 years as part of their discipline measures. Unfortunately, the research shows that young kids are more likely to be exposed to conflict, violence, and mistreatment as their families try to adapt, which can have long-term consequences for them. Not everyone understands the impact of such cases on their child and that is why the effect is so vulnerable. The differences between several type of abuses and molestations are described in the below area.

Physical abuse: Physical abuse is defined as the intentional infliction of pain. When most people hear the word "child abuse," they immediately think of physical violence. Molestation manifests itself in injuries, bruises, fires, cracks, and muscle aches, but it can also manifest itself in brutal acts of discipline. Physical abuse is also indicated by damages that do not match the narrative and ignored medically needs.

Emotional abuse: Emotional abuse is defined as behaviour against a child that causes mental distress. Shouting at the child frequently, restricting love or affection, long periods of quietness, and cruel jokes at the child's benefit are all examples of mental neglect. Emotional abuse is defined as calling the child insults or uttering other degrading remarks to the child, which usually leads to low self-esteem. Emotionally abused children may experience depression or a yearning need for affection (Oyekola, & Agunbiade, 2018). Stigmatisation and postponed or incorrect psychological maturity are among the other signs.

Sexual abuse: Sexual abuse includes touching a kid in a sexual situation or having sexual contact with the child, as well as any action directed at the child for the purpose of sexual excitement. Touching, forced sexual actions, and obscene bodily exposure are all signs of this sort of abuse. Both sorts of sexual abuse of a kid are regarded sexual abuse of a child, whether the abuse happens as a one-time occurrence or as a pattern of behaviour that persists for years. Often, the attackers are the child's relatives or family members. These are mostly people that no one would expect to do such crimes (Parmley et al. 2019). Actions in a child may indicate sexual abuse include awareness or promotion of sexual conduct before the child's age, unexpected difficulties with toilet habits in a young child, genital pain or itchiness, injuries, or bleeding. Other signs include difficulty sitting or jogging, stains in their underwear, and other youngsters being sexually abused.

Abuse of any kind can result in long-term consequences. Child abuse has ramifications that go far beyond the physical scars left behind. Relationship troubles and trust concerns may arise in the child. Feelings of worthlessness or low self-esteem are prevalent, and the youngster may have trouble controlling his or her emotions. The study's main goal was to describe how sexual assault affects a child's mental and psychological well-being. Some preventative measures are also aimed towards elucidating.

Literature Review


The purpose of a literature review is to select a variety of publications related to child abuse cases in India. Human trafficking, rape, harassment, exploitation for pornography, and other forms of child abuse are common (Harder et al. 2020). By reading various journal and news articles, the study will expose the exact situation of child abuse in India. The Indian government appears to be working on legislation to stop abuse that is more sexual. Abusers of children are dealt with harshly by NGOs and government organisations, including the police. According to the preliminary findings, the court system is successful in averting societal evil. Several search engines are used to find suitable literary sources for this study.
Discussion of literature

Cases of Child Sexual Abuse in India

One of the most serious issues is that our culture has prioritised adult rape, but child sexual abuse is as important. The only difference is that most youngsters are either unaware that they have been sexually assaulted or are too afraid to tell their parents. Some people are afraid of privacy (Mashayo et al. 2017). Hundreds of millions of children are victims of abuse and exploitation. Kids are physically and emotionally fragile, and they could be permanently traumatised by emotional or psychological abuse. Child sexual abuse is a pervasive problem in our society, although it is rarely spoken. The national of formation of women and children manages this act and aims on removing sexual abuse of children, improving education about child molestation, ensure a stable space for children who are victims of aggression, and imposing harsh penalty on offenders.

It is the basis of a slew of health issues as well as a slew of other issues. Although there is no strong demonstration of a source, reported cases of child sexual abuse are decreasing. One out of every ten children is sexually molested before they reach the age of eighteen, according to statistics. Despite declining rates of registered sexual abuse, the public is unaware of the magnitude of the problem. In India, child sex exploitation has long been an issue, and incidents of horrible atrocities have been documented over the years, prompting a continuing effort to abolish such evil from society.

