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PUBH6004 Leadership and Effecting Change in Public Health Report Sample


In this assignment, you will be provided a scenario (problem) involving a public health leader that you will need to analyse using the knowledge gained from this subject for 3 modules. Subsequently, immersing yourself in the scenario, you will evaluate yourself as a public health leader.

Note: Case study will be provided after Module 2

You will be writing a 2000 word report in three parts, as follows:


- Correctly uses academic writing, presentation and grammar:

- Complies with academic standards of legibility, referencing and bibliographical details(including reference list)

- Writes clearly, with accurate spelling and grammar as well as proper sentence and paragraph construction

- Uses appropriate APA style for citing and referencing research



Australian Health care sector has been evolving for years coupled with increasing complexities due to rising disease & patterns of infections. The pandemic has created pressure on the already pressured healthcare organization accompanied by a shortage of labor and an increasing number of patients (Walshe & Smith, 2011). Since resources are scarce and the management directly impacts the well-being of the workforces.
Part A- Evaluating public health leader

Since the healthcare system is highly complexed, thus, NSW has defined leadership traits that are important for managing complexities in the public health domain. Health Leads Australia has created a leadership framework that is embedded in the principles like owing leadership, development of capable leaders, and mediating personality in the leadership role (Health workforce Australia, 2013). For Assignment Help In addition to this, Dr. Tania has been recognized as one of the most effective public health leaders during her tenure in varied positions in international health organizations. Thus, the leadership traits will be analyzed through the framework designed by Health Leads.

Also, the leadership framework includes aspects like partnering and collaborating across boundaries, which relies on deploying collaborative approach, mobilization different types of people, creating of cross- sectional collaboration, encouraging fresh insights from varied types of sources for fostering innovation (Bercaw & Poole, 2013). In all the sub- aspects of partnering and collaboration, I lack initiatives for creating cross-sectoral collaborations for service delivery agreements while I also lack competencies for mobilizing people for undertaking collaborative actions to fostering service transformation. Leaders need to possess the capability for delivering high patient outcomes eliminating redundancies and improving the transformation of the systems. Thus, the core ideas of transforming the system include shaping the preferred future, demonstrating critical system thinking, assessment of work through resistance while also being politically astute to foster changes. This aspect contains several sub-parts which are often used by me while working in the healthcare systems.

Part C- Identifying Strengths and leadership style

The self–assessment tool has been very helpful in identifying gaps and improving them for higher efficacy in healthcare management. In addition to this, in the aspect of achieving outcomes, I have acted according to the sub-sections of this component whenever I work in the healthcare domain. In addition to this, I was in the place of Dr. Tania, I would have also collaborated with different stakeholders like consumers, colleagues for setting the goals for achieving the common vision that is well- being of all socio-economic classes in epidemics and crisis. Since I focused on achieving outcomes, it would help me in aligning resources and influencing decisions for providing a quality and patient-centered approach. Thus, I will continually monitor and celebrate achievement by realizing being accountable in both the outcomes that is failure and success.

The second approach is leading self and developing, as it is very important for the leaders being self-aware thereby understanding strengths and limitations. I also realized that I am highly committed to improving myself, thereby displaying integrity in the roles and context. In addition to this, this strength would help in actively reflecting on the performances, thus responding to engage others for fostering learning and growth. I try achieving outcomes as I am self-aware and thus, apply honest and ethical principles while making crucial decisions in epidemic events. As per the self-assessment tools, my third strength will be engaging others, by recognizing values and cultural responsiveness in different countries I would work in. Since I have efficient skills for engaging others, I am approachable, possess active listening, with a clear presentation of ideas and issues. This strength would also help in actively and easily participating in very difficult conversations displaying humility and respect.

Engaging with others also helps me in inspiring others while enabling them for sharing ideas and information, thereby reaping opportunities for growth and opportunities. Besides, I have strengths in shaping the system as I can understand and can effectively communicate system awareness with all the stakeholders. As a leader, it is very important for involving consumers and varied types of health policy for creating policies, education, training, and other factors that impact well- being of societies at large. However, if I were in the position of Dr. Tania, I would have portrayed good outcomes as I lack competencies in partnering and collaboration. When placed in a leadership position, it is very important to be part of lower socio-economic background, without which equal distribution of resources cannot be assured. Thus, my weakness in forming a coalition would impact the lives of vulnerable populations in times of crisis and epidemics. In addition to this, I also lack competencies in managing myself and being aware as I am majorly focused on uplifting others; hence I am not able to recognize my strengths and reaping opportunities for seeking personal growth.

An action plan for improving gaps has been provided below.


Healthcare leadership is important in all industries as it is embarked by rapid changes in population demographics supported by a lack of efficient resources. Also, leadership has direct and indirect impacts on the health and well-being of all levels of the community. Leaders in the public health domain hold a crucial place thus, every individual like me must work hard and focus on continuous development to managing healthcare infrastructure effectively.



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MBA622 Comprehensive Healthcare Strategies Assignment Report

Assessment Description

This assessment provides students with an opportunity to research and analyse a particular healthcare segment to gain an initial insight into the opportunities and challenges that currently exist for organisations that deliver healthcare services in Australia in that segment. Students will present that research and analysis in the form of a formal report which requires students to adhere to a report structure including an Executive Summary.


Students are to investigate an industry segment of the Australian healthcare sector and examine and evaluate its model of operations and growth over the last ten years. Recommended industry segments include:

- General public hospitals
- General practices
- Private hospitals
- Specialist medical services
- Pathology or diagnostic imaging services
- Dentistry or other related services
- Oncology services
- Mental health services
- Allied healthcare services
- Pharmaceutical industry
- Aged care


COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA Copyright Regulations 1969

This material has been reproduced and communicated to you by or on behalf of Kaplan Business School pursuant to Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (‘Act’). The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further reproduction or communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection under the Act. Kaplan Business School is a part of Kaplan Inc., a leading global provider of educational services. Kaplan Business School Pty Ltd ABN 86 098 181 947 is a registered higher education provider CRICOS Provider Code 02426B.

