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MIS604 Requirement Engineering Report Sample

Task Summary

This final assessment requires you to respond to the given case study used in Assessment 1 and 2, so that you can develop insights into the different facets of Requirements Analysis in agile. In this assessment you are required to produce an individual report of 2000 words (+/-10%) detailing the following:

1. A Product Roadmap for the project

2. Product Backlog of coarse granularity including Epics and User stories

3. Personas who typifies the future system end user

4. Decomposition of Epics into User stories for first release

5. Minimum Viable Product (MVP) definition for first release

6. Story Mapping for MVP - ordering User stories according to priority and sophistication

7. Story elaboration of User stories for MVP to ensure that the User story is clear, along with the acceptance criteria for the elaborated stories to ensure the ‘definition of done’.

8. A paragraph detailing the similarities and differences between ‘traditional predictive’ and ‘Agile’ requirements analysis and management.
Please refer to the Task Instructions for details on how to complete this task.

Context

 In the second assessment you would have developed capability in the areas of requirements analysis and requirements lifecycle management, which are well recognised Business Analysis skills and capabilities. However, Agile has become a recognised software development approach which is both adaptive and iterative in nature. This has necessitated the development of new and differentiated requirements analysis and management skills, techniques, and capabilities. This assessment aims to assist you in developing well-rounded skills as a Business Analyst who uses a spectrum tools and techniques. In doing so, you can draw irrespective of the approach your future employer may take to software development.

Solution

Introduction

The report will discuss the different user stories and epics in developing a product, "ServicePlease", which is an online delivery system. The grocery stores can register in the system where the users can see the profile and order the products. For assignment help A software system will require the development of user stories and product roadmap by developing personas from consumers' perspectives. The story mapping for the minimum viable product will be described in this report, where the sophistication of the design approach and priority of design according to the mapping of the product will be highlighted. The use of agile project management and the traditional predictive model will be discussed, where similarities and differences of each project management style will be examined.

Addressing the areas regarding case study

Product Roadmap for the project

ABC Pty Ltd aims to develop the "ServicePlease" online home delivery system based on the combination of website and mobile application. For that purpose, the roadmap to ensure efficient system development is needed to be considered. Release planning involved in product roadmap creates effective time management (Aguanno, & Schibi, 2018).

 

Table 1: Product Roadmap including releases and time
Source: (Developed by the author)

Product backlog including Epics and User stories

 

Table 2: Product backlog
Source: (Developed by the author)

Persona who typifies the future system end-user

 

Table 3: Persona engaged in satisfying end-users
Source: (Developed by the author)

Decomposition of Epics into User Stories for the first release

Requirements analysis for system development includes specific user stories which help to elicit the requirements for new systems in business (Stephens, 2015). The decomposition of epics into user stories will help specify the requirements and the tasks associated with each user story.

 

Table 4: (Epics decomposed into user stories)
Source: (Developed by the author)

Minimum Viable Product (MVP) definition for the first release

The first release will include several items which will increase the viability of the system. System design development through minimum viable products ensures basic operations within the software (John, Robert, & Stephen, 2015). The minimum viable products for the "ServicePlease" home delivery system may include a basic user interface design for registration, sign-up, and verification. The registration and sign-up processes will allow the users to enter into the system. Verification of the criminal history and other records of the service providers will help to maintain the safety of the residential customers and to appoint appropriate candidates as service providers. The interface will serve as a communication platform between the users and the system. The system will also include security check-up features like VCC, VEVO, ABN for the first release. The payment feature will also be developed during the first release. Apart from that, the "ServicePlease '' home delivery system will include the features like a search bar tool, navigation key, order desk, and feedback and review desk.

Story Mapping for MVP

The user stories related to the system development of "ServicePlease" in ABC Pty Ltd will be arranged systematically for identifying the priority level.

Priority 1

- The registration process in the first release is the most important step as it will ensure proper verification of the users' details.

- Inputting the criminal history, driving license, vehicle registration certificate, and citizenship proof, the service providers will register within the system.

- The security checking process helps to ensure authentication within the system (Liu et al. 2018).

Priority 2

- The sign-up process will help the customers to enter into the system by providing their email address, phone number, and basic details.

- Sign-up is essential for managing order placement and product search

Priority 3

- The payment option will help the resident customers to pay for the orders
- Information and transaction security during payment is essential (Serrano, Oliva, & Kraiselburd, 2018)
- The priority of the payment feature development in the first release is high

Priority 4

- Order preparation option will help the supermarkets to accept the orders of the customers.
- The priority of order desk creation in the first release is moderate

Priority 5

- The feedback and Review option will be generated after the first release, so the priority is low.
- The feedback process will help the customers to state their comments about the services.

Story elaboration of User Stories for MVP

 

Table 5: Story Elaboration of User Stories for MVP
Source: (Developed by the author)

Acceptance Criteria for elaborated stories

 

Table 6: Acceptance criteria
Source: (Developed by the author)

Similarities and differences between agile and traditional predictive analysis and management

Similarities:

The agile methodology delas with the development of user stories, roadmaps and develops product vision. It also helps to create user stories and develops a project management plan. Reasonable and marketable products are developed in an iteration due to which monitoring and creating the project development through a retrospective approach can be an easy approach. The primary focus of agile is to achieve targets and customer satisfaction. IT and software projects tend to prefer agile project management (El-Wakeel, 2019). On the other hand, Project charter development and the project plan is developed by developing sub-projects in the case of traditional project management. Also, interim deliverables are developed and the project control and execution are managed with predictive analysis. Following a waterfall model and each phase are planned at different stages of the product life cycle.

Differences

Agile focuses on planning, cost, scope and time with prominence with term work and customer collaboration. Considers customer feedback and constant development at each phase of iteration, preventing time consumption and improved customer satisfaction. The client involvement is high as interaction and requirements constantly change in every phase of development. Both current and predictable requirements are used where the waterfall model is considered. Agile project development of good quality, motivation in team performance and client satisfaction (Loiro et al. 2019). In the case of traditional predictive methodology, The project follows the same life cycle where every stage is fixed, like planning, design, building, production, testing and support. The requirements are fixed and do not change with time. The current and predictable requirements are considered as the product develops completely without any change in iterative phases. Coding is done at a single stage, and testing is not performed at every iteration.

Conclusion

The epic story and user identification help in developing the right product according to customer requirements. Minimum Viable Product design is important to initially develop the product outcomes and the features associated with the software design. Using an agile project approach will be helpful for the design of software as feedback at iterative stages can guide in user mapping based on requirements, and the final product can be justified in terms of the demand and identification of the probable consumers. The ordering of user stories according to priority is elaborated, which is helpful in developing the product. The definition of done is achieved by developing the product through story mapping based on user stories, and the persona development identifies the specific expectations related to consumer experiences and requirements associated with the product. 

References

 

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MEM603 Engineering Strategy Report Sample

Task Summary

In response to the background information provided, your group needs to research and develop a strategy to manage an engineering discipline within an international company operating across different global regions. You need to present your research in a 2,000 word (+/–10%) plan.

Please refer to the Task Instructions (below) for details on how to complete this task.

Context

For some time now, there has been a world-wide movement towards the cross-border integration of business activities, which, in the case of products and services, covers their design, manufacture, distribution and sale. This also includes engineering and technical disciplines operating across different global regions. For example, research and development (R&D) is being decentralised to reduce costs and access new capabilities; manufacturing is being moved to be closer to major emerging markets; the engineering design stage of product development is changing to cope with demands for quality and customisation; and licensing technologies are being introduced in new markets in which organisations do not have a presence. The trends driving the need to manage engineering disciplines across different global regions include the advent of the digital age (e.g., information and communications technology and the internet), the emergence and growth of developing countries with low costs and high levels of engineering capability (e.g., India and China) and the increasing cost of R&D and innovation.

International companies need to develop international strategies to ensure that engineering activities across the world are appropriately coordinated and managed. Strategic options to do this include joint ventures, setting up decentralised subsidiaries, mergers, acquisitions and licensing.