Effect of Child Sexual Abuse on Children

According to the evidence presented to the Inquiry, child sex exploitation can have far-reaching and serious repercussions (Jones et al. 2019). These impacts can last a lifetime for some victims and witnesses. Child sexual abuse can have a negative impact on a child's cognitive and emotional well-being. This affects their familial and intimate connections, faith, training, and job opportunities. People who have suffered are also two to substantially more likely to be sexual, physical, or mental abuse victims in the future. Victims and survivors blame themselves for changes in family relationships and relatives' well-being. Some victims’ child sexual abuse may become overly protective of their own children and grandkids. They are desperate to make their kids and grandkids feel sympathy for, and to ensure that their own abuse has no negative consequences for them.

It can also cause feelings of loneliness by disrupting friendship groups and leading to bullying or being talked about by others. Some victims of abuse have had their family connections harmed because their parents, siblings, or other members were aware of the sexual abuse but did nothing to stop it. Parents of victims are seen to be affected as well. Parents' mental disorders can be harmed because they blame themselves for being helpless and are unable to safeguard their children (Reiner et al. 2019). Some victims fear that the sexual abuse they experienced as children will make them unfit parents, or that others will regard them as harm to their own children.

There is no single metric by which a child can assess sexual abuse he or she has experienced. As a child, a person is oblivious of some things that he/she learns as time passes, so when he is a sufferer of child sexual abuse, he/she conjures up a variety of images in his/her head while living in fear. The impact of child sexual abuse and neglect on physical, psychological, behavioural, and societal results is studied on a regular basis. Mental implications might be seen in physical effects. Mental health difficulties lead to risky behaviours. Depression and anxiety, for example, may compel a person to consume, abuse, drink, or utilise illegal medications. Some of the major effects are,

Fear: CSA is such a heinous deed that it shatters a youngster's mind, and as a result, a child lives in the shade of terror and never escapes it (Boittin 2018). Most kid maltreatment is unreported due to children's fear of being taken away from the family.

Self-harm: Sexual abuse frequently results in anger toward oneself, such as self-blame, self-harm, and suicide. Those who were sexually assaulted as children are more likely to attempt suicide than the general population.

Sexual health: Being physically manhandled as a child, especially when the abuse is not discovered, might lead to perplexing notions about links and sexual habits.

Emotional harm: Victims of sexual abuse face a variety of medical effects, including sexually transmitted infections and infertility. These physical effects compound the abuse's significant emotional and mental suffering. All of these victims had a variety of issues, including anxiety, anxiousness, disordered eating, and attempted suicide. "Panic disorder", "psychological symptoms", "hyperactivity disorder", "post-traumatic stress disorder", and "reactive attachment disorder" are some of the other side effects of CSA.

Arrival of shame and guilt: In most situations, the attacker is able to persuade the sufferer that it is his own fault (Xu et al. 2018). Some persistent abusers engage in the same abusive behaviour repeatedly. It causes scars on the victim's body and spirit, and he/she feels guilty and ashamed. The person finds e it hard to inform anyone about the abuse because of remorse and humiliation of person commits suicide because of the terrible experiences that he/she had because of the maltreatment.

Post-traumatic stress: CSA can have a significant physical, mental, and sexual impact on a child. It may have long-term consequences for the child's physique (Motsa, & Morojele, 2021). If a youngster suffers multiple traumas to his body and spirit because of this traumatic experience, and their parents and caretakers ignore him/her, the child may develop "post-traumatic stress disorder". They do not increase their ability to believe anyone after being rejected by their well-wishers. In addition, a lack of appropriate counselling pushes individuals to face this issue more.

Abusive behaviours: The victim's behaviour deteriorates into abuse. That person is unable to trust anyone, which has a negative affect both his/her present and future lives. Approximately one-third of abused youngsters will go on to victimise their own children.

Reasons Behind The Sexual Abuse and Torture

The primary cause of this social problem is a lack of knowledge. The Indian government must take firm measures in this regard. The Indian society is thought to be unconcerned about sex education. Child maltreatment is on the rise in India, particularly in rural regions, because of these similar conditions. Another explanation for this is poverty. Due to their poor financial situation, the majority of families send their children to work at a young age. India's overcrowding is another issue (Joseph, & Bance, 2019). Poverty makes it difficult for parents to feed their children, forcing them to stop going to school. This is why there is an increase in illiteracy and child maltreatment.