Document Classification: Public

This consultation should take place to help guide students to think ahead. Choosing an industry segment where information cannot be easily found will make the task of analysis much more difficult not only for this assessment but may require students to change their chosen industry for the subsequent Assessments 2 and


The industry analysis must be in report form and should present appropriate criteria or business analysis tools as a framework in which to identify and analyse the challenges and opportunities confronting the segment. It should draw from a range of government and academic sources, as well as industry reports. It should cover:

- A definition of the industry, outlining its main activities

- An overview of the competitive landscape, identifying and describing major competitors or organisations within the segment and their business models

- Industry trends, presenting an overview of operating conditions and factors influencing operating conditions

- Ethical issues faced within the industry

Your analysis should focus on the broader environmental factors influencing operations within the sector. The report may also include charts or diagrams, which are not included in the word count. The findings presented in this report must be based on scholarly and peer-reviewed sources of information that were published no longer than 5 years ago and relevant to the field of strategic healthcare. These sources must be presented in the report in the form of in-text citations and a reference list adhering with Kaplan Harvard Referencing Style. Wikipedia and other ‘popular’ sites are not to be used.



The report is mainly focused on Australia's health care industry, specifically the aged health care sector. The fundamental objective of this report is to demonstrate the overview of the chosen healthcare industry in Australia, including it's the trends, challenges and weaknesses that impact the operations of the chosen healthcare industry. For assignment help The study is very important to briefly represent the current scenario of the aged healthcare sector in Australia and identify the major concerns present in the industry.

Health Industry Segment Overview

The health industry process of Australia is complex as it includes different kinds of services about the physical and mental well-being of the residents of Australia. There are various sectors where experienced and dedicated medical personnel offer the best medical care (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2021). The cost of expensive medical care is borne by Australia's state and tertiary governments. There are three kinds of healthcare available to the people funded by the government: residential aged care, home care, and home support. Medicare claims are also available to the aged people to get benefits. Some of the major competitors in this segment are Allity Aged care, Arcare Aged care, BlueCross and others (Healthcare Channel 2021). The main business model used by BlueCross is the value proposition to its patient to promote dignity, respect and choice of its people. On the other hand, Allity care and Arcare aged care use respect and value proposition-oriented business model to provide adequate services to people.

Application of Analytical Tools

PESTLE Analysis

Table 1: PESTLE analysis
Source: (Developed by the author)

Porter's Five Forces Analysis

Table 2: Porter's five forces analysis
Source: (Developed by the author)

Identification of Industry factors influencing operating conditions

Multiple factors influence the operating conditions of health care for aged people. The foremost factor that affects is the culture of the aged people. Australia has a diverse culture, and many people belong to the Aboriginal and Strait cultures.

Healthcare organisations need to anticipate this issue by considering the solving methods. This pollution in the environment affects the health of aged people (Panda 2021). Thus, it has a significant impact on the aged health care sector. A high amount of disease in Australia impacts people's lives typically because the organisation needs to focus on the organisational ecosystem to improve its services. The introduction of various new viruses and bacteria can be a threat to the aged health care sector, as aged people are prone to be attacked by viruses and bacteria causes' disease. Psychological factors can also be a crucial one in the aged health care system of the country. Negative thoughts, stress about personal health and others can affect the health of old aged people. Industry, specifically the BlueCross, must initiate some steps to counter that, like positive counselling the aged people to get rid of negative thoughts and lead a healthy life. Alongside this, financial conditions can also affect aged health care. Due to the recent pandemic, every country has suffered in financial crisis, which creates problems regarding the accumulation of proper health treatment to the aged ones. Thus, steps of mitigation regarding this can also be formulated. Another significant factor that impacts quality medical care is the inaccessibility of certain places (Van Gaans & Dent, 2018, p. 12). There are remote locations that are out of reach. Setting up the infrastructure to support the aged people can be expensive and, at times, impossible. Providing care to aged people in remote areas can be extremely difficult.

Trends, challenges and weaknesses confronting the health sector/segment

The number of older adults is escalating, and the infrastructure has to be improved to accommodate the growing number. Challenges faced by the Australian health segment of elderly age care include:

1. Chronic conditions like obesity and overweight are becoming more prevalent among aged people. Conditions like these demand attention as these can lead to far-reaching consequences.

2. Lifestyle-related diseases are also growing in numbers. A sedentary lifestyle can take a toll on health, impacting bodily functions.

3. Disability is also a common trend among aged people. They require additional precautions, and the health systems must handle the operational procedures.

4. A distinct challenge faced by the health systems of Australia is to deal with aged Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders ("Health system overview - Australian

Institute of Health and Welfare", 2021). They have a unique culture and are unaware of modern medical practices (Rheault et al. 2019, p. 8). They comprise a significant number of the Australian population. Aged Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders may not be well-versed in the language and are apprehensive about the advanced health care facilities. Making them understand can be a significant challenge.

Strategic Response:

For the short term and long term (following the Commission's recommendations and the government's response to budgetary investments), proactive aged care providers will outperform their peers in evaluating their activities. Such include a strategic measure which includes:

1. Priorities must be clearly articulated, actively supported, and appropriately funded, spanning the organisation's entire spectrum. Additionally, providers may consider diversifying certain customer segments (like wealth, age, cultural needs) or the scope of their services (i.e. home care service) so that they can make a name for themselves and stand out from the rest. The associated risks should be carefully managed.

2. The sector needs to implement a strong support-oriented policy in Australia that can prevent people from pollution-oriented things that can assist aged people to live a healthier life.

3. The industry needs to seek strong government support that can help promote and enhance the living standard of older people.

4. Transparency and accountability should be considered. Providers must respond. Strategic goal setting, measurement of key performance indicators, and rapid interventions to address/correct gaps will be critical for operations in the aged care sector. As consumer expectations rise and the level of care becomes increasingly standardised, providers need to differentiate themselves. This requires providers to articulate unique market offerings for their target segments that align with consumer preferences (PWC 2021).

5. A different type of approach should also be considered with indigenous peoples. Cross-cultural communication will play an important factor, and there is a need to recruit people from the same community in such a situation.

Ethical Issues

The aged people have the right to decide about their health care system, and they can choose the mode of mediation or whether to follow the instructions of a doctor. The doctors are also mandated to provide detailed information about the health conditions of an aged person so that the person can make informed decisions. However, it can be not easy to follow these ethical principles. A person who may require immediate medical care but is not interested in availing of the facilities can threaten that person (Maile et al. 2018, p. 373). Managing ethical principles can be tough in these situations. Also, different cultures have different beliefs, like the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders have different value systems(Sivertsen, Harrington & Hamiduzzaman 2019, p. 12). They might deny some medical practices. These ethical issues may hamper the overall quality of services.


The health care industry is one of the most crucial industries of any country, and hence it has the utmost importance. Based on the above analysis, it can be stated that infrastructural development is needed in aged care services, and Blue cross needs to offer a better-customised service.