Solution

Introduction

Globalization has enabled the channelization of products and services that are coming from across borders. Engineering organizations are some of the most prolific companies involving engineers that provide different types of activities (Aznar-Sánchez et al., 2019). The work of engineering organizations is to make the world a better place and to do things in a better manner. Engineering organizations use their creativity to solve the design challenges resulting in solution-oriented thinking to help build a simplified future. For Assignment Help Engineering organizations are some of the most innovative companies working on a global scale, helping develop infrastructure and providing a key medium to help countries to progress. The globalized nature of engineering organizations is a key tool to grow the national economy resulting in the prosperity of the country and contributes to the development of labor and capital (Fazey et al., 2018). Engineering services and organizations have become an important vehicle for generating GDP growth. Technology and information communication (ICT) has become a key aspect of engineering organizations and technology is paving the way to channelize the strategic decision making reflecting the new operations and business developments. This report is an investigation of engineering business concepts that helps organizations to create strategic planning. The engineering company selected for this report is Hatch Pty Ltd which is a 65 years old company perfecting engineering innovation on a global scale. This report will analyze the business innovation and technology management strategies with a review on technology strategies.

Company Background

Hatch Associates PTY LTD is a Brisbane, Queensland; Australia-based engineering solution Provider Company that deals in the Architectural, Engineering, and Allied Services Industry. Hatch Associates PTY LTD operates at a global level with offices and projects in North America, South America, Middle East, United Kingdom, Russia, South Africa, China, India, Indonesia, and Australia. There are more than 1.124 employees across all the locations of Hatch Associates which is generating revenue of $166.91 million (USD). Hatch Associates PTY LTD is a conglomeration of 12 companies working in Engineering services, Management services, Office Administrative Services, Professional Scientific, and Technical Services. The overall experience of Hatch Associates PTY LTD spanned over more than 150 countries with major project work in metal, energy infrastructure, digital, and investment sectors (Koulinas et al., 2019).

Hatch Associates PTY LTD is a globally reputed organization committed to make the world a better place through effective engineering solutions based on the development of better ideas, smarter applications, and efficient professional service delivery. The work culture and innovation in the Hatch Associates PTY LTD is employee-owned and independent-free combining diverse teams, vesting engineering and business knowledge to partner with clients on a global scale. The resultant engineering solution is based on best-fit market strategies, helps manage and maximize the production and also creates game-changing technologies, designs, and complex projects completions (Kozaki et al., 2017). Apart from the engineering marvels, Hatch Associate PTY LTD also considers business sustainability and indigenous people policy as a forward objective of the organization and interconnects the community benefits with profitability.

Existing Engineering strategies

The engineering approaches and strategies adopted and practiced by Hatch Associates PTY LTD are time-effective, sustainable, and yet profitable. Based on the scale and scope of engineering solutions provided by Hatch, a wide array of tested strategies was selected to meet the contextual requirements of each project (Maskuriy et al., 2019). The impact of the region, natural conditions, labor laws of the country in which Hatch is operating influence and shapes the engineering’s strategies. Hatch Associates' existing strategies are governed by the theory of sustainable engineering, which is the process of managing a production based on the optimum utilization of resources and energy. The focus of sustainable engineering is to meet the needs of the existing world in such a manner not impacting future demands (Rahimifard & Trollman, 2018). Following elaborated strategies are currently used by Hatch Associated PTY LTD:

Sustainable Solutions

Engineering projects performed and completed by the Hatch Associated PTY LTD have always been challenged because of their proximity to nature and the local communities that live around them. A successful project performed by Hatch Associated PTY LTD requires the Project Company to extend the beneficial purpose to the surrounding community. Hatch Associates uses the strategy of “Leaving it better than we found it”, this mantra of working starts with performing an environmental assessment of the project along with the feasibility analysis (Pietrobelli et al., 2018). The development projects are provided with a positive relationship with the local surrounding communities based on mutual understanding. The response to sustainable solutions by Hatch works on the following perspectives:

• Developing stronger relationships with the surrounding communities early.
• Both Hands Open strategy
• Celebrating the differences
• Building for the future generation
• Understanding to understood

Urban Solutions

Globally the need for engineering solutions was to develop the cities in terms of infrastructure which further requires a myriad web of maintenance, underinvestment, sometimes impacted due to poor planning and the changing political agendas (Oesterreich & Teuteberg, 2016). These characteristics of urban solutions have to be responded to by any engineering solution. Local communities and financial investors are key stakeholders in engineering projects whereas the powers of urban innovation or not so innovation lie in the hands of politicians (Ordieres-Meré et al., 2020). The strategy of Hatch Associates PTY PTD is based on developing the risk management approaches to the engineering solutions and adhering to the global agendas of sustainable development. The response to the myriad challenges and complexities in developing the urban-centric engineering solutions is as given below:

• Small steps, big impacts
• New Opportunities for development
• Smart prioritization
• Best practices as the way forwards
• Technology integration

Water Development

Water is the essence of life. It is a critical resource interlinking the borders, communities, places, and activities. Engineering and water have been closely associated since the early development of scientific innovations be it transportation or water energy generation. With the increasing pace of urbanization, the stress on the water on a global scale has impacted the engineering responses by organizations. Water other than urbanization is a key agent to mining has a direct relation with the project outlook and planning for Hatch Associates PTY LTD (Pietrobelli et al., 2018). A careful strategy based on the true cost including the social, economic, and environmental perspectives is channeled and adopted by Hatch Associates working on the following given responses and principles:

• Turning data into decisions
• Delivering water wherever it is needed
• Effective environmental protection
• Approaching water-sensitive industrial development

Innovation in Mining

Mining has been one of the major aspects of Engineering solutions, the magnitude of mining and metal products have been increasing profitably and equally controversial. Any engineering company involved in mining demands looking from a new perspective where thinking in a smarter way has been the need (Qu & Fan, 2010). Engineers at Hatch Associates are at the core of solving environmental-related problems during mining operations. Hatch Associates response to the strategic decisions of mining projects involves a partnership with the clients to tackle the challenges based on the following strategies:

• Automation
• Electrification
• Continuous operations
• Eliminating Obstacles
• Optimization of flow sheet

Proposed Strategy

The engineering solutions in the 21st century are facing complex challenges which are outside the engineering domain of solutions. The proposed strategy of Hatch Associates is a response to climate engineering theory. According to Climate Engineering theory, engineering works produced by organizations should focus on climate mitigation and climate responsiveness. The journey of Hatch Associates PTY PTD is similar, with multiple projects on a global scale; Hatch Associates are feeling the heat from multiple aspects and must need to innovate. The Climate crisis has been one of the major worries of all engineering organizations (Yazdani et al., 2021). Risk management and climate crisis are some of the potential set of problems that every organization including Hatch Associates is dealing with. The climate Agenda of the Paris Accord 2015 is an abounding agreement of international nature that every country including Australia and Australian organizations are bound to integrate. Water-based issues and problems of post-engineering solutions are pressing the projects of engineering companies. The global oil issues and the world of pirates impacting the supply chains have been major forces resulting in a reduction in profitability and credibility of engineering companies.

The proposed strategy for Hatch Associates PTY LTD is based on the integration of technology streamlining the project monitoring and project management. Hatch Associates PTY LTD used the following strategies to navigate the business of engineering solutions and projects across the global regions (Zhang et al., 2021).

Responding to Energy Transitions

Hatch Associates PTY LTD is working towards the management of energy with better planning and management to optimize the energy requirements. Hatch Associates acknowledge the value of climate engineering theory and is making intentional efforts to positively modify the climate using responsible engineering (Jackson, 2011). Hatch Associates is working towards creating a planned system of load forecasting, system modeling, business case evaluations, and resource planning. These phases of energy management are aim to increase efficiency with the improvement of reliability for engineering networks (Kozaki et al., 2017).

Hatch Associates PTY LTD is working on developing clean energy generation, to develop the low carbon world, aiming for strategic improvements. Hatch Associates at the Architectural level are developing solar energy, wind power into engineering projects.

Carbon-free nuclear technology development is a high prospect area for the Hatch Associate which is going to reap benefits of higher scale increasing the competitive value and business opportunities as well.

