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Analog Vs Digital Communication Essay: A Comprehensive Analysis


Task: Write a 2000-word essay contrasting the analogue and digital communication systems. Give a thorough examination of the two communication systems, including a brief description of each and a list of benefits and drawbacks. The students are required to cite at least ten articles that have undergone peer review in this essay.



One of the most crucial components of human civilisation is communication. Without effective communication, humanity would not be where it is now. The means of communication have changed and advanced over time, just like any other technological invention. The analogue vs. digital communication essay provides a concise history of the various transmission and communication methods used by mankind. The assignment includes a thorough explanation of analogue and digital communication as well as a contrast of the two methods.

Start with the fundamental parts of every communication system in order to completely comprehend this analogue vs. digital communication essay. Any kind of communication has three primary parts, which are as follows:

Sender: The individual sending the communication is referred to as the sender.

• Channel: The medium used to transmit a message is referred to as a communication channel.

• Receiver: The point at which the message signal ends up at its final destination is called a receiver.

A signal is any message or other piece of information that is sent from the sender to the receiver through gestures, movements, sounds, etc. An energy source called a signal transmits a message through a communication channel (Bhagyaveni, Kalidoss, & Vishvaksenan, 2016). This energy takes the form of electromagnetic waves in communication networks.

There are two types of signals:

1. Analog Signals
2. Digital Signals

Analog Communication

Now that you've read this article comparing analogue and digital communication, you know what analogue communication is. Analog communication is any form of communication that uses analogue signals. In analogue signals, a continuous physical quantity with time-varying instantaneous values is represented (Veretekhina, et al., 2018). The analogue signal's amplitude changes over time, either frequently or sporadically. A sine wave is used to indicate it. Speech, sound, voice, and other types of information can all be carried via an analogue transmission.

When using analogue communication, speech, noises, or voice messages must be translated into an electrical form that may be sent to the intended recipient. An analogue signal is created from the message with the aid of a transducer. The signal is then sent through the channel to the output transducer, which transforms the analogue signal back into a human-understandable speech message.

Communication via analogue signals is only appropriate for close proximity since it is susceptible to noise, which can distort the message and make it challenging to interpret. However, analogue signals can be transferred across greater distances with the use of modulation techniques, in particular: Amplitude Modulation and Angle Modulation (Matin, 2018).

A modulator is required at the transmitter end and a demodulator is required at the reception end when utilising modulation techniques. An analogue single is multiplied by a high-frequency carrier signal during modulation, which facilitates the signal's transmission across a greater distance. The carrier signal and the analogue signal are separated to convey the original message to the receiver after the signal investigates the demodulator through the transmitting channel.

Digital Communication

In order to evaluate this Engineering essay on analogue vs. digital communication more effectively, it is time to comprehend digital communication. Digital signals are used to carry out digital communication. Any signal that contains data in a discrete and non-continuous form is referred to as a digital signal. In a digital signal, a message's values are allocated independently of its preceding values. They can be transferred across greater distances and are indicated by square waves. Additionally, digital signals are less likely to transmit with noise distortions (Channi, 2016).

An analogue signal is converted into a digital signal made up of 0s and 1s by sampling the analogue signal and encrypting it. After the analogue signal has been quantized and sampled, it is modulated using methods used for digital signals before being delivered across the channel. Once the signal has arrived at its intended location, it is demodulated and recoded into a format that the recipient can comprehend.

Pulse code modulation and delta modulation are the methods used to modulate digital signals (Sarade, 2017). The non-continuous coded pulse train made up of 0s and 1s is created from the analogue signals. It is referred to as PCM, or pulse code modulation. Repeaters are also necessary for digital communications since they strengthen the signal and extend its range. Repeaters don't just amp up the transmissions; they help reduce the noise the signal is subjected to on the channels.

Digital signals can be transmitted more easily and across greater distances. They also exhibit far less noise distortion. Due to a digital signal's non-continuous nature, the few noise distortions they encounter do not impair the signal's quality. In a digital communication system, this makes isolating and retrieving the original message simpler (Qasim, Meziane, & R.Aspin, 2018).

Digital signals move in a bit stream, which enables packetization of the signal and fast data transmission. Digital communication uses modulation and demodulation techniques to enable transmission that is more dependable and efficient.