Because Indian culture has always been patriarchal and dominant, a child is always under their protection and care. Furthermore, they utilise physical force on youngsters to chastise them, believing that this is beneficial to their growth. Many studies show that not only are single causes not to blame for child sex abuse, but that a combination of factors is also to blame for this heinous crime. Some of the most common causes of childhood sex exploitation are discussed in depth.

Poverty: Poverty is a major contributor to child sexual abuse. The majority of incidences of sexual abuse occur in low-income homes. There is a growing trend of selling children to meet their necessities. Parents frequently believe that because they have given birth to a kid, they have the right to place the child in a bond. It is not true that all incidences of child sexual abuse occur in poor homes; some cases occur in middle-class and rich families as well (Rocha-Jimenez et al. 2018). Adult abusers pretended to help truly needy youngsters, but instead reaped the benefits of them.

Illiteracy: Education is crucial to a child's future success. If this is not the case, everyone will suffer greatly. Because they are outside the shielding reach of school and provide assistance agencies, illiterate children are more exposed to abuse.

Poor Health Issues: Children with a mental illness, a learning difficulty, or a physical impairment are more likely than others to disclose childhood sexual abuse.

Homelessness: Children who have been homeless are much more likely to have experienced sexual abuse. Some of them are children who have been sexually abused at a young age. Spousal abuse, physical molestation, and other forms of relationship violence are common among these homeless kids.

Increasing Unemployment: Unemployment is also a significant contributor to child sexual abuse. It can also lead to divorce, alcoholism, poverty, and a variety of other issues. To cope with the stress of unemployment, a person may resort to any form of abuse, including sexual abuse (Reiner et al. 2019). Joblessness has a greater influence on young children, according to heterogeneous effects as this gives birth of depression and mental sickness, which directs towards sexual abuse.

Acquaintances: Children have a strong belief in the person with whom they are connected. They find it difficult to oppose his or her behaviour, even if it is unsettling.

Current Condition of The Situation

With regard to the country's children, the vision of the country's constitution makers was to ensure their extensive development, protection, wider benefits from their deprived and retrograde conditions, preservation of children through a decrease in rate of death, and involvement of children in the nation's overall progression. Four out of five kids are the victims of sexual abuse at an early age. It is sad to mention that despite the digital transformation and social development, people are still so sick that they target kids to harm. These are nothing but mental sickness. Parents must not be too strict or too casual with their kids. Kids who grew up with troubled childhood happen to be molesters in the coming life. That is why child support and sex education are so important.

Increasing Cases in The Rural Areas

According to statistics, children in rural areas endure more sexual abuse at home than those in urban centres. While 41% of youngsters in the poll indicated they had been slapped, almost 58% children said they had been slapped (Uzochukwu et al. 2021). According to the study, 34% of children had their ears pulled by elders, while 66% of youngsters had their ears pulled. While 45% youngsters reported they were put in a room, nearly 57% indicated the same treatment is applied to them.

According to a survey conducted in rural Maharashtra to assess the amount of sexuality and AIDS consciousness in a school, the majority of the girls believe that sex education should be offered at an early age because the age of puberty varies for each of them. Early understanding of sex and menstruating cycles would help children better comprehend metabolic responses and be equipped for the circumstance without feeling ashamed or guilty. According to the findings of this study, the majority of educators believe that sex instruction can be part of doing something recreational but not part of the syllabus.

Preventive Strategies

Most of the child abuse case takes place due to the lack of education. Indian government must include sex education mandatorily within the course curriculum from the early schooling days. Conservative parents often hesitate to talk about sex with their children, which make kids more curious about their sex life. Improper guidance and lack of support from the elders are the reasons behind the increasing cases of child abuse (Li et al. 2017). Sex education must start from home. Parents must educate their children with honesty and patience. The more educated they will become; the less amount of curiosity will rise. That is the only way to get rid of the increasing child abuse cases. Parents must be well aware of their own actions as well. Children's mental troubles arise from their parents' relationship difficulties. Parents must control their actions for the sake of their kids as this can provide a negative impact on them and may lead to dark intentions in the future. In case, parents feel that their child needs help in such cases, they must consult a psychiatrist or put their kids in a "support session" for the betterment of their health.