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PUBH6012 Applied Research Project in Public


This assessment advanced skills in reporting the justification, methods, results, and conclusions of a research project. Key understanding contained includes how to justify a research project using literature, how to implement a research proposal to collect and analysis data, how to report the results of the analysis of data, how to contextualize one’s own research in the context of the wider body of literature, and how to draw conclusions about future research and recommendations based on research. This prepares students for the conduct and reporting of research, which is an important skill set for public health practitioners.


Part 1: Due Sunday end of Module 1 Week 1 Based on the feedback from your Capstone A Research Proposal, revise your research plan and GANTT chart.

Submit these to your Capstone A facilitator by Sunday end of Module 1 Week 1. You may not proceed with your data collection until this has been approved by your supervising facilitator.

Part 2:

The final assignment for this subject will be the write-up of the findings of your research into a final report. This will be comprised of the following parts:

1) Abstract

a. Summary of your report (as you would find in a published research article)

2) Introduction

a. Introduction to and justification of the topic area, drawing upon your literature review (from Capstone A), and including the knowledge gap your project addresses

b. Your research question

3) Research design and methods

a. Summarise your research design/methods (from Capstone A) – what type of project did you do?

b. How did you collect the data (ie search strategy and process/ policy consultation process)? If a policy consultation, explain how any organizations/individuals that you consulted with were approached

c. How did you analyse the data (ie thematic analysis, systematic review process, consultation synthesis)?

d. Briefly explain the ethical issues that should be considered

4) Results

a. Report the results of your findings, e.g. key themes if a qualitative study, results in table
format if a quantitative study
b. Clearly explain key figures, tables and graphs

5) Discussion: Interpretation and contextualisation of yourresults

a. Place your results in the context of your literature review
b. Contextualise the results within the academic literature
c. Describe any limitations of your study

6) Conclusion

a. Conclusions from this study
b. Recommendations for future research or policy change based on feasible solutions

7) Supplementary material

a. Reference List
b. Any appendices

This research report format has been based on the standard format for a journal article, and thus may be submitted to a journal in the future if the student is interested.




In December 2019, a continuous bout of pneumonia associated with a new COVID was reported in Wuhan, Hubei Area, China (Sallam, 2021). Contaminations quickly spread throughout China and other countries around the world (Broockman, et al., 2021). The disease caused by the new was dubbed "Covid infection 2019" by the WHO on February 12, 2020 (Lee, 2021). Even while the majority of Corona virus cases are asymptomatic or accompanied by mild, influenza-like signs, select populations, particularly the elderly and persons with concealed illnesses, might develop severe lung harm and severe respiratory miserable condition (Sallam, 2021). For assignment help As the number of Corona virus cases continues to climb and medications are constrained to symptomatic treatment, there is an undeniable need for a preventative approach, such as a vaccination, capable of preventing or decreasing the severity of COVID-19 (Broockman, et al., 2021).In less than a year before the World Health Organization (WHO) declared Coronavirus to be a pandemic, ten distinct vaccines have been approved for use in various countries throughout the world (Edwards, et al., 2021). Nonetheless, there is widespread opposition to Coronavirus vaccines in the United Kingdom, Australia, and a number of other countries (Roope, et al., 2020).Even with vaccinations that are very successful at preventing and stopping corona virus epidemics, large levels of immunisation coverage in communities will be necessary (Lee, 2021). According to the World Health Organization, countries should take a proactive approach to vaccination hesitancy hotspots based on social and behavioural data (Roope, et al., 2020).


With more than ten vaccines manufactured by various nations in a single year, it is critical to do global research on their action, efficiency, effectiveness, safety, side effects, and so on (Vanderslott, et al., 2021). While many countries in the Global North are likely to achieve universal vaccination by late 2021, middle and low-income countries may not have essential antibody availability until 2024 (Lee, 2021). Vaccine aversion by even a small percentage of the population can jeopardise the plan's success (Sallam, 2021). As a result, this research is being performed to focus on the efficiency and safety of these vaccinations, as well as to explore their adverse effects in order to reduce the uneasiness associated with Covid-19 immunizations (Vanderslott, et al., 2021).According to current research, COVID-19 vaccination intentions differ significantly among nations (Lee, 2021). Vaccine hesitancy, or being doubtful about obtaining a vaccine, generally accounts for a larger proportion of people who will not get vaccinated than vaccine resistance, or those who refuse to vaccines (Sallam, 2021). Vaccine reluctance to a COVID-19 vaccination was reported at 9% in Australia, with vaccine resistance at 5%, although this information came from a non-representative online poll (Edwards, et al., 2021). According to national representative polls conducted in the United Kingdom, 25–27 percent of respondents were apprehensive (Edwards, et al., 2021). Hence, considering the information, it is deemed important to conduct a systematic review to understand the factors more intricately.

Research Aims

The research aims to highlight and shed critical focus on the vaccine efficacy and safety while also identifying any side effects such that nervousness from their administrations can be reduced to a considerable amount.
Research Objectives

The research aims to address the following objectives:

- To outline the efficacy of the vaccines manufactured for COVID-19

- To highlight the safety that is associated with the vaccines manufactured for COVID-19

- To identify any perceived side effects experienced by the administration of vaccines manufactured for COVID-19

Research Questions

The research aims to answer the following questions:

- What is the difference between the efficacy and safety of different COVID-19 vaccines in Australia, the United Kingdom and its neighbouring countries?

- What are the side effects of the each of the vaccines manufactured for COVID-19?

Research Hypothesis

The research aims to conduct following explorations and tests to achieve:

- Decision on effectiveness of which vaccine in regards to its action of protection against being infected by COVID-19

- A clear understanding of safety and efficacy of each vaccine manufactured, thereby reducing fright spread and anxiety among people to administer vaccines

- A clear understanding of the side effects that are observed in each vaccine and to outline the severity in people with pre-existing health conditions

- A detailed action of the vaccines in countries such as Australia, the United Kingdom, and its neighbouring countries


When doing any type of investigation, it is critical to discover a reasonable technique that can enable showing up at the exploration location. An efficient technique will be used in the flow extent of investigation. Because the goal of this investigation is to determine the efficacy and security of Covid-19 antibodies, as well as their incidental effects in Australia, the United Kingdom, and neighbouring European countries, a few articles must be investigated, and an orderly audit of various articles will be intended in the research.