Comparison in Analog vs Digital Communication

In this analogue vs. digital communication essay, let's avoid focusing on the key distinctions for several factors, such as cost, adaptability, efficiency, the amount of power needed, etc.

1. Equipment Cost: Because digital communication entails transforming an analogue signal into a digital signal, the process is more difficult than with analogue transmissions. It changes the kind of specific tools and equipment that are needed. As a result, digital communication is substantially more expensive overall than analogue communication.

2. Bandwidth: Both analogue and digital signals depend heavily on bandwidth for successful communication. Because their transmission range is smaller than that of digital communication, analogue signals use far less bandwidth than digital ones.

3. Synchronization Capabilities: Analog communication cannot be synchronised, however digital communication can. The efficiency of transmission is increased through synchronisation.

4. Power Required: Digital communication equipment is more expensive and complex, while analogue systems need considerably more power than digital communication systems because analogue signals have a smaller bandwidth requirement.

5. Efficiency: Analog communication technologies are less efficient than digital signals because they are more susceptible to significant observational mistakes owing to parallax and approximation. Digital signals are substantially less likely than analogue signals to be distorted by noise, which can lower the quality of the original signal. Analog transmissions are also more susceptible to noise distortions. As a result, analogue communication systems are less effective than digital ones.

6. Fidelity: A communication system's fidelity is its capacity to maintain the authenticity of the original message. Digital communication methods are more successful at maintaining the output's consistency with the message that was intended from the source during transmission.

7. Hardware Flexibility: The tools and equipment used for analogue communication are fairly hefty and larger in size, which is a significant difference between analogue and digital communication. In contrast, digital communication uses significantly smaller, lighter technology. As a result, digital communication provides greater hardware flexibility and configuration mobility.

8. Transmission: Analog signals are transmitted continuously and as waves that don't stop, but digital signals are delivered as non-continuous packets of binary data that are considerably simpler to understand. Additionally, analogue signals have a shorter transmission range than digital signals.

Pros and Cons of Analog Communication Systems

In this analogue vs. digital communication essay, there are several benefits and drawbacks that need to be considered in order to fully comprehend each side. Let's first examine the different benefits and drawbacks that analogue transmission offers:


1. Less bandwidth is required for analogue communication systems.
2. They transmit messages from source to recipient with the greatest degree of accuracy.
3. They provide a higher sound quality and are extensively used in analogue phones.
4. Compared to digital systems, they are more easier to set up.
5. Analog systems outperform digital systems by a wide margin due to the absence of quantization noise and aliasing distortions.


1. It is unable to broadcast over greater distances.
2. There could be channel noise.
3. The signal's continuity needs to be preserved
4. Digital systems cannot be added to its equipment.
5. Uses more energy

Pros and Cons of Digital Communication System

Digital systems are the opposing argument in this analogue vs. digital communication essay. The following are the main benefits and drawbacks of digital communication systems:


1. They can transport data over greater distances, which is a plus.
2. They are reasonably simple to process.
3. The apparatus is adaptable.
4. It is extensively used and suitable for the majority of modern devices.
5. The channel multiplexing approach enables the flow of data in several formats over the same channel.
6. Considerably reduced noise distortions
7. Integrated networks are used by digital communication systems, which increases efficiency.


1. It makes sampling and quantization problems more likely.
2. They need a lot more bandwidth to function.
3. To identify digital signals, the communication systems must be synced.
4. It costs more than analogue systems do.

What are some Analogue vs. Digital Communication Systems applications?

Both analogue and digital communication have a wide range of uses that have aided human development in a number of areas (Gupta, 2018). The areas in which the technologies are currently used are covered in the next section of this analogue vs. digital communication essay.
Analog Communication Systems

The use of analogue communications is still very much in demand, and they are crucial to our daily life. The main drawback of analogue systems, which is a limited range, can be overcome by using modulation techniques, specifically AM, PM, and FM (Mohammed & Abdullah, 2019). This provides numerous applications for analogue systems, which are frequently used. The following are some uses for analogue communication systems:

1. Audio transmission in the AM and FM bands at medium radio frequencies

2. Due to the crystal-clear speech quality of analogue systems, numerous telephone service providers continue to employ them.