Digitization to Transformation

Digital business opportunities are going to drive the Gen-next engineering solutions specifically in the field of Health and Urban solutions. Engineering solutions developed by Hatch Associates are based on the theory of digitalization, which states that every input of digital technologies has an equal economic benefit (Vogelsang, 2012). Thus as a way forward and looking at the data-driven world, computer technologies and digitization power will be an important step to mark the integration of project monitoring, site study, environmental assessments and thus aiming to reduce the risk profiling of the projects (Maskuriy et al., 2019). Every global location in which Hatch Associates is working towards a common and control center at the regional level to stress on the project management aspects, pre-project planning based on GIS, Satellite imagery to improve the project outcomes. Integration of digital design, procurement, and construction is based on the data-driven virtual project management and delivery capability. Hatch Associates are imaging to leverage the digital twin aimed to collect the data and information at the right time, from the right people, and in the right format. Virtual representations will help Hatch Associates making it Data-rich and data-centric using advanced analytical and machine learning. Hatch Associates will aim to integrate operations and performance centers to improve team collaboration for improving the decision-making and effectively resulting from the problem-solving (Oesterreich & Teuteberg, 2016).

Purpose-driven Analytics and Optimization

According to Ordieres-Meré et al., (2020) purpose-driven analytics is going to influence the restricting of the engineering organization and will be among the core business operation. Hatch Associates considers modeling and data optimization such as artificial intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), and Operations Research (OR) are going to be powerful technologies that will add high value to existing and proposed business solutions. These technologies will mark the successful adoption helping construction projects improve upon mathematical sophistication. Hatch Associates PTY LTD aims to build capabilities through the following strategic development:

• Integrated value chain optimization helping decision and support systems to improve the logistical and distribution supply chains.

• AI & ML will help Hatch Associate to optimize the production aiming to leverage the state-of-art-OR knowledge in mining, mineral processing, metal, Oil and Natural gas, and others.

• Using technologies to create a centralized system of online process monitoring.

• Asset management improving the risk-based long-term management and parameter estimation.

Conclusion

Engineering solutions are a vital part of developing the world for the future. The current sphere of engineering organization and solutions comprises data-driven technologies along with the primary aspect of engineering that involved production and discoveries. Engineering solutions provided by an organization such as Hatch Associated PTY LTD which is based in Australia but has experienced working in more than 150 countries requires technologies based on digital and ICTs. The new changing era of ICT technologies will help Hatch Associates to effectively monitor the project outcomes and to plan the strategies of project initiation at a much-informed level. This report is an investigation piece comprising of the analysis of existing engineering approaches and strategies used by Hatch Associates highlighting the changes in the current approaches leading to proposing the new strategies that are based on the technology of ICTs and Digitalization. The proposed strategies include Purpose-driven Analytics and Optimization, Digitization to Transformation, and Responding to Energy Transitions to channel the business effectiveness into the new world order.

References

 

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ENEM28001 FEA for Engineering Design Report Sample

Task Description:

This is an individual assessment in which you will perform a comprehensive finite element analysis on the following problem.

Please refer to the Criteria Referenced Assessment (CRA) document to get more clarity on how you will be assessed.

Figures below show a 3D knuckle joint (see assembly provided in a separate folder).

Perform a transient structural analysis and a fatigue analysis by carrying out the following tasks:

1. Conduct background research on the design, characteristics and uses of knuckle joints

2. Assume suitable material properties and boundary conditions

3. Specifically, create cylindrical joint(s) as required and issue a choice of rotation (say 5° or 10° or any value)

4. Apply any additional forces as you may desire

5. Perform an FEA and examine the behaviour of the knuckle joint

6. Comment on

a. Deformations
b. Joint behaviour
c. Stresses
d. Contact behaviour
e. Static factor of safety

7. Perform a stress life fatigue analysis on the knuckle joint and estimate

a. Life
b. Damage
c. Fatigue factor of safety
d. Biaxiality indication
e. Fatigue sensitivity

Note: While performing the fatigue analysis, you may want to pay attention to the type of theory used based on the material of the knuckle joint.

Solution

Introduction

The design ideas, traits, and typical uses of knuckle joints in engineering applications will be covered in the background research section. In order to choose the best materials for our investigation, The learner will investigate the various materials frequently used for knuckle joints and their mechanical characteristics. The knuckle joint's response to time-varying loads will be the subject of the transient structural analysis, which will evaluate its deformations and behavior under dynamic circumstances. For Assignment Help, For the joint to be reliable and safe in practical applications, this study will provide invaluable insights into any potential instabilities or dynamic impacts. Empower rotational movement between two associated parts, the knuckle joint is a principal mechanical component that is oftentimes utilized in various designing applications, Because of its unmistakable shape, which empowers enunciation, it is a fundamental part in various sorts of designs, including modern gear, large equipment, and vehicle suspension frameworks. Through transient primary investigation and exhaustion examination, The student looks to concentrate on the way of behaving of a 3D knuckle joint under different stacking conditions as a feature of this broad limited component investigation. This study's principal objective is to become familiar with the knuckle joint's mechanical reaction, including its distortions, stresses, and contact conduct. To achieve this, an exhaustive 3D model of the knuckle joint will be constructed, finished with the expected material properties and limit conditions (Pawar et al. 2020). To additionally work on the exactness of our review, pivoting powers of different forces will likewise be utilized to copy true occasions.

The distribution of strains within the knuckle joint under static loads will be examined by stress analysis. The learner can assess the structural integrity and assess the necessity for design alterations to improve performance by finding high-stress zones and comparing them to the material's yield strength. The fatigue study will also determine the knuckle joint's fatigue life, damage buildup, and fatigue factor of safety. This will examine how the joint behaves under cyclic loading conditions. This evaluation will offer crucial data for projecting the joint's durability and assisting with well-informed design decisions (Muhammad et al. 2019). In order to help its optimization, design improvement, and reliable utilization in a variety of engineering applications, The learner wants to support the knuckle joint's structural behavior by undertaking this extensive finite element study.

Problem Description

The issue at hand entails performing a thorough finite element study on a 3D knuckle joint to comprehend how it will behave structurally under diverse stress scenarios. To allow rotational motion between linked elements while maintaining mechanical integrity and flexibility, knuckle joints are an essential part utilized in engineering applications. This analysis has two goals: first, to perform a transient structural analysis to see how the joint behaves under time-varying loads, and second, to conduct a fatigue analysis to evaluate how well the joint is performing and whether it might fail due to cyclic loading.

A thorough 3D model of the knuckle joint will be made, taking into account its complex geometry and complicated features, to serve as the basis for the analysis. Using suitable CAD software and taking into account precise measurements and material properties, the model will be built. In order to accurately and validly simulate real-world circumstances, appropriate boundary conditions will be used. The knuckle joint will be subjected to various loads as part of the transient structural analysis, and its reaction will be tracked over time. Any potential dynamic impacts, deformations, and stress concentrations that can develop during operation will be easier to spot thanks to this research (Gupta et al. 2021). Engineers can modify the joint's design in a way that will provide stability and safety under dynamic conditions by studying the joint's transient behaviour.

A stress analysis will be done after the transient analysis to look at how the stresses are distributed within the knuckle joint under static loads. Finding important areas with high-stress concentrations that could cause early failure is dependent on this phase. Engineers can examine the necessity for design modifications by comparing the predicted stresses with the material's yield strength and other failure criteria to establish the joint's structural integrity. The next step will be fatigue analysis, which aims to assess how well the joint performs under cyclic loading. Knuckle joints are not an exception to the general rule that mechanical components subject to repetitive stresses are at risk of fatigue failure. Engineers can determine the joint's fatigue life and evaluate potential damage accumulation over time by applying the relevant fatigue theories depending on the material parameters of the joint. To guarantee the joint's dependability and longevity in the environment where it is designed to operate, the fatigue factor of safety will be computed.

This thorough finite element analysis will shed light on the structural behaviour, deformation, stress distribution, and fatigue performance of the 3D knuckle joint (Liu et al. 2023). Engineers can enhance the joint's reliability, design it more efficiently, and choose the right materials and applications by knowing how the joint reacts to different stresses. This analysis is essential to assuring the safe and effective operation of the knuckle joint in a variety of engineering applications, enhancing the overall effectiveness and durability of the systems it supports.

Assumptions

A number of assumptions are made during the thorough finite element analysis of the 3D knuckle joint in order to streamline the modelling procedure, lessen computational complexity, and guarantee practicality while still producing correct and pertinent findings (Kumar et al. 2022). These presumptions are supported by the analysis's specific goals and engineering judgement. The following are the main presumptions for this study:

Linear Elastic Material Behaviour: It is presumable that the knuckle joint's material properties behave in a linear elastic manner. According to this presumption, the material will exhibit elastic behaviour and adhere to Hooke's law within the designated loading range. In other words, the analysis will not change the link between stress and strain.