Search Strategy

For the current research, 9 databases were searched for the retrieval of appropriate research studies in regards to the topic. Databases like Libraryof Torrens University Australia, PubMed, and open data sets like Scopus, ProQuest, Elsevier, BMJ, Global Public wellbeing, Mendeley, and Google researcher were searched. The publication date of the articles selected for the study were restricted to year 2020 and 2021 as the incident of COVID-19 is recent. For the retrieval of articles in a relevant manner and to gain an appropriate understanding of the research objectives, no restriction on the study design being adopted by authors in studies were done. However, language restrictions were put in place in order to understand the meaning of the content of the articles in an appropriate manner and not being lost in translation.

Study Selection

For the selection of the appropriate articles, it is necessary to outline the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the journals selected for the current systematic review. The following are the criteria for exclusion in the current study. The remaining articles have been selected for the study.

- Articles for which the authors have not adopted research methods concerning the topic and their eligibility for critique

- Articles for which only the abstract is available in the databases searched

- Articles which do not highlight the perceived efficacy of the vaccines and their perceived side effects

- Articles which are not published in English Language

- Articles which are not published by their authors since the year 2020 and 2021

Data extraction

The PRISMA protocol flow diagram depicts the flow of data during the various stages of a systematic review. It describes the number of records recognised, included, and rejected, as well as the reasons for rejections. The flow diagram is depicted below:


Data Analysis

Data were descriptively synthesised to map various parts of the literature as indicated in our central questions. The studies were classified based on the instrument, audience, and research design, with RCT data being studied in greater depth. Because conversation boards are not included in the initial classification method, results are reported for all included research as well as studies that evaluated tools other than discussion boards. Data analysis must be carried out in accordance with the 'Systematic Review,' utilising the PRISMA protocol checklist and flowchart. The PRISMA declaration provides a starting point for organising a systematic review. It includes a checklist of topics to keep in mind for the report analysis.The PRISMA Statement includes a 27-item plan or agenda that is downloaded in Word format for participants to re-use, as well as a four-stage stream diagram in their investigation. The purpose of the PRISMA Statement is to support makers with the declaration of methodical audits and meta-examinations; nevertheless, PRISMA may also be employed as a rationale for discovering precise orderly surveys of various forms of investigations, specifically assessments of medicine mediations. Nonetheless, the PRISMA plan is not a quality evaluation tool for quantifying the concept of systematic audits. PRISMA's general concepts and focuses are typically applicable to any intentional audit, not only those whose goal is to summarise the benefits and drawbacks of clinical consideration mediation. Regardless, a few alterations to the agenda's focuses or the flow diagram will be critical expressly in particular circumstances.As a result, the PRISMA Protocol will be used to conduct an ordered survey for this exploration endeavour. The rationale for employing this mindset is to determine whether the examination disclosures are reliable throughout the targeted countries.

Ethical Considerations

In the current research study, no participants have been undertaken as it is a secondary research. Hence, in regards, ethical considerations for the articles for analysis have already been taken by their respective authors.


According to Badiani et al. (2020), Pfizer vaccine showed a significant amount of effectiveness against the COVID 19. It has been seen that the results of the study highlighted a significant rise the effectiveness in the percentage from 90 to 95 per cent. Among 43538 participants 170 people affected with COVID 19. Among all these cases, 162 are from the control group and 8 are from the vaccinated group. Hence, it can be highlighted that the study effectively provided the idea of the effectiveness of the vaccine in terms of the immunization process against the COVID 19. The results have been seen after the phase III trial. This study also highlighted that the impact of the vaccine can be long lasting and the priority group that is over the age of 65 the vaccine showed effectiveness almost 94 per cent. Hence, this can be stated that the Pfizer vaccine is very much effective against the disease of COVID 19. Moreover, the vaccine has not shown any kind of negative health concerns for the participants that is there is no safety issues involved for the vaccine. In this consideration, it should be stated that the study effectively provided a proper idea regarding Pfizer vaccine for the COVID 19 immunization.

As per the views of Nasreen et al. (2021), Pfizer-BioNTechComirnaty, ModernaSpikevax and AstraZeneca Vaxzevria are the most prominent vaccines in Ontario, Canada. The authors conducted the test-negative design study and found out the effectiveness of the vaccine products against the alpha, beta, gamma and delta strains of the COVID 19 virus and the SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern are more transmissible and pose increased threats regarding the disease severity. Based on this study, the vaccine products are more effective if the two doses of the vaccines are provided to the patients and the effectiveness of the vaccine products are similar mostly. It has been seen that the vaccine showed effectiveness against alpha strain from 89 to 92 per cent, against beta strain by 87 per cent, against gamma strain it is 88 per cent and delta strain it showed 87 to 95 per cent of effectiveness. Hence, in scenario of Canada the impact of the vaccines are mostly similar and the rate of the effectiveness of the vaccines are higher in case of double dose completion compared to the single dose and also the impacts are more prominent among the elderly people over the age of 60. Hence, it is clear that the vaccination if completed then the immunisation of all the vaccines are mostly similar and the chances of the SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern are reduced by these vaccination process. On the other hand, the impacts of the vaccines are mostly positive for the disease reduction.

Based on the views of Boytchev (2021), it has been seen that the AstraZeneca vaccine is mostly used in the European context and the impact of the vaccine can be seen positively in most of the cases. It can be stated that the impact of the vaccine is mostly found against the younger population and the elderly population have not effectively immunized with this vaccination process. In case German newspaper reports it has been seen that the AstraZeneca vaccine can be effective for the elderly people only up to 8 per cent which is a concerning factor for the vaccination of the elderly people of the country as the contamination and the impacts of the COVID 19 disease is very high. Thus, it should be stated that the factor of the vaccination through AstraZeneca should be changed and other effective vaccines should be considered for the change in the situation and increase the effectiveness of the vaccination of the same.

According to Heath et al. (2021), the effectiveness of the NVX-CoV2373 vaccine against the COVID 29 is considerably high. It has been seen that the study conducted by the authors considered 15187 participants in the randomised group and 14039 participants were from the placebo group and the results highlighted that the from the vaccinated group 10 people and from the placebo group 96 people showed onset of the symptoms after the double dose for 7 days. No cases of hospitalisation and deaths were seen among the participants and on the other hand, the study showed that the vaccine 86.3 per cent efficacy against the alpha strain and 96.4 per cent against the non alpha strains with the confidence interval of 95 per cent. Hence, as per the data it can be stated that the vaccine is more effective for the later strains came into action of the COVID 19 than the alpha strain. However, the efficacy of the vaccine is very much prominent for the improvement in the situation considering the decrease in the impact of the disease.