3. Although many video television services still operate on analogue signals, the digital platform has gained significant traction in recent years.

4. To track the point of signal transmission, many navigation systems use analogue communication methods.

5. Analog communication technologies are still in use and capable of providing emergency services.

Digital communication Systems

Digital communication technologies are now widely used and have been incorporated into the global communication infrastructure. It is mostly due to the versatility and range it provides. There are several uses for digital communication systems, which provide better and more efficient data transmission (R.C.Dorf, et al., 2017). Here are a few examples of typical uses for digital communication systems:

1. Due to its discreteness, it is used in missile guiding systems and other military applications.

2. Digital data compressions are employed for transmission at high speeds via digital communication systems.

3. Because it transfers data in encrypted formats, it is frequently utilised in audio and voice processing.

4. Both texting and calling employ digital communication.

5. Due to its wide range and low noise distortions, digital signals are used by space research groups for all communication.

6. Digital signals are transmitted to operate the Internet. Digital communication is helpful for all of that, from doctors to banking to social media.


The development of modern civilisation has had a significant impact on analogue communication. It has helped the development of numerous other technological innovations. One such technological advancement made feasible by analogue communication methods is digital communication. In this analogue vs. digital communication essay, we examined the fundamental definition, significant distinctions, and uses of analogue and digital communication. Due to its benefits, digital communication is sweeping the globe and has created a wealth of new study opportunities. Although analogue communication still has numerous advantages that are unmatched and will make it important even in 2020, digital communication is unquestionably the next stage in global technical growth.


Bhagyaveni, M., Vishvaksenan, S., & Kalidoss, R. (2016). Analog and digital communication basics (Vol. 46). publisher, River.

H. Channi (2016). A Study Comparing Different Digital Modulation Techniques. Journal of IT and Engineering International, 4 (03).

S. Gupta (2018). textbook on the uses of optical fibre connection. PHI Learning Private Limited.

M. Matin (2018). Digital modulation systems, AM, and angle modulation. Electrical Engineers' Communication Systems, 43–69.

Abdullah, H., and Mohammed, R. (2019). use of FPGA to implement digital and analogue modulation systems. 18(1), 485-493, Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.

A. Qasim, F. Meziane, and R. Aspin (2018). Application of digital watermarking in building user confidence in state-of-the-art medical imaging workflow reviews. 27, 45-60 of the Computer Science Review.

Whitaker, J., Roden, M., Salek, S., R.C. Dorf, Z.Wan, et al (2017). Demodulation and Modulation optical communication technology and broadcasting.

S. Sarade (2017). employing a microcontroller and the adaptive differential pulse code modulation (ADPCM) technology to compress speech 2(3), 1–9, Journal of Electronics and Communication Systems.

Veretekhina, V., Kashirin, S., Kotenev, V., Shmakova, E., A.A. Soldatov, and Medvedeva, A. (2018). processing and digitization of analogue sound signals 39.

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Igloo Construction Essay Assignment Sample


Task: Prepare a detailed igloo construction essay by relying on its civil engineering aspects.



The S. S. Manhattan was given the chance to examine an igloo's civil engineering features in 1970. This incident occurred while he continued on his journey in an ice-breaking tanker. When the crew had to stop their cruise for ice tests at the northern coast of Baffin Island, they just so happened to find some Eskimos. The group was treated with respect by the Eskimos, who allowed them to look inside their residential igloos. It was significantly simpler to assess the civil engineering methods because the work was erected above the snow line. Since most Eskimos built their homes in areas with heavy snowfall and most of their structures were carved out of huge chunks of ice or snow, building above the snow line is quite uncommon among them. Even the floors have been lowered to make more space inside the buildings. The team has examined a number of construction-related characteristics, such as the building's overall density and material potency. The civil engineering and physics features of the snow structure are taken into consideration in this essay on igloo construction.