Literature Gap

The literature has performed a great understanding of child sexual abuses in India. Most of the literary sections have been picked in the subject of the cause and effect of child sexual abuse. A little more attention can be provided on the prevention strategy of child sexual abuse in India. Prevention strategies are usual; however, child sexual abuse prevention strategies in the Indian context seem to be missing hugely in this study (Iheanacho, Stefanovics, & Ezeanolue, 2018). The topic is mostly covered. However, the differences between the child sexual abuses in the past and in recent times are not described. The area is useful to drag the importance of Indian rural areas in increasing rate of child abuse. However, the proportion of child sexual abuses in cities is not rare, which has received least importance in this area. Government of India's policies to prevent child abuse is not mentioned in this study as well.


Given the facts and the outcomes of many past studies, the study has many data to back up the findings and study topic. Child sexual abuse is a global issue, not just a problem in one society. Child sexual abuse can have both short and long-term implications, including underlying injustices, psychological disturbances, cognitive impairments, educational challenges, low self-esteem, and self-harm, as well as the possibility of suicide. The abuser who used the children had a negative impact on his life and damaged his future.

The majority of incidents are recorded in families, schools, communities, on the street, and at work. Many victims are too young or defenceless to speak up about abuse or protect themselves. Even with so many legal measures and child welfare groups in place, if this crime continues to rise, everyone will be forced to take action. Adequate child safety policies and preventive measures are urgently needed to safeguard children from all forms of abuse. Such policies offer a secure environment in which a child can be cared for and thrive.


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PUBH6007 Program Design, Implementation and Evaluation Report Sample


This assignment help is on Needs Assessment in public health, and you have 2 options (choose one) for submission (it is an individual assignment in report structure).


Option 1: Choose a setting such as a community, health service (e.g. hospital, primary health care service) or neighbourhood you know well in Australia ( Examples (not limited to) are:

(1) a particular community (for example, indigenous population, women etc)
(2) a health service (such as hospital, primary health care service, GP practices etc)
(3) a neighbourhood that you know well (where you currently live in)

How to proceed with Option 1:

STEP 1: A discussion of how you would assess different types of needs (normative, expressed, comparative, felt, etc.) and how you would prioritise the findings, justifying your choices. For this purpose, you would either know of/be in the situation in reality first. Then, you would have to undertake rigorous literature review to understand different types of needs assessment and consider alternative views to justify the choices for this context.

STEP 2: Any potential challenges for your needs assessment and how you would address them. This could be relating to policy, contextual issues or others.

STEP 3: A SWOT analysis, where you identify the Strengths, Weaknesses Opportunities and Threats of your organisation or program.

STEP 4: A determination of program priorities, based upon your needs assessment

In your needs assessment, you may determine multiple programs priorities – justify why you would choose the priorities you have identified. Are there any population groups that would benefit best from your program? Mention these, justify.


Let us take a GP practice in a specific growing suburb in Melbourne as a context. The waiting list seem to be increasing as many patients are approaching the GP and there are no other practices close by. It could also be that much of the population is working, and they need after hours service. If you are part of this situation ( working in the practice or living in the suburb) – you would have an idea as to what type of need had risen. From that point, think about what type of needs assessment is required (via comparing few types of needs assessment from literature review), and justify your choice. Then, we are looking at potential challenges to really confirm this need, through the needs assessment. Subsequently, look at the SWOT analysis. There may be many GPs in the practice (Strength), but, the hours may not suit the working population in the suburb (weakness). The threat may be that due to non suitable opening hours or waiting list, the population may begin to move to another closer suburb (where there are more GPs open late) which then (threatens) the practice. And the (opportunity) is there for this GP practice to open for more hours or have shift based GPs for different hours, keeping the practice open later. This is a simple SWOT and there may be many more.