Isotropic Material Properties: The knuckle joint material is considered to have isotropic qualities, which means that its mechanical characteristics, such as Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, are direction-independent. By lowering the number of material constants to take into account, this assumption makes the analysis easier and the model more manageable.

Homogeneous Material: It is presumed that the entire volume of the knuckle joint's material composition is homogeneous (Shuaib et al. 2019). Although the joint is treated as having uniform qualities, the material properties may really vary slightly.

Figure 1: Model and Setup
(Source: Generated and Acquired by the learner)

Steady-State Conditions: The transient structural analysis makes the assumption that steady-state conditions have been attained, which means that beyond a certain point, the system's behaviour does not vary over time. When analyzing systems with minimal dynamic effects in comparison to the total loading period, this presumption makes sense.

Small Deformations: The analysis makes the assumption that the knuckle joint will only undergo minor deformations. Because geometric nonlinearities are ignored, this presumption permits the application of the linear elastic theory and streamlines the analysis.
Frictionless Contacts: The model makes the assumption that the contact surfaces between the parts of the knuckle joint are frictionless. Although friction may have some influence, in reality, friction is disregarded in this analysis to keep the contact behaviour simple (Hana et al. 2021).

Perfect Bonding: The assumption for multi-component assemblies is that all contact surfaces have perfect bonding, which means that no separation or sliding may take place at the interfaces. Through the elimination of potential complications relating to touch behaviour, this assumption makes the analysis simpler.
Low Thermal Effects: The analysis makes the assumption that low thermal effects from mechanical loading will occur. A linked thermal-structural analysis is required when heat factors could considerably affect how the joint behaves.

No Material Nonlinearity: No material nonlinearities, such as plastic deformation, are taken into account in the analysis. If the applied loads fall within the material's elastic range, this assumption is reasonable.

No Buckling: This analysis does not take buckling phenomena into account. If the applied loads do not approach critical buckling loads and the joint is stable under the specified loading circumstances, the assumption is true.

These presumptions permit a realistic and manageable finite element analysis while still giving important information about the behaviour, stresses, deformations, and fatigue performance of the knuckle joint (Ramubhai et al. 2019). It is crucial to keep in mind, though, that certain presumptions may have limitations in particular situations and applications. To achieve accurate and dependable interpretations of the behaviour and performance of the knuckle joint, engineers should carefully assess the viability of these hypotheses and their potential impact on the analysis results.

Boundary Conditions and Loadings

The establishment of boundary conditions and loadings was a crucial step in the knuckle joint's finite element analysis using ANSYS Workbench in order to correctly simulate the joint's mechanical performance under actual operating circumstances. By accurately specifying these criteria, it was made sure that the research gave valuable insights into how the joint responded to outside influences and restrictions.

Table 1: Parts of the geometry

TABLE 1

Model (A4) > Geometry > Parts

 

Boundary Conditions: The knuckle joint's geometry was subjected to limits that simulated how it would be fixed or supported in the application. Engineers took into account the physical limitations the joint would face during operation to provide a realistic picture. The ensuing boundary constraints were used:

Fixtures: To illustrate the knuckle joint's attachment to neighboring parts or structures, it was secured at certain locations. These fittings mimicked the real mounting circumstances of the joint by preventing stiff body movements and limiting degrees of freedom at certain points.

Symmetry: To make the analysis simpler, symmetry in the geometry of the knuckle joint was taken advantage of. In order to condense the model's size while preserving accuracy, engineers used symmetry boundary conditions. The reaction of one side of the joint to that of the other side was replicated with the aid of symmetry planes (Sahan et al. 2022).

Table 2: Coordinate system

TABLE 2
Model (A4) > Coordinate Systems > Coordinate System

 

Application of Loads: Loads were used to mimic the external forces that the knuckle joint would encounter when in use. Axial forces, rotational moments, and any other pertinent forces were included in these loads.

Contact Conditions: To mimic the interaction between contacting surfaces, contact between the joint components was modeled. In order to specify the frictional behavior and facilitate load transmission between mating parts, contact elements were utilized.

Loadings: The operational needs and unique engineering application were used to establish the loadings for the knuckle joint study. Engineers took into account both static and dynamic loading conditions in order to appropriately depict the joint's functioning. The subsequent loadings were used:

Table 3: Mesh properties

TABLE 3

Model (A4) > Mesh

 

Static Loads: Throughout the joint's service life, it was subjected to steady-state forces or moments, which were represented as static loads. Axial forces, bending moments, or any other continuously applied forces might be these loads.

Rotational Motion: To simulate the joint's behavior in practical situations, a rotational motion was applied to it. To determine how the joint would react to rotational forces, engineers determined the rotational angle and angular velocity.

Dynamic Loads: Dynamic loads were used to account for forces that changed over time or repetitive loading situations. Vibrational loads, impact loads, or cyclic loading patterns are examples of dynamic loads.

External Forces: In some circumstances, external forces were thought to mimic the effects of environmental factors or external interactions. Examples of these forces include pressure and temperature loads (Ramteke et al. 2022).

Table 4: Results of the solution

Solver settings

 

In the limited component examination of the knuckle joint utilizing ANSYS Workbench, the choice, and setup of suitable solver settings assumed an urgent part in getting precise and solid outcomes. The solver settings decided the mathematical strategies and calculations used to tackle the overseeing conditions of the model, guaranteeing combination and proficiency in the examination cycle. Right off the bat, the kind of examination picked for the knuckle joint was a transient underlying investigation. This decision depended on the joint's powerful conduct under shifting stacking conditions, like rotational movement and applied powers (Han et al. 2019). The transient examination permitted architects to concentrate on time-subordinate reactions, catching powerful impacts and potential hazards that couldn't be satisfactorily tended to utilizing static investigation.

 

Figure 2: Transient Structural Analysis
(Source: Generated and Acquired by the learner)

The limited component strategy (FEM) was utilized as the mathematical philosophy for the underlying examination. FEM caused it conceivable to more to definitively and really reproduce the way of behaving of the joint by separating the complex math of the knuckle joint into a cross section of easier pieces. The size and sort of the parts were painstakingly decided to accomplish the most ideal harmony among precision and computational adequacy. In view of the calculation and intricacy of the joint, the solver boundaries included picking the proper component types, for example, tetrahedral or hexahedral components. Additionally, a linear or quadratic element order was selected to provide the necessary level of analytical accuracy. For the transient analysis, the necessary temporal integration methods were used to guarantee numerical stability and convergence. Depending on the joint's reaction characteristics and the applied stresses, engineers choose techniques like implicit or explicit time integration (Kimachi et al. 2022). Particularly when dealing with bigger time increments and nonlinear behavior, implicit methods—such as the Newmark-Beta method—were favored for stable and precise answers.

 

Figure 3: Joint Rotation
(Source: Generated and Acquired by the learner)

To guarantee accurate findings, the solver's convergence conditions were thoroughly established. To gauge when the analysis had arrived at a converged solution, engineers specified tolerances for the values of displacements, forces, and energy. At every time step, convergence tests were run to ensure that the solution was accurate and stable. Parallel processing capabilities were also leveraged in the solver settings to accelerate the analysis process and reduce computation time. By distributing the workload across multiple cores or processors, engineers expedited the solution process, particularly for large and computationally intensive models.

To validate the solver settings, engineers conducted sensitivity analyses by varying parameters such as time steps, mesh density, and element types (Mishra et al. 2021). The aim was to ensure that the chosen settings provided consistent and reliable results that accurately captured the joint's behavior under different conditions.

Results & Analysis – post process your results

ANSYS Workbench was used to post-process the findings of the finite element analysis for the knuckle joint. A thorough examination of the data is presented in this part, with an emphasis on deformations, stresses, contact behavior, a static factor of safety, and fatigue-related traits.

Table 5: Solution of total deformation

Deformations: The size and distribution of deformations in the knuckle joint under the applied loads and rotational motion were revealed by the post-processed data. Engineers might discover possible areas of concern for additional investigation by identifying areas of considerable displacement using the deformation contours' visualization.