Arches and Domes

Since the usage of concrete had made it possible to make thin-shelled structures, it is plausible for ordinary people to assume that the concept of shells is derived from modern era architectural styles. Cones, domes, and other constructive shapes are among the thin-shelled structures. Despite the fact that these buildings may originate from early human history. You could see that most buildings throughout the mediaeval era had domes and circular tops, which were regarded as symbols of wealth and grandeur. It should be emphasized that the domes were constructed during a time when architects and other experts vigorously disputed the notion that a dome built with shoddy brickwork had a higher risk of collapsing. The existence of high tensile ring stresses at the bottom section of the building was the primary cause of the collapse of such domes or circular shapes. Due to its igloo-like shape, which is an upside-down hollow hemisphere, the situation of igloos might be interpreted as embodying the same worldview. In order to reduce the likelihood that the structure may collapse, the hemisphere's sides should gradually widen as it descends. The prominence of domes may be explained if the history of Roman culture were taken into account. These featured various types of brick buttresses, chains, and iron hoops around the perimeter. The flawless parabola shapes of the igloos found among the Canadian Central Eskimos allowed researchers to determine the demography's level of mathematical knowledge and aptitude. If you searched for a precise name, the shape of the upper portion of the igloo may be described as a catenary. It is a Latin term that would translate to "chains" in English. One of the best examples of a catenary is the structure built atop the St. Louis Arch in Missouri, United States of America. The formula to determine the coordinates of a perfect catenary is given below.

y = a (cosh * x/a - 1)

The variable y in this formula denotes the height needed for the catenary. The horizontal distance is denoted by "x," while the variable "a" denotes a constant.

It needs no further explanation that a shelter is necessary in the arctic tundra plants. In order to keep their homes warm, residents in the arctic region, it was also noticed, would construct a fireplace. These structures are created in the modern era using wood and concrete.

However, when compared to the Eskimos or Inuit, it is very different because they build their homes out of snow or ice. You would consider it extremely ironic that people would build houses out of ice amid the frigid arctic. Knowing that ice is an effective heat insulator and can help keep the interior of an igloo warm may surprise you. In addition to igloos, there are various types of ice structures that house humans and described in this engineering assignment. Snow caverns and quinzhee are among them.


In this essay about igloo construction, it is noted that igloos can be found in very northern regions where the Eskimos or Inuit population predominates. It's probable that the reader will have an impression of an igloo formed out of rectangular ice blocks based on widely shared images and information from the media. Although it should be noted that there is no requirement or widespread belief that they must be constructed entirely of ice chunks. If the igloo is taken literally, it simply refers to a house made of any material. The design of the ice blocks requires that a particular angle be maintained. The roof's final shape would resemble a dome. The top of the roof is typically equipped with a modest ventilation system to help with ventilation.

Ice Building for Warmer Interior

The fact that a structure constructed completely of ice is warmer on the inside caught everyone by surprise. As you read this essay on igloo construction, you might ask why it happened.

Contrary to what we may think, the igloo's inside is warmed by the ice itself. In the majority of the cases that have been seen, rectangular pieces of ice are used to build the igloos. The rectangular bricks are positioned so that a cavity or room might be created inside the adjacent blocks. The cavity is shown and cut out after the blocks have been arranged. The igloos lack a smooth surface because they are multi-layered. The fact that the air becomes denser as it becomes colder may help to explain why there isn't a level surface. The air that is confined inside the igloo cavity experiences the same phenomena. Since it is colder than the air at the higher level, the air in the lower part of the igloo is comparably denser. As a result, the cavity's bottom level can develop a cold trap. Therefore, you might sincerely assert that the fundamental rules of physics were followed in the construction of Igloo. Even when the outside temperature dropped to a dangerous -49 degrees Fahrenheit, it has been noted that the temperature within the igloo remained at a safe 61 degrees.