Mahase(2020), highlighted that the Moderna showed a higher efficacy in case of the US and UK population as the rate of the efficacy is found to be 94.1 per cent. However, in several situations in UK it has been seen that the impact of the vaccine is 87 per cent and that can be marked as the true efficacy for the vaccine. Moreover, the vaccine showed several safety and security related impacts on the patients. The vaccine is still less effective for the elderly population over the age of 65 and it can be a concerning aspect for the considered country and the population of the country. It should be stated that the effectiveness of the vaccine can be considered for the improvement of the situation of the COVID 19 situation. However, the consideration of the safety of the elderly people needed to be considered and proper recombination of the vaccine to improve4 the safety should be implemented.

As per the views of Chavda, Vora and Vihol (2021), COVAX 19 is one of the most prominent vaccine against the COVID 19 situation and this vaccine is focused on the spike protein of the virus and nullifies the impacts of the vaccine on the human body effectively. Moreover, it can effectively blocks the ACE2 receptor of the humans and it will reduce the effectiveness of the COVID 19 virus on the body. Thus, it should be stated that the impact of the vaccine is very much prominent as this can impact of the receptor activity and inhibits the growth of the COVID 19 virus. In this consideration the practical studies on the vaccine through experiments required to be considered for the better view on the vaccine.

Baden et al. (2021), conducted a study on 30420 participants among them half of the participants were selected randomly and the people of this group are provided with the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine and the other half of the participants were provided with the placebo treatment. The placebo group showed 185 participants with infection and the confidence interval was 95 per cent. On the other hand, the participants from the random group showed 11 infection cases. Thus, the efficacy rate of the vaccine is 94.1 per cent. Moreover, the affected people with the infection were found to be over the age of 65. Thus, it is evident that the vaccine is effective against the virus and it can effectively reduce the impact of the CIVID 19 cases though the elderly people are more vulnerable to the COVID 19. Hence, it should be stated that the importance of the improvement of the quality of the vaccine for the improvement of the outcome of the elderly people. It should be stated that the impact of the vaccination is prominent and effective for the participants and it should be considered for the further processes of the immunisation.

Based on all the above studies, it should be stated that more or less all the vaccines highlighted prominent impacts and efficacies against the virus and the disease reduction was prominent. However, the Moderna and AstraZeneca vaccine showed some safety issues for the elderly people and that should be improved for the further effectiveness and proper efficacy identification. However, the vaccines are comparably very much effective for the people of the world and the countries should try to improve the quality of the vaccines. Moreover, it should be stated that the improvement of the situation should be considered for future of the disease.


The impacts and the efficacies of the vaccines can be seen through the studies. However, the impact of the safety and the security of the disease reduction should be considered and the recommendations should be provided which are missing and the practical studies should be considered for the future context.


There are not many literary sources which can give an account of the efficacies of vaccines prepared by many countries. Although a number of pharmaceutical companies are coming up with vaccines and vaccination has already started rigorously, the research on vaccine development is still and scientists all over the world have been at their best to bring out the best version of the vaccines to fight with the evolving strains of the virus. Multiple vaccine candidates are in the phase 1, 2 and 3 of the trial, while many other had been finishing the preclinical trials. Some of the vaccines developed are the Messenger RNA based vaccines, which is a novel technology and had been used in vaccine preparation of other diseases before the pandemic. Results from phase 1 and phase 2 of the trial have showed the safety of the vaccines.Many of the vaccines had been showing some promising effects like recombinant vaccine AZD1222 conducted by the University of Oxford and Astrazeneca. The imperial college of USA has developed the mRNA 1273 vaccine by the Moderna. Other vaccines which has already been approved by WHO are Covaxin developed by Bharat Biotech and Covishield developed by the Serum Institute of India.

While searching for papers to find out the effectiveness of the vaccines, one of the papers have claimed the effectiveness of the Pfizer- Biotech and Astrazeneca vaccines. A paper by Bernalet al., (2021) have conducted a case control study in England, where 156930 adults have been chosen for the administration of vaccine Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 and Oxford-AstraZeneca ChAdOx1-S vaccines. It has been found that a single dose of BNT162b2 vaccine has been 6-=70 % effective in preventing the symptoms of Covid-19. Those who were vaccinated and still had the symptoms were had 45 % lesser chance of getting admitted in the hospital along with 50 % lower risks of death. However, One paper has referred to the side effects shown by the Astrazeneca vaccines. Similar types of results have been shown by a study conducted by Solomon et al., (2021), where it has been stated that just like the other vaccines, the Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine have certain side effects which showed its peak within the first 24 hours after the administration of the vaccination and lasted for about 1-3 days. The severe symptoms were not very common, but were the main reason for the avoidance of the vaccines by the recipients or they did not wanted to pursue for the second dose. Most of the symptoms identified were headache, tiredness and dizziness. Another paper by

Badiani et al., (2020) have explored on the efficacy of the Pfizer vaccines on reducing the symptoms of Covid-19. Similar type of results have been shown in the study by Tenforde (2021), where a study has been conducted to find out the effectiveness of Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna Vaccines. It was found that there was significant effectiveness of the vaccines was detected after the first dose. Effectiveness was shown after the second dose of the vaccine has been completed. However, the adults had been recommended to abide by the hand hygiene protocols and wearing of masks for at least 14 days after the second dose has been administered. However, this study has also admitted that a total vaccination course might not prevent an individual from contracting the disease but can prevent Covid-19 associated hospitalization and death. Vaccinations can also have impact on the post Covid situation in an individual. Similar types of results can be found in the study conducted by

Mahase,(2020), where only one case was found in the vaccination group and for in the placebo group. This study also mentioned about the adverse effects related to the vaccines like short term mild to moderate pain in the site of the injection, hand pain, headache and fatigue. The adverse events were low and similar in the vaccine and the placebo groups respectively. Apart from Pfizer, AstraZeneca, Moderna, another vaccine that is available in UK is Novavax(Sacks, 2021). ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 has been referred to be having a pretty safety profile which has been important for the Covid -19 symptoms. One of the most important thing is that it is well tolerable for the elderly people (Sacks, 2021). The Australian government had also approved the Spikevax or the Moderna vaccines for people above the age of 12(Sacks, 2021). A study by Mahase, (2020), analyzed severe Covid cases. It was found that most of the severe cases were found in the placebo group than that of the vaccine group. One death had occurred in the study, that also in the placebo group. However, considering lesser side effects, this vaccines have been rolledout. Another vaccine that has been accepted are vaccine developed by the John & Johnson, which is likely to be the third COV 2 vaccines. Rosenblum et al., (2021),on the other hand have stated about the adverse effects related to Janssen vaccine. On July 202, a warning was issued by FDA about the number of GBS cases after the vaccine administration. The GBS is a rare neurological disorder which is characterized by the sudden onset of fatigue and weakness. GBS can be lethal and can cause permanent paralysis as well as death. Another adverse report noted for the Janssen vaccine was blood clotting, due to which the vaccination trialwas discontinued in a study (Rosenblum et al., 2021).