In this situation, you would be looking at a program design that allows the GPs to open later hours or shifts, which cater to the mainly working population, young families in the new suburb/neighbourhood. You may prioritise working women, kids or mainly working men as population groups that would best benefit.



Primary healthcare service is the selected community for undertaking the present report into consideration. In order to create a detailed understanding about the needs of principals and community analysis, the priorities placed by primary healthcare service in particular emphasis upon aboriginal population and indigenous groups within Australia needs to be revealed. The present discussion primarily explores around the different norms, expressions and comparisons are needed to be prioritised and applied upon aboriginal population of Australian primary healthcare service community. The reality oriented understanding helps to critically evaluate the possible challenges Faced in the operations performed by GP, nurses and professional health workers to govern their role across the primary healthcare services (Mistry, Harris & Harris, 2021). The SWOT analysis enables the internal potentials, areas of shortcomings, possibilities of new scope and limitations can be understood. As the organizations perform forming a community within the primary healthcare services, the prioritization of multiple service areas acting upon the large population interest benefits catering to health requirements of Australian people get justified.

Different normative needs and findings justifying the choice of primary healthcare in indigenous group aboriginal population community Australia

Primary healthcare within Australia create the initial point of contact with the people of Australia to attend care, comfort and health treatment. In case of both chronic as well as acute conditions proper management is taken up as a responsibility with the quality of professional intervention are indicated towards multiple healthcare domains. President under the National Safety and quality primary healthcare NSQPH creates the standard as a committee of primary care within Australia to determine highly developed effectiveness to treat patients (Kim et al. 2021). Under the national general practice hack reduction scheme, Australian indigenous groups and aboriginal community tried to be creating a feasible Raj Kumar optimistic normative layout for any incident reported by patients.

The conduct taken up by NSQPH develops a standard during October 2020 to a span of January 2021. All the issues faced by aboriginal population community Australia on a health hazard level hard constructively handled to create safe environment and proper cure through the preliminary consolidation program. There are multiple face to face workshops established to cater to patient requirements on a subjective level. The online free counselling, Internet based survey and consumer oriented service approach helped feedback retriever loop to analyze and enhance their quality in terms of primary healthcare provision (Measham & Turnbull, 2021). With a total capacity of 211 Primary Health care providers more than 105 feedbacks were received from the care users. Search consultations carried out through online interface facilitate during ongoing pandemic situation and lockdown related stress factors to be addressed for clients in indigenous groups of Australia.

Challenges addressed by the primary healthcare services among indigenous groups aboriginal community in Australia

The health department of Australian government takes specific focus upon the challenges faced by primary healthcare services Australia. Taking the policy regulations into consideration, the fragmentation taking place in case of Commonwealth as well as state fund services tend to lead to adverse challenges. The complexities get even more critical when policy levied by the government create restriction upon funding and arrangements of reported cases. There are increasing feedbacks received regarding poor coordination across the primary healthcare service planning and improper execution and delivery of welfare and social care services. It is directing towards misdistribution effects which hinder the workforce with shortages and inadequacy in optimum resources to handle increasing demand for health care requirement (Day et al. 2021). As the life expectancy across the aboriginal population segment is quite low especially for the females, tremendous challenges are faced by the indigenous Australian people on acquiring primary healthcare services.

It is the remote locations of various residential zones of minorities and health treatment inaccessibility which creates challenge for a GP to reach care assistance that takes 4.5 times more travel time than that of care facilities in the major cities. The disability rate among aboriginal population segments in Australians is ineffectually handled without a balanced proportion from primary healthcare policy regulation execution. This depicts a challenge where expectation and actual results revealed a large gap. There is additional health deficits which are incapacitated by the primary healthcare to manage especially with the exceptional burdening in case of chronic disease cases reported across aboriginal population community Australia. The ratio of one in every for indigenous Australian adults getting detected with obesity creates an alarming clinical impact posing challenge up on the overall requirement of primary healthcare which is implying significant deficit as they are considered minority and deprived groups there (Alexander et al. 2021). The rapid aging population in indigenous Australia community is another health hazard causing agent which is disproportionately managed with proper quality of care from primary healthcare services.