Figure 4: Stress Analysis
(Source: Generated and Acquired by the learner)

Stresses: Stress distribution graphs provide an in-depth insight into the mechanical reaction of the joint. Areas of high concentration under stress were found, indicating possible breakdown spots (Sampayo et al. 2021). Engineers evaluated the structural integrity and possible dangers associated with overstressed zones by comparing stress levels to material attributes.

Table 6: Solution of Elastic Strain

Contact Behavior: The contact analysis showed how the parts of the joint interacted as they were moving. The distribution of contact pressure and separation plots made it possible to assess the load transfer between mating surfaces. This knowledge was essential for enhancing contact behavior, lowering wear, and assuring efficient functioning.

Static Factor of Safety: Calculations using the results of the stress study gave the knuckle joint's static factor of safety. To determine the safety margin, engineers assessed the maximum stress with the material's yield strength (Attia et al. 2021). A safety factor greater than one denoted a design that was acceptable, but values below one denoted probable failure risks that need design modifications.

 

Figure 5: Status contact Behavior Analysis
(Source: Generated and Acquired by the learner)

Fatigue Analysis: The joint's fatigue life, damage buildup, and fatigue factor of safety were calculated. Engineers projected the joint's fatigue life by taking into account the cyclic loads and stress levels observed over its operating life. The study revealed crucial regions vulnerable to fatigue failure, allowing for focused design advancements.

Table 7: Solution of Equivalent Stress

 

Figure 6: Fatigue Sensitivity
(Source: Generated and Acquired by the learner)

Discussion on Post-Processing

A number of critical insights were discovered in the discussion of the post processing findings for the knuckle joint study performed using ANSYS Workbench in order to evaluate the mechanical behavior, structural integrity, and long-term reliability of the joint. The simulation results could be thoroughly examined during the post-processing stage, which produced useful data for design optimization and engineering decision-making (Pote et al. 2019).

Table 8: Solution of Strain Energy

TABLE

 

The joint's reaction to applied loads and rotational motion was precisely seen through the study of deformations. Critical locations of displacement and strain were found using deformation contours. These results helped engineers identify possible structural weak spots and improved the shape of the joint to lessen excessive deformations. The joint could bear the anticipated operational pressures because better load distribution was made possible by a knowledge of the deformations.

 

Figure 7: Frictional stress contact Behavior Analysis
(Source: Generated and Acquired by the learner)

Discussion of the post processing data for the knuckle joint research carried out using ANSYS Workbench in order to assess the mechanical behavior, structural integrity, and long-term dependability of the joint revealed a number of crucial discoveries. During the post-processing stage, the simulation results may be extensively reviewed, producing valuable information for design optimization and engineering decision-making.

 

Figure 8: Fatigue Tool
(Source: Generated and Acquired by the learner)

Through the examination of deformations, the joint's response to applied loads and rotational motion was carefully observed. Using deformation contours, critical areas of displacement and strain were identified. These findings assisted engineers in locating potential structural weak points and enhanced the joint's design to reduce excessive deformations (Jayapriya et al. 2022). Due to superior load distribution made possible by knowledge, the joint could withstand the predicted operational forces.

Table 9: Solution of Fatigue Tool

 

Figure 9: Sliding Distance Behavior Analysis
(Source: Generated and Acquired by the learner)

The evaluation of the joint's stability under static loads depended heavily on the computation of the static factor of safety. Engineers could be confident in the joint's ability to withstand applied loads without failing if the factor of safety was larger than one. Where factors of safety were lower than anticipated, changes to the joint's design or material composition were taken into account to increase its capacity to support loads.

Figure 10: Penetration Behavior Analysis
(Source: Generated and Acquired by the learner)

Engineers were able to resolve concerns about long-term dependability thanks to the assessment of the joint's fatigue life provided by the fatigue study (Liu et al. 2020). The joint's service life might be increased by altering the design or operating circumstances in areas that are prone to fatigue failure.

Conclusions

A thorough investigation of the knuckle joint's mechanical behavior and performance using ANSYS Workbench's finite element program yielded important insights. The research, which covered deformations, stresses, contact behavior, a static factor of safety, and fatigue analysis, satisfactorily addressed the assessment's goals. The joint's reaction to applied loads and rotational motion was revealed by the study of deformations, indicating important regions with excessive displacements. Engineers were able to make improvements to the joint's design to strengthen its structural integrity and lessen deformations by identifying possible weak places.

Understanding the mechanical reaction of the joint was greatly helped by stress distribution analysis. A more reliable joint design was ensured, and the danger of failure under operating loads was reduced thanks to the detection of high-stress concentration locations. Examining the behavior of contacts between joint parts allowed for the optimization of load transmission, reduced friction-induced wear, and ensured smooth joint functioning. The knuckle joint's performance and durability were improved as a result.

The joint's stability under static stresses was largely determined by the computed static factor of safety (Kanthale et al. 2022). The joint's ability to safely sustain the applied stresses was confirmed when the factor of safety was greater than one. Design modifications were suggested to increase the joint's capacity to carry loads in places with lower factors of safety.

References

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Model-based Systems Engineering Report Sample

Details

Model-Based System Engineering (MBSE) is an emerging approach to address multi- disciplinary and distributed system engineering. In this assignment, you are required to create a short annotated bibliography on MBSE. You should select at least 3 references from recent (within 10 years) prestigious international journals to address either What, Why or How the MBSE is developed.

For each reference selected, you should provide at least three paragraphs, as follows.

• Description – to describe the author(s), the journal, the article title and the year published, and then to evaluate the authors’ credentials and the journal’s reputation (e.g. are they an expert in the field of MBSE).

• Explanation – to summarise the key themes or arguments presented in the reference, and to explain how the research was conducted (methodology).

• Evaluation – to critically analyse the reference including comments about aspects such as: how reliable you think the information is, whether there are any flaws in the research or the conclusions, how you think it contributes to the knowledge of MBSE, who should read the reference (its audience), or how the reference may be useful for this audience.

Please note this is an individual assignment. The word limit is 1500 approximately.

Assessment Criteria

The assessment criteria are as follows (out of 60):

1. Introduction (5 marks)

2. Annotations (three references) (total 45 marks)

2.1 Annotation for Reference 1

• Description (5 marks)
• Explanation (5 marks)
• Evaluation (5 marks)

2.2 Annotation for Reference 2

• Description (5 marks)
• Explanation (5 marks)
• Evaluation (5 marks)

2.3 Annotation for Reference 3

• Description (5 marks)
• Explanation (5 marks)
• Evaluation (5 marks)

3. Conclusion (5 marks)

4. Writing skills and presentation (5 marks)

The references should be arranged in alphabetical order of the author’s last name. The annotations should be written in paragraph structure. Avoid using dot points unless you are listing information.

The weighting of the assignment is 30%. I expect that the report will consist of 3 sections corresponding to criteria 1-3 with section 2 consists of 3 subsections to address criteria 2-1, 2-2 and 2-3. All references must be verifiable. If a reference is available online, the URL must be provided. For other references, unless it is the textbook, scanned images of the relevant pages must be provided.

Solution

1. Introduction

Model-based systems engineering (MBSE) is a methodology of systems engineering which uses the formation and exploitation of domain models as the fundamental method of exchanging information to facilitate reduction of documents for exchanging data. For Assignment Help, In order to increase productivity and reduce the unnecessary usage of manual techniques, the MBSE methodology was widely publicized by The International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE) which is a professional and not-for-profit membership organisation. The aim of this report is to provide annotations for three articles based on why MBSE is applied to the field of aerospace industry and Mechatronic Engineering. The report consists of a short introduction of the topic, followed by the annotation section of three articles and subsequently a conclusion which will summarize the key points from the prior sections.

2. Annotations

2.1 Annotations for Reference 1

Citation: Gregory, J., Berthoud, L., Tryfonas, T., Rossignol, A. and Faure, L., 2020. The long and winding road: MBSE adoption for functional avionics of spacecraft. Journal of Systems and Software, 160, p.110453.

This paper was published in 2020 by the Journal of Systems and Software which is a reputed journal with an impact factor of 2.450, that publishes papers on software engineering. This article is about why MBSE is being adopted in a spacecraft’s functional avionics recently. The journal describes the benefits and justification of the application of MBSE in aerospace for further enhancement of the functionality aspects of spacecrafts. The authors of the journal are Joe Gregory and Lucy Berthoud who are associated with the Department of Aerospace Engineering in the University of Bristol. Theo Tryfonas is associated with the Department of Civil Engineering in the University of Bristol, Alain Rossignol is in Airbus Defence and Space in Rue des Cosmonautes Toulouse, France and Ludovic Faure is in Airbus Defence and Space in Gunnels Wood Road Stevenage, UK.