Covax-19 is a recombinant protein based Covid-19 vaccine that has been developed by a South Australian based biotech company Vaxine. Only one paper found in the systematic review contained information about the effectiveness of Covax-19. There are almost no papers that can validate its efficacy, as it is based on the interim data that has been collected from a Phase III SpikoGen trial which has recruited about 17000 volunteers(Kim, Marks & Clemens, 2021). The interim data has shown that the vaccine has surpassed 60 % of the efficacy of the virus. However, a rigorous trial for this vaccine is still needed considering its partial efficacy(Kim, Marks & Clemens, 2021). It should be mentioned that the primary goal for the implementation of Covid-19 vaccine is to protect against the disease and mortality. Since the production of the vaccine are still at its early stage, it is very difficult to predict or point out the methodological constraints. Secondly, many persons have dropped out from the real RCTs after the administration of the first dose probably due to vaccination hesitancy that, is unjustified speculations about the effects of vaccinations, which can differ from half-truths and unsubstantiated guesses to deliberate misinformation on the basis of the conspiracy theories(Sharma et al., 2021).A very close attention is given to the attendance of the study visits, the cold chain requirement as well as the administration of the study products. All these parameter are difficult to control incase of general population (Solomon et al., 2021). Hence, such randomized controlled trials can overestimate the extent of protection provided by the vaccines in comparison to the real world. Additionally, it is also necessary to say that after the administration of the vaccines, the recipients should be informed of all the side effects, the ways to treat them and when and whom to seek help in case any such adverse effects are seen(Solomon et al., 2021). Thus, from these limited number of papers, it can be said that among the many vaccines that are still under trial, only the vaccines produced by Astrazenaca, Moderna and Pfizer had been showing a promising effects with minimum side effects.


In conclusion, it can be stated that although vaccines are the ultimate tool to save the mankind from the paws of this pandemic, the vaccines needs to be carefully wielded and should definitely be used along with other safety protocols. For example, even after the second dosage of the vaccination has been completed, it is necessary to wear masks in public places, wear gloves, use sanitizers and avoid unnecessary crowding, considering the fact that the virus is continuously evolving and the question lies whether misinformation, politics, vaccine hesitation, division and deception be able to make community vaccination possible and lower the burden of Covid-19. Although, many countries and organization are still carrying out researches on vaccination, there are 3-4 main vaccines that has been approved by the World Health Organization and FDA, considering the minimum side effects. This scoping review has explore the differences in the efficacy of the vaccines developed in countries like US, UK and Australia.Among the vaccines, the vaccines developed by the University of Oxford and Astrazeneca and the one developed by the Pfizer had shown good effects. More research trials are required to understand the mode of action of these vaccines and how they can be improved.


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7069SOH Global Healthcare Management Report

Critically evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of resource planning and management in a health system you are familiar focusing on the following key areas:

1. Priority setting and decision-making processes

2. Workforce planning and development

3. Human resource and talent management
Conclude your evaluation with recommendations for improvement of the health system in each of the three key areas.

Coursework 2

3000-word individual report addressing Learning Outcomes 2 -4

This assessment component counts for 15 credits

In 3000 words, addressing learning outcomes 2-4, complete the following assessment


Critically evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of resource planning and Management in a health system you are familiar with, focusing on the following key areas:

1. Priority setting and decision-making processes

2. Workforce planning and development

3. Human resource and talent management

Conclude your evaluation with recommendations for improvement of the health system in each of the three key areas.

Your individual report will be assessed using the HLS Faculty Postgraduate Assessment Marking Rubric and the coursework 2 assessment guidelines, which you will find in the appendices in the module guide.

For coursework 2 please comply with the following submission guidance:

It is important to you and the tutors that your project is written and presented in a professional manner. The following requirements must be adhered to in the format of assignments:

1. Your limit does allow for +/- 10% words in length. The limit includes words used in Tables, graphs, charts and diagrams, but excludes the front cover, references list and Appendices. If you exceed the word limit you will be penalized 10% from your mark

2. The front cover page - see appendix 4 for the template in the module guide.

3. The font type should be Arial and the font size for the body of the text 12 point.

4. One and a half (1.5) line spacing must be used.

5. All pages should be numbered consecutively, in the footer on the right.

6. Your student number should be in the footer on the left.

7. References, citations, and quotations should be in Coventry University APA Referencing only. Ensure that all statements and arguments are supported with reference to the evidence in the relevant literature.

8. Any diagrams, tables, photographic images etc. should be appropriately labelled and referenced.



The primary objective of the resource planning and management is to ascertain and achieve and suitable number, mix, and distribution of employees at a price that is affordable by the community. For Assignment help It should be noted that, resource planning and management consists of priority setting and decision-making procedure, workforce planning and advancement, and human resource and talent management (Baldwin, & Hamstead, Mark, 2015). In the present study, Ramsay health care is chosen and its management emphasizes on the connection among doctors and employees, providing a high quality of results for patients regarded as the most significant element of being at the forefront for its achievement. Further the weaknesses and strength in context of this is provided below and recommendation to the organization accordingly.

Main Context

Overview of health system

Resource planning and management plays significant role as it is orderly procedure for sake of explaining and undertaking the methods with respect to health connected elements of the people and to abide through the values of professionalism (Abu Madi, 2018). In relation to the resource planning and management, critical analysis of the priority setting and decision making process, workforce planning and advancement, and human resource and talent management at Ramsay healthcare is explained. Further the Ramsay Australia owns 72 private hospitals and is the largest operator of private hospitals in Australia. The operations performed by Ramsay include three public facilities and mental health related facilities. In addition to this the company has established a retail franchise network for Ramsay pharmacy which is supported by 59 or more pharmacies community. The health care centres in Australia admit around 1m patients on annual basis. Further the Ramsay employs around 31000 or more employees annually to its centers which are located in Europe, Asia etc (Ramsay healthcare, 2021). Company is committed to ongoing improvement in healthcare of individuals in each sector in some management elements like medical reimbursement, implementing more security to patients, and scanning models and safety. Ramsay healthcare acquires well reputed position across the globalized healthcare industries. They are engaged in providing efficiency and quality healthcare operations and keeping a superb record in caring of patient as well as hospital management.