The walls of the igloo would be leaning towards one another to form a closed shape at the top, as was discussed in the preceding portion of this essay on igloo construction. The outside walls are very well polished to make sure there is no air leakage in between the blocks and that they are therefore properly sealed. The entire structure is strong enough to hold up on its own and doesn't require any outside support. Under this shape, the snow becomes exceedingly strong and might even hold up a regular human if he were to stand over the ceiling. Though it should be mentioned that the bottom half of the structure should be vertical rather than taking the shape of a parabola or an arc if the igloo is anticipated to grow larger in shape in order to handle the weight of above laying snow. The ice bricks are initially stacked next to one another in a spiral or circular pattern during the igloo construction process. Additional snow blocks are stacked one on top of the other to create an ascending spiral. In the end, the entire construction would represent a self-supporting dome that could contain a sizable amount of space. The readers should be aware that newly fallen snow is extremely brittle and couldn't possibly maintain strength by itself. As a result, building an igloo does not involve using new snow. It would be exceedingly difficult to construct an igloo by stacking snow bricks in the shape of a dome if the snow has very little solidity. When the human moves inside the igloo, the interior wall begins to dissolve. This is due to the igloo's significantly higher temperature than the surrounding environment. When not in use, the melted ice would re-freeze. This would strengthen the structure and further boost the insulation from the outside atmosphere. In this specific procedure, a new layer is created in the igloo's inner layer. Thus, it is clear that although snow is used to create the igloo, it is the eventual creation of ice that gives the structure its real strength.

The igloos are mostly built in three sizes to suit diverse objectives, as has been seen via intensive observation for this essay on igloo construction. If you come across a really small igloo, it probably serves as a temporary home for a hunter who must go far to find his prey, whether it be on land or in the water. The intermediate-sized igloos are similarly temporary structures and may accommodate a maximum of two families. It is a community of medium-sized igloos that you might see in a tundra area. The last type, which are the largest igloos, are made by linking various igloos by a tunnel; some of them are utilised for habitation and others for doing tasks.


Quinzhee is prepared by carving or digging into a following amount of snow, unlike the igloo construction technique. The procedure would create a hollow hole that would serve as a human refuge. Since they are constructed just to be occupied temporarily, less importance is placed on their finishing touches. However, in the case of an igloo, they are built using particular snow bricks and then polished to give them a semi-transparent appearance. As a result, building an igloo requires more effort than making a Quinzhee.

The quinzhees are transitory settlements, as was said in the section above of this essay on the construction of an igloo, therefore the need for deeper snow is not addressed as it is in the case of an igloo. Quinzhee construction is much simpler and easier than building an igloo. Despite being simple to construct, the quinzhee would not hold up in harsher environments and would crumble much more quickly than the igloos made by the Eskimos. The likelihood of the boundaries of Quinzhee collapsing in difficult conditions is increased by the less dense snow that surrounds it. Due to the limited time and ephemeral nature of a quinzhee, factors like quality and aesthetics are not taken into account when producing one.

Snow Cave

Carving through or digging into snow or glacier is the way for creating a snow cave. The entrance is kept substantially lower than the main section using the same technique as in an igloo. Warm air would be trapped inside the cave using this method. Additionally, a temporary structure while the quinzhee is being created is the snow cave. Even if the temperature outside drops to -40 degrees Fahrenheit, the snow caves can still retain a fairly good temperature of 32 degrees.

Glacier Cave

Since these caverns are naturally constructed, neither artificial nor human interference was used to create them. A glacier cave forms as a result of the water flowing naturally underneath glaciers. When the temperature fluctuates to an even higher degree and moisture builds up in the ice fractures, the glaciers have a tendency to melt. The volume of ice fracture would eventually begin to increase as the temperature of the melted ice rose relative to that of the original ice. Such cracks would enlarge into a fully developed glacier cave as a result of both the melting process and erosion. Despite the fact that the extraordinary increase in temperature brought on by global warming has sped up the rate of ice melting, which has caused the collapse of such naturally occurring glacier caves.


The fact that ice-created structures include a large level of risk and hazard needs not be specifically addressed. Even if a minor ventilation structure is added to the ice-made structure, both integrity and strength are affected. The likelihood of danger would greatly grow if the dome's diameter exceeded the threshold of 10 feet. A dome would undoubtedly collapse if precise measurements and calculations were not made before construction began. In this essay about igloo construction, it has been noted that a quinzhee has the highest chance of being destroyed. Due to the incredibly low density of the snow that makes up the quinzhee's walls, melting would be a very simple process. In contrast, the igloos are built with stronger, denser snow bricks, which lowers the risk. As a result of constant use, the inner wall of the igloo would turn into thick ice, adding to the overall structure's strength and stability. The mortality rate among residents of Quinzhees is exceptionally high.

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