The authors have started with the argument of the abolishment of the traditional approach towards systems engineering and increasing the application of MBSE in aerospace projects. This is supported by the evidence that the traditional Document-based systems Engineering (DBSE) used paper to store data and information. This manual method was costly and labour-intensive because of the manual evaluation, review and monitoring required. Hence, the application of MBSE which is a formal application model for supporting systems requirements to store data is being popularized. It is also argued that since spacecraft technology is considered to be a complex system, therefore, it can be simplified with the application of MBSE which will help in reducing the development costs associated with spacecrafts. An investigative methodology is administered for this study which uses semi-structure interviews with a sample size of 25 engineers from Airbus to collect primary data. The authors have obtained a total of 205 responses from 9 interviews. The data obtained has been thematically analysed to highlight notable relationships and obtain inferences. It is inferred from the responses obtained from the engineers of Airbus that MBSE evidently promotes better communication, consistency, maintainability and clarity with systems engineering projects. It also addresses the complexity of the projects and attempts to simply them safely and in a cost-effective manner which supports why it should be applied in aerospace engineering.

A significant limitation of the paper is the small sample size of only 25 engineers from Airbus were questioned for the collection of primary data. While the number of responses which is 205, were considerable to understand the various aspects of the topic concerned and providing reliable inferences, it cannot be considered enough for investigating all purposes of Functional Avionics. In spite of this limitation, this paper contributes widely to the understanding of why MBSE should be applied to aerospace engineering over the DBSE discussing the benefits of MBSE and providing valuable recommendations for the future.

2.2 Annotations for Reference 2

Citation: Mas, F., Racero, J., Oliva, M. and Morales-Palma, D., 2019. Preliminary ontology definition for aerospace assembly lines in Airbus using Models for Manufacturing methodology. Procedia Manufacturing, 28, pp.207-213.

The study was published by Procedia Manufacturing journal which is a reputed journal in the scientific community with an impact factor of 1.79 as in 2020. The journal was published in the year 2019 with peer review under the responsibility of the scientific community of the International Conference on Changeable, Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual Production. The authors of the paper are Fernando Mas and Manuel Olivia who are associated with Airbus in Spain along with Jesus Racero and Domingo Morales-Palma who are associated with the University of Sevilla in Spain. The journal has described the implementation of MBSE concepts in manufacturing for aerospace assembly lines.

The inception of the study is with a basic product definition in the aerospace industry manufactured by Airbus. This product is an aircraft structure with 3 levels that can be simplified into the upper, configuration and lower levels.

Figure 1: The 3 Levels of an Aircraft

Every artifact manufactured for assembling each level of the manufacturing process should be planned and designed. It has been contended by the authors that a design solution is accompanied by a manufacturing solution which is supported by the fact that functional designs and industrial designs operate in concurrence.

Figure 2: Design Solutions and Manufacturing Solutions

The study proceeds to developing a Design Scope Model using MBSE approach which has two benefits of implementation in the design and manufacturing of aerospace artifacts. The first advantage is that MBSE has the ability to abandon the traditional system of passing information and the second is that it has the ability to simply complex procedures. Using these two fundamental reasons the authors have developed a model which passes assembly line data from one level to another using the MBSE methodology.

Figure 3: Assembly Line Data Model developed using MBSE

The methodology of the paper is a descriptive analysis of the topic using secondary sources to develop a Design Model for the assembly line for manufacturing aerospace artifacts which will pass information from one level to another without any hindrance.

The paper concludes by providing a short summary of the work done throughout the study with specification towards future proceedings in this area. A significant limitation of the paper is limited quantitative research which makes the paper too descriptive. The contribution to the knowledge of MBSE is also limited and not too detailed which leads to question the application of the method to develop the models.

2.3 Annotations for Reference 3

Citation: Kübler, K., Scheifele, S., Scheifele, C. and Riedel, O., 2018. Model-based systems engineering for machine tools and production systems (model-based production engineering). Procedia Manufacturing, 24, pp.216-221.

This study was published by Procedia Manufacturing journal which is a reputed journal in the scientific community with an impact factor of 1.79 as in 2020. The journal was published in the year 2018 with peer review under the responsibility of the scientific community of the 4th International Conference on System-Integrated Intelligence. The authors of this paper are Karl Kubler, Stefan Scheifele, Christian Scheifele and Oliver Riedel who are associated with the Institute for Control Engineering of Machine Tools and Manufacturing Units, University of Stuttgart, Germany. The study is about integrating engineering disciplines in the aerospace industry through the implementation of MBSE methods which has been demonstrated in this paper through a roadmap.

The paper introduces the argument that production facilities should be rapidly adapting to changes through upgradation and configuration of the control systems and mechanical designs. The study proceeds with the discussion of the significant deficits of the Mechatronic Engineering Process some of which are the adaptability and individual processes of the production system, the manner of handling the increasing complexity of the model, finding optimal control and design of the production systems and so on.

Figure 4: Persisting Deficits in the Mechatronic Engineering Process

The following provides the development of a model using MBSE methods which addresses the deficits of the Mechatronic Engineering Process that should be incorporated in the production systems. In this model a four layer system is used which represents and defines the metamodel which derives a higher level of abstraction using Unified Modelling Language.

Figure 5: Four-Layer Model-Drive Architecture

The authors have discussed in a comprehensive manner why MBSE should be applied in Mechatronic Engineering which begins with the simplification of the feedback loops in the production phases. Subsequently the automated regeneration of the artefacts in the engineering and validation phases is enabled through the application of MBE approach which makes it effortless. Furthermore, the time saving aspect of the application of MBSE in mechatronic engineering leads to the execution of the phases earlier and more often. This study is descriptive in nature with qualitative analysis of secondary data obtained by the authors from external sources.

Figure 6: Application of MBSE to Mechatronic Engineering

The methodological approach of this study is descriptive which highlights the absence of quantitative research by the authors. However, the conclusion summarizes the findings and inferences obtained by the authors. The overall contribution of the paper to the understanding of MBSE can be regarded as high with the detailed discussion of the models developed and establishing a systematic flow of the research starting it by mentioning the deficits of the existing system used in mechatronic engineering.

3. Conclusion

It can be concluded that the MBSE methodology has a potential to simplify complex systems in an inexpensive manner. This explains why MBSE should be applied in the field of aerospace which involves huge development costs. Furthermore, the application of MBSE helps develop simple models that can be applied in the designing and development of products in the aerospace and mechatronic engineering. This further strengthens as to why the application of MBSE in aerospace industry and mechatronic engineering is beneficial and gaining substantial popularity.

References

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SRQ780 Strategic Construction Procurement Report 2 Sample

PURPOSE OF ASSIGNMENT

The purpose of this assignment is to enable you to:

- Understand and apply the theory and principles of project procurement strategies to complex projects

- Apply the principles of tender evaluation for built environment projects

ASSIGNMENT TASK

Assume that you are currently working as the in-house Contract Administrator for your employer. You have received three tenders for the Hume GP Super Clinic project. The site plan of the project is provided in the unit site (SRQ780 unit site > Content > Assessment Resources > Site plan - Hume GP Super Clinic project). This project will be delivered using traditional procurement route and an “open single-stage tendering” method will be adopted.

Your task is to analyse the bids submitted by the three tenderers (A, B and C) and prepare a tender evaluation report for your employer. The tender evaluation report should include the evaluation of tenders, ranking of the tenderers, reasoned recommendations for a suitable contractor. The report should also include other important details that are generally included in a tender evaluation report, such as project scope, tendering method, selection criteria and their weights, etc. A summary breakdown of the tender prices submitted by each tenderer is given on the next page. You are required to prepare detailed and reasonable profile* (imaginary) for each tenderer to enable you to extract necessary information needed for the tender evaluation. These details include (but not limited to) tenderer’s technical, financial, and managerial capacity, experience, current commitments, etc. Also, assumptions must be made about the completeness of tender submissions made by tenderers. The information will be required for the cursory review, preliminary and qualitative evaluation stages of your tender evaluation and you should attach them to the tender evaluation report with other essential appendices.