Assessment of Current Key Approaches of Resource Planning and Management in the System

Priority setting and decision making procedure is defined as method of making decisions with respect to the manner in which organization allocate the restricted resources for improvement in the population health. At the Ramsay, effective priority setting is primary to creating resilient health system that could assists towards adoption and responding to the changing requirement of health needs and demands by individuals in effective way (Reed, & Ulrich, Dave, 2017). Further the company recognizes that its employees are essential resources which would help it to strives the improvement and excellent in its practices at workplace. Further this would also promote the healthy and positive harmonies at the centers where people would love to work. Therefore currently the strong focus of company is on its human resources and is representing unique workplace culture and values, also has embedded the ethos within the organization that “people caring for people”. Also the key business principle of the health care is to stay committed towards the safety and health of employees and other people visiting in the centre. In order to keep its journey continuously improving the company is committed towards- Monitoring, improving, Legislative compliance, consistent safe practice across our businesses, fostering a culture that empowers and encourages everyone, Being consultative and reviewing its measurable objectives and targets. Further the current approach of Ramsay towards its resource planning and management in the system is to deliver with diversity. The company delivers problem solving, innovative, decision making diversity through its people. Also polices, programs and procedures of its HR is currently reasonably practical and is inclusive to all the age groups. This diversification assists the strategic goals and objectives of the global value and sustainability. Further the company is also consistent in application of all the human and labor rights and laws in its operations (Susanto, et al 2020). The company commits at sustainable development for its people and also balances its global presence which helps in providing career development opportunities for the localities.

Evaluation of Strengths and Weaknesses


Ramsay is one of the leading firm in the industry has various strengths that it helping it to thrive in market place. The highly skilled workforce of the firm and successful training and learning programs is resulting in increased market share as well as penetrating in new markets. The organization is also employing over more 30000 employees annually which results in diversified skills and talent availability in the organization. Further the organization has successfully integrated with the technology companies in current years to build a reliable supply chain (Panik, 2019). The firm is currently focused on building new revenue stream through this which turns out as its strength. Also it track its record related to development and innovation in the resources successfully which helps it to make timely improvement in such resources (Cantoni, et al. 2018).


Workforce planning is the critical and strategic part of the resource planning and management in the system. It is meant to ensure that company is implementing all the HR functions and is delivering sustainable development to it workforce. Ramsay Health Care is notably proactive in deploying its human resources, but there seems to be some issues and potential problems turning out to be weakness for the organization. The main concern is towards the recruitment of new employees in the company. As there is an issue of ageing workforce within the organization, as sustainable no. of employees are older and have attain at their retirement age (Collings, & Szamosi, Leslie 2019). Yet there is no such group available to replace them, their skills and talent. Additionally the company is facing challenges in managing the new entrants and this is resulting in its loss of market share in niche categories. Further there is low level of current assets availability as compare to its liability and this would create issue in liquidity areas. In addition to this the poor diversification and performance appraisal programs at the company is resulting in low morale. Further this is due to recent development of low culture and politics regulations in the organization and hiring of more local people which is creating diversification issues (Crumpton, 2015).


In the current report, the concerning issue of organization that has not attained yet is the matter regarding the retention of its employees. Therefore the Ramsay is bound to face the potential issues in it employment due to the steps that have been taken to maintain employees who are 50 years and over (Baldwin, & Hamstead, 2015). This has resulted in high ratios of aging workforce in the organization as the maximum number of employees working in it has attained their retirement age and yet there is no such substitution for them is available (Leatherbarrow, & Fletcher, Janet, 2019). Keeping in mind such issues related to generational gaps, the option are provided to the organization to resolve this issues (Wehrmeyer, 2017). .


The main objective behind providing this recommendation is to suggest the Ramsay health care to incorporate the younger employee’s recruitment in the workforce to mitigate the issue of transitional gap in case the aged employees leave the organization (Friedman, et al, 2018). This would help them to maintain the generation gap too in the workforce. It could be done when embracing employee performance programs, the team must considers all the employees of various age groups instead of focusing on certain generation of employees. Within the duration of 6months to 1year such transition is to be done to fulfill the generation gap issue.

Strategic Priority

The strategic priority of the company is to provide with the improved outcomes for the current as well as future generation equivalently. Therefore the modern HRM managers of the organization must be tasked to sustain the workforce that allows easy transition of skills from a given set of employees to the other (Wickramasinghe, & Bodendorf, Freimut, 2020). This would help them to bridge the generation gap and the rate of compatibility would also increase at local as well as at national level.


Encouraging multi-generational team working by hiring from local region as well as from outside to improve the balance of diversification too (Chiva, 2021).

Set of clear cultural values- There are some fundamental difference in working patterns of the different generation. For instance the older people wishes to work for fixed duration and hours while the current generation prefers to work as per their convenience (Seropian, et al 2020). This issue could be resolved by set clear cultural objectives such as output and goal must be the concerning issue at the end not the time and location of work (Das Gupta, 2020).

Another option is, encouraging use of technology which drives collaboration (Davies, Malek, & Rushmer, Rosemary 2017).


Multi- generational workforce

At the national level, as per the world economic forum study states that investing in multi- generational workforce would help in raising GDP per capita almost by 19% in the coming three decades (Multi- generational workforce as a key to economic growth, 2021).

Clear cultural values as per the different generations-

These cultural values would help the organization to bind the workforce together and make a strong and united team (Journé, et al. 2020).


For the purpose of motivating the employees, keeping the morale and productivity of the organization and its employees high the employees who are under fifty’s must be included (Hall, 2019). The programs to establish such culture would steer the employee’s performance, which assists towards enhancement in cost (Nankervis, & Connell, Julia, 2020).


Stereotypes and discrimination

The multi- generational workforce could create discrimination around the age groups at the organization (Lawler, et al. 2018). The aged generation might perceive the younger one as oversensitive, open minded, while the younger one might perceive the aged generation as stubborn. This could easily disrupt the internal culture of the organization (Mateev, & Nightingale, Jennifer, 2020).