SWOT Analysis of Primary Healthcare in Australia

Strength -

Primary healthcare Australia is one of the largest providers of professional level public health care and non government sector. Both acute as well as chronic health crisis is managed by exceptionally talented and skilled doctors, GP, nurses and management Staffs. It is with the incorporation of unique person centred approach that care provision is provided to care seekers building up community feeling for all Australians (Ng et al. 2021). The general practitioners encompass the nurses, community workers, social healthcare workers and professional doctors. The midwife, dentists, pharmacists, health professional and specially trained aboriginal health workers also constitute the primary healthcare service setting. With adequate health promotion, prevention of diseases and rapid spread of chronic ailments like diabetes, fatigue and mental diseases I tried to be made aware to people to seek proper professional treatment under Primary Health care management.

Weaknesses -

The primary healthcare is dispersed into multiple segments which create confusion and chaos while handling increased demand of care services. The advancement in technologies incorporated within primary healthcare services are incapacitated by different professionals to be handled with proper expertise and skill. Lack of training and development progress with continued assessment creates sense of inadequacy of resources which makes the overall health sector suffer across Australian region (Cornwall, 2014). The exceptional rise in health deficit and acute conditions like sexual disorders, drug abuse, extreme alcoholism, cardiovascular diseases, diabetic problems, asthma, oral health, obesity, cancer and mental health deterioration across different segments of Australian population further contributes to the primary healthcare challenges.


Primary healthcare service across Australia needs to segment there cares program operation so that the multispecialty features are possible to undertake the issues on the basis of separate department. Teams need to be channelized into specialty oriented services rather than shuffling duties to overlap across departments with the same operator and service provider (Balasooriya, Bandara & Rohde, 2021). The social determinants that impede health condition across Australia needs to become the survey assessment monitoring factor for analysing a sustainable and effective health service provision from primary healthcare systems.

Threats -

During the current pandemic let through COVID -19 situations created imbalance in demand and supply of medical care services from primary healthcare service operations across indigenous Australians. Connecting with stakeholders and getting regular supplies of normal treatment other than COVID word hampered and carried out on a irregular nature which challenged the health conditions of overall Australian aboriginal population community regions. The National Health priorities directed towards COVID management necessarily created a significant neglect towards other issues where the National Safety and quality primary healthcare NSQPH Norms and policy standards got hindered (Druce et al. 2021). Hospital bed unavailability and rural service network inefficiency due to technological lag led to threats upon lives of people across Australia especially those living in remote locations particularly the aboriginal community people.

Program priority created by primary healthcare services Australia towards aboriginal population segment

Patient care and safety of residents across Australia is the fundamental responsibility of primary healthcare service (Halcomb et al. 2020). People living in the rural areas and remote locations particularly the aboriginal trade community who are deprived of adequate health facility are tried to become the new focus group of Australian Primary Health service community. With the National Safety And Quality Primary Healthcare Standard along with national general practice accreditation scheme the committee tries to establish review and survey programs to analyze the general health statistics like mental health, physical general conditions like blood pressure, heart rate, cholesterol, diabetic level and other ailments. This enables rapid detection and the primary healthcare nurse, GP and other skilled professionals to cater to aboriginals at a fast rate possible.

Spreading the service operation even across remote locations and focusing more upon infrastructural development with latest clinical equipments for reaching faster solution and care facilities to reduce hazards towards aboriginals as a neglected sector of Australia can help build new opportunities of community healthcare. Aspects like housing education, infrastructure, employment and transport also needs to be simultaneously exploited for providing enhanced quality of health services across Australian people.


It is the great enthusiasm governed by policy regulation that enables the Primary Health service providers to operate even in rural along with remote regions to serve the aboriginal segment of population across Australia. Special service training towards older people, child health and maternity issues along with young health and eradication of drug abuse and alcoholism is also a part of primary healthcare support program. The GP qualification and the nurse services are incapable of creating a balance between demand and supply curve in terms of care facilities.

The primary care committee performed under directives of Australian government to handle acute as well as chronic were incapable of following the elements regulatory policy standards which made the patient safety and immediate help to risk prone diseases other than COVID to be handled with deficiency and lack of facility.


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