*Tenderer profiles show company specific information required for this evaluation.

Solution

1 Introduction

This tender evaluation report is prepared for the Hume GP Super Clinic project, which will be delivered through traditional procurement route and an “open single-stage tendering” method. Three tenderers (A, B, and C) submitted their tenders for this project. For Assignment Help, This report presents the analysis of the bids submitted by each tenderer, along with the ranking of the tenderers and reasoned recommendations for a suitable contractor.

2 Project Scope

The Hume GP Super Clinic project sets forth to build a brand-new hospital in the neighbourhood. A single-story structure with a total floor space of around 1,200 square metres will be built as part of the project. The structure will include administrative offices, a pharmacy, consulting rooms, treatment rooms, staff amenities, and other related facilities. Installation of the project's required mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and security systems will also be required. The building site is situated on a greenfield site, and the project scope will comprise all essential site preparation and civil works. The project will be completed using the conventional procurement process, and "open single-stage tendering" will be used as the selection process. The project duration is estimated to be 12 months, with construction expected to commence within three months of the contract award.

3 Tenderer Profile: Tenderer A [Stellar Construction Co.]

3.1 Relevant experience

Tenderer A has extensive experience in constructing healthcare facilities, including GP clinics, hospitals, and aged care centres. They have successfully completed several similar projects in the past, including the construction of the Richmond Medical Centre, a 3-story, 6,000 square meter facility with a full range of medical services.

3.2 Past performance

Tenderer A has successfully completed a number of projects in the previous five years that are comparable in size and complexity to the Hume GP Super Clinic project. These include developing a variety of healthcare facilities, such as hospitals and clinics, as well as office and residential structures.

The construction of the City General Hospital, a sizable project that included the construction of a 10-story structure with a total floor space of 50,000 square metres, is one that Tenderer A is particularly proud of having finished. The project was finished on schedule, within budget, and with excellent results. Since then, patients, employees, and visitors have all expressed satisfaction with the facility.

Another project that Tenderer A completed was the construction of a medical clinic in a remote area with limited access to resources. Despite the challenges posed by the location, Tenderer A was able to complete the project on schedule and within budget. The clinic has since been praised by the local community for its high standard of construction and the quality of care that is provided to patients.

Overall, Tenderer A has demonstrated their ability to successfully deliver projects of varying scales and complexity, often within challenging circumstances. Their consistent record of completing projects on time, within budget, and to a high standard of quality is a testament to their experience and expertise in the construction industry.

3.3 Technical skills

Tenderer A has a team of highly skilled and experienced engineers, architects, and construction professionals who have a deep understanding of the technical requirements of healthcare facilities. They are familiar with the latest industry standards and regulations, and have a proven track record of incorporating new technologies and materials into their projects.

3.4 Management skills and system

Strong project management practises used by Tenderer A provide efficient coordination, cooperation, and communication between all parties involved. They monitor project progress and spot possible problems in real-time using cutting-edge project management software. Additionally, Tenderer A places a high priority on safety, quality, and environmental management and has put in place rules and processes to guarantee adherence to pertinent laws.

3.5 Resources

Human resources: Tenderer A has a dedicated team of project managers, engineers, architects, construction professionals, and support staff who are committed to delivering high-quality projects. They have a strong focus on training and development, and regularly invest in their staff to ensure they have the skills and knowledge to meet the evolving needs of the industry.

Equipment and Materials: Tenderer A has a comprehensive range of modern equipment and materials to ensure efficient and effective project delivery. They have established relationships with reputable suppliers and subcontractors, and can quickly source additional resources as needed.

3.6 Methodology

Tenderer A's proposed methodology for the Hume GP Super Clinic project includes a detailed project plan, risk management plan, and quality assurance plan. They will work closely with the client to ensure the project is delivered to the highest standard, and will use the latest technologies and materials to achieve this.
Brief list of works to be done if the project contract is acquired:

• Site preparation and earthworks
• Construction of the building structure and envelope
• Installation of mechanical and electrical systems
• Installation of security and surveillance systems
• Fit-out and finishing works
• Commissioning and testing

3.7 Price

The prices submitted by Tenderer A for each segment are competitive with those of the other tenderers, and the total tender price is within the range of the estimated project budget. It is important to note that the prices provided are subject to change based on the final scope of work and any changes that may occur during the construction process. However, based on the initial tender submission, Tenderer A's pricing is reasonable and competitive.

Price breakdown for Tenderer A is as follows:

1. Site Construction: $80,000

2. Concrete: $52,000

3. Masonry: $29,000

4. Metals: $126,000

5. Wood and Plastics: $174,000

6. Thermal and Moisture Protection: $46,000

7. Doors and Windows: $100,000

8. Finishes: $115,000

9. Furnishings: $68,000

10. Special Construction (Security Access and Surveillance: Commitment): $40,000

11. Mechanical: $145,000

12. Electrical: $84,000

Total: $1,059,000

4 Tenderer Profile: Tenderer B [Apex Builders Ltd.]

4.1 Relevant experience

Tenderer B has significant experience in delivering healthcare projects, including the construction of hospitals, medical centers, and clinics. They have completed multiple projects in the past with similar scopes, budgets, and schedules to the Hume GP Super Clinic project. They have been in the construction industry for over 15 years and have developed a strong reputation for delivering quality projects.

4.2 Past performance

The prior performance of Tenderer B is a crucial component of their tenderer profile. An important consideration in determining someone's capacity to complete the Hume GP Super Clinic project effectively is the appraisal of their prior performance. Tenderer B has a long history of completing several projects on schedule and under budget. In the past, they have built residential homes, business structures, educational facilities, and healthcare facilities. They have successfully finished a range of projects, some of which had values comparable to those of the Hume GP Super Clinic project.

Their clients have given positive feedback on their project management skills, ability to meet deadlines, and the quality of their work. Tenderer B has a reputation for providing excellent customer service and building strong relationships with their clients. They have a proven track record of effectively managing projects from the design stage through to completion, and their clients have consistently reported high levels of satisfaction with their work.

Another important aspect of Tenderer B's past performance is their commitment to safety and environmental sustainability. They have implemented various safety measures and procedures on their construction sites to ensure the safety of their workers and the public. They have also demonstrated their commitment to environmental sustainability by implementing environmentally friendly practices in their projects, such as using sustainable materials and implementing waste reduction strategies.

4.3 Technical skills

Tenderer B has a team of experienced professionals with expertise in various aspects of construction, including civil, structural, mechanical, and electrical engineering. They have experience working with various construction materials and technologies, including concrete, steel, and wood. They have also demonstrated proficiency in using modern construction management software and tools.

4.4 Management skills and system

Tenderer B has a well-established project management system that enables them to effectively manage resources, schedules, budgets, and risks. They have a dedicated team of project managers who are experienced in managing complex projects. They also have a robust quality control and assurance program that ensures that their work meets the required standards.

4.5 Resources

4.5.1 Human resources

Tenderer B has a team of qualified and experienced professionals, including project managers, engineers, architects, and skilled workers. They have demonstrated the ability to attract and retain talent, and to provide their staff with the necessary training and development opportunities.

4.5.2 Equipment and Materials

Tenderer B has access to a wide range of equipment and materials needed for the Hume GP Super Clinic project. They have established relationships with reputable suppliers and manufacturers, which enable them to source high-quality materials and equipment at competitive prices.

4.6 Methodology

Tenderer B has proposed a comprehensive methodology that includes detailed plans for project management, design, construction, and commissioning. Their approach involves close collaboration with the client and other stakeholders to ensure that the project meets their requirements and expectations. They have also proposed innovative solutions for certain aspects of the project, which could potentially result in cost savings and improved efficiency.

4.7 Price

The tender prices submitted by Tenderer B for the Hume GP Super Clinic project are as follows:

1. Site Construction: $90,000

2. Concrete: $50,000

3. Masonry: $30,000

4. Metals: $120,000

5. Wood and Plastics: $170,000

6. Thermal and Moisture Protection: $50,000

7. Doors and Windows: $110,000

8. Finishes: $120,000

9. Furnishings: $65,000

10. Special Construction (Security Access and Surveillance: Commitment): $35,000

11. Mechanical: $140,000

12. Electrical: $98,000

Total: $1,078,000

5 Tenderer Profile: Tenderer C [Vitality Contractors Inc.]

5.1 Tenderer C (Name)

Tenderer C is a reputable construction company with extensive experience in the healthcare sector. They have successfully delivered several similar projects in the past, including medical facilities and hospitals.

5.2 Relevant Experience

Tenderer C has a proven track record of completing healthcare building projects with success, including hospitals, clinics, and medical facilities. Their crew has knowledge on how to handle the intricate nature of healthcare building projects, including making sure that all rules and regulations are followed.

Similar to the Hume GP Super Clinic project, Tenderer C has proven competence in completing projects utilising conventional procurement techniques. They have already performed several building projects utilising conventional procurement techniques, such as open single-stage tendering, with success.
The effective completion of the Hume GP Super Clinic project depends on Tenderer C's expertise dealing with local authorities and regulatory entities. They have demonstrated their ability to navigate complex regulatory requirements and work collaboratively with local authorities to ensure compliance with all relevant regulations and standards.

5.3 Past Performance

Tenderer C has an excellent reputation for delivering high-quality projects that meet or exceed client expectations. They have a proven track record of completing projects on time and within budget. They have also received positive feedback from clients for their professionalism, attention to detail, and commitment to safety.

5.4 Technical Skills

Tenderer C also has a strong understanding of the technical requirements for healthcare facilities, including regulatory compliance, infection control measures, and specialized equipment installation. They have a proven track record of working with healthcare providers to ensure that their facilities meet the highest standards of safety and functionality.

In addition, Tenderer C has experience in sustainable construction practices and can provide recommendations on how to incorporate environmentally friendly materials and systems into the project design. They are also familiar with the latest trends in healthcare facility design, including patient-centred design principles that prioritize comfort, privacy, and accessibility. Overall, Tenderer C's technical skills and knowledge are well-suited to the requirements of the Hume GP Super Clinic project, and they are well-positioned to provide innovative solutions that meet the needs of the project stakeholders.

5.5 Management Skills and System

Tenderer C has a well-established project management system that ensures effective communication, efficient resource allocation, and timely completion of projects. They have a team of experienced project managers who are dedicated to ensuring the success of each project they undertake.

5.6 Resources

5.6.1 Human Resources

Tenderer C has a team of experienced professionals, including engineers, architects, project managers, and skilled tradespeople, who are dedicated to delivering high-quality projects. They also have a robust network of subcontractors and suppliers who they work with regularly.

5.6.2 Equipment and Materials

Tenderer C has access to state-of-the-art construction equipment and materials, which enables them to deliver high-quality projects efficiently and effectively.

5.7 Methodology

Tenderer C proposes to use a collaborative approach that involves close communication and coordination with all stakeholders, including the client, architects, and subcontractors. They will also leverage their extensive experience in healthcare construction to deliver a facility that meets or exceeds the client's expectations.

5.8 Price

The tender prices submitted by Tenderer C for the Hume GP Super Clinic project are as follows:

1. Site Construction: $74,500

2. Concrete: $49,000

3. Masonry: $35,000

4. Metals: $126,000

5. Wood and Plastics: $172,000

6. Thermal and Moisture Protection: $42,000

7. Doors and Windows: $115,000

8. Finishes: $121,000

9. Furnishings: $60,000

10. Special Construction (Security Access and Surveillance: Commitment): $34,000

11. Mechanical: $130,000

12. Electrical: $95,000

Total: $1,053,500

6 Tender Selection Criteria & Weightage

Based on assessment of the project requirement, following selection criteria and weight allocation are proposed:

1. Technical Capabilities (35%): This measure is significant on the grounds that it will survey the bidder's capacity to convey the task to the necessary norms of value, security, and consistence with every single pertinent guideline and industry best practices. Specialized abilities will be assessed in light of the bidder's insight, capabilities, and proposed philosophies. The weight assignment of 35% mirrors the significance of this rule to the general outcome of the task.

2. Project Schedule (30%): This measure is significant on the grounds that it will survey the bidder's proposed course of events for the task, including their capacity to meet basic achievements, oversee project chances, and convey the venture inside the predetermined time span. The weight allotment of 30% mirrors the significance of ideal fulfillment of the task, which is basic to the venture's prosperity.

3. Price Competitiveness (20%): This measure is significant on the grounds that it will survey the bidder's proposed cost for the task comparable to the venture's degree and prerequisites. The weight portion of 20% mirrors the significance of cutthroat estimating, yet in addition perceives that the most reduced cost may not generally be the most ideal choice in the event that the bidder can't convey the necessary quality and meet task achievements.

4. Financial Stability (10%): This criterion is important because it will assess the bidder's financial standing and ability to manage project costs and cash flow effectively. The weight allocation of 10% reflects the importance of financial stability, but recognizes that it is not the only factor that should be considered.

5. Sustainability and Innovation (5%): This criterion is important because it will assess the bidder's proposed sustainability and innovation initiatives, including their plans to reduce the project's environmental impact and improve the project's efficiency and effectiveness. The weight allocation of 5% reflects the importance of sustainability and innovation, but recognizes that it may not be the primary focus of the project.

7 Cursory Review

The tender documents submitted by Tenderer A, Tenderer B, and Tenderer C are complete and easy to understand, demonstrating the bidders' knowledge of the project's requirements and their capacity to complete the project within the set scope and specifications. All three bidders have also proven their familiarity with comparable projects and adherence to the tender's specifications and guidelines. Their planned project timetable, technique, and strategy have been supplied, and they have disclosed any conflicts of interest or other anti-collusive behaviours.

Table 1 Cursory Review

8 Preliminary Investigation

According to the preliminary assessment, each of the three tenderers has appropriate expertise building healthcare buildings, such as GP offices, hospitals, and assisted living facilities. They have routinely delivered high-quality projects on schedule, under budget, and with no defects.

 

Table 2 Preliminary Investigation

9 Tender Evaluation

According to the established criteria, the scores of three separate tenderers are displayed in the table above, with Tenderer C receiving the highest score (87.65) and Tenderer A receiving the lowest (85.90). The two factors that were given the most weight were technical capabilities and project timeline, accounting for 65% of the overall weight. The remaining 35% of the weight was given to price competitiveness, financial stability, sustainability, and innovation. The technical capabilities and project timetable of Tenderer A received the lowest scores, suggesting that they might not be as skilled in those areas as the other tenderers. Tenderer B, on the other hand, received the highest rating for price competitiveness, suggesting that their proposal may have offered the most value for the money. Overall, Tenderer C had the highest score due to their high scores in technical capabilities and project schedule, as well as a strong score in price competitiveness.

Table 3 Tender Evaluation

The evaluation table demonstrates that the review committee's top priorities—along with price competitiveness, financial stability, sustainability, and innovation—are the project's technical capabilities and timeline. Tenderer A received the highest marks for proposal quality, Tenderer B received the highest marks for experience, and Tenderer A received the greatest marks for technical approach in the technical capabilities category. Feasibility, timeliness, and resource allocation were the three categories for the project timetable criterion, with Tenderer C receiving the best marks in each. Tenderer B received the greatest scores in both of the price competitiveness categories, which were broken down into cost and value for money. The criterion for financial soundness carried the least weight, and all three tenderers received comparable scores. The sustainability criterion was divided into environmental impact, social impact, and innovation, with Tenderer A scoring the highest in environmental impact, Tenderer B in social impact, and Tenderer C in innovation. Overall, the evaluation shows that Tenderer C had the highest total score due to their strong performance in technical capabilities, project schedule, and price competitiveness.

10 Conclusion

In conclusion, the project requirements were used to develop the tender selection criteria and weighting, with technical proficiency and project schedule ranking as the most crucial factors, followed by price competitiveness, financial stability, sustainability, and innovation. All three tenderers were judged to have presented comprehensive and understandable tender documents after a quick assessment and preliminary inquiry, however Tenderer A had the greatest expertise building healthcare facilities. Due to their excellent ratings in technical proficiency, project timeline, and price competitiveness, Tenderer C received the highest score throughout the examination of the tenders. The evaluation table shows that the technical capabilities and project schedule criteria were the most important, with price competitiveness, financial stability, and sustainability and innovation also considered. Overall, the evaluation process ensured that the best tenderer was selected based on objective and transparent criteria.

11 References

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