The Solution

Provide educational trainings to the employees to boost understanding respect and provide them with the opportunities to reflect the generational differences. Working toward dispelling stereotypes can lead to a more harmonious work flow.

Apart from this, company should implement management tool such as SWOT analysis for betterment of resource planning and management –

On the basis of this, company can take action for responding on weaknesses and threats by utilizing its strength and opportunities (Journé et al. 2020)

Further, Ramsay can also implement PESTLE analysis, by which it could ascertain about external environmental factors that are affecting business activities.

Risk assessment and management analysis:

Apart from this, risk assessment and management analysis should be used by company for betterment of resource planning. There are five stages of risk assessment and management such as identification of risk, assess and prioritize risk, development of risk response strategies, implementation of strategies, and monitoring of risk.
Further, by the following manner, risk management strategies could be improvised by company –

• Building a transparent culture of company.
• Creation of safeguard for protection of employees from digital threats.
• Continuous monitoring of risk assessment.
• Building internal team to remain aware of trends.
• Link with external security resources.
• Development of contingency plan


In nutshell, it is concluded that Ramsay is a well reputed organization across the globalized healthcare industries. They are engaged in providing efficiency and quality healthcare operations and keeping a superb record in caring of patient as well as hospital management. In its workforce planning and development there are certain loopholes such as high ratios of aging workforce, lack of diversification etc. For them the organization id recommended to encourage the multi- generational workforce which would help them to increase the productivity as well as resolve the issue of generational gap in the organization (Ogunyemi, 2016).

At the Ramsay, effective priority setting is primary to creating resilient health system that could assists towards adoption and responding to the changing requirement of health needs and demands by individuals in effective way. Further in context of workforce planning and advancement the health and safety of the workers at the workplace is the major priority of the business culture. The company is committed to the safety issues for all the workers and other peoples entering in the organization whether they are patients, employees or any other individuals (Rey et al. 2019). In order to maintain their journey of improvement consistent the company is focused on followings commitments- continuously improving a model of consistent safe practice across our businesses, fostering a culture that empowers and encourages everyone to uphold these objectives and policies, being consultative and communicating with all key stakeholders, maintaining systems which add value etc. Everyone at the organization is encouraged to speak up and stand for their safety and health in case it is been violated or observed to be violated. Ramsay values its people and is delivering the services as per the terms and conditions of the employment and is further consistent in application of laws related to labor and human rights at its maximum. These policies requires the human resource managers of the organization or the risk chief officersto contract on terms and conditions that are consistent with the realization of those rights for each employee and which comply with or exceed regional minimum wage standards (Crumpton, 2015).Further the organization is committed in ensuring the flexible working hours for its employees, they focus on the fact that their people won’t have to work for excessive hours. Therefore in order to stick towards this commitment the organization regularly monitors and tries to reduce in case such excessive working hours are been noticed. The promotion of labor standards and norms in the regions where the organization is operating is done by them through representing and involving the key industrial and workforce bodies within the relevant jurisdiction.


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Healthcare Systems Report Sample

Assessment Description

The purpose of this individual assessment is to foster students’ capacity to utilise a systems-thinking approach further to develop an understanding of the Australian healthcare system and its ability to provide care and prevent illness. Students will use data to predict the role and influence of preventative strategies and technology on demand for healthcare in the future, focusing on vulnerable populations. They will debate the ethical issues that can arise in managing health care systems and actively consider ways for systems and management challenges to be resolved. In addition, they will create an inventory of resource requirements applicable to a variety of healthcare settings, focusing on vulnerable populations.

Assessment Instructions

This assessment requires students to build on the analysis undertaken in Assessment 2, where a specialist health service’s preparedness to meet the needs of Australia’s ageing population was considered.

The analysis, to date, has used systems thinking approach and has been based on the WHO six building blocks of a health system framework.

1) Service Delivery

2) Health Workforce

3) Information

4) Medical Products, Vaccines and Technologies

5) Financing

6) Leadership and Governance (Stewardship).

In this assessment, students should provide a concise overview of the service and the main findings from Assessment 2. Then, through their research and analysis (systems thinking), focus on identifying how quality services and responsiveness to the needs of an ageing Australian population are maintained and enhanced by the service and its service providers.

To achieve the assessment requirements, the report should be constructed accordingly:

1) Executive summary

2) Concise overview of the service and the main findings from Assessment 1.

3) Examination of how quality service provision is maintained and enhanced by the service.

4) Examination of responsiveness to the needs of an ageing Australian population and how it may be enhanced by the service.

5) Examination of ethical issues and considerations related to service delivery decisions and vulnerable populations.

6) Recommendations for future action.

7) References - A minimum of 15 references, at least 8 of these should be academic journals. Harvard referencing method applies.

To explore the full breadth of maintaining and enhancing quality service provision, students should consider the interconnectedness between the health service and the broader system of the National Safety and Quality Health Service (NSQHS) Standards, the National Registration and Accreditation Scheme (NRAS) for health practitioners maintained by the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Authority (AHPRA) and other professionals who self-regulate under the banner of the National Alliance of Self Regulating Health Professions (NASRHP).To provide a context for discussion, students should utilise appropriate standards to assist them in providing substantial examples of how quality services and responsiveness to the needs of an ageing Australian population are maintained and enhanced by the service and its service providers. For example (this is not an exhaustive list):

• NSQHS: Clinical Governance Standard, Action 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.15.
• NSQHS: Partnering with Consumers Standard, Action 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6.
• AHPRA: Continuing Professional Development.
• AHPRA: Recency of Practice.
• SA Health: Allied Health Clinical Governance Framework.



The service that has been selected in this study is screening and treatment of breast cancer among the aged woman along with prevention measures that are formulated to mitigate the various risks. 25% of the total population of Australia are aged 65 years and above. It is also found out that the rate of aged population is going to increase by the end of 2055 (Manyazewal 2017).

In Australian health care system hospitals in the state of Victoria have upgraded organizational website that are effective in providing regular updates about each department. For Assignment Help They also provide updates so that elderly women can access the right treatment of cancer, books appointment on time in radiology section and more. Government also supports these elderly people with providing healthcare insurance, regular training session, interconnected and interdependent approach among the hospitals. In this study Breast Cancer screening service and treatment process in Bendigo Hospital has evaluated including challenges in their service process, gaps as well as opportunities. This report also identify the ethical considerations that the organization follow maintaining the privacy and dignity of their aged women patients who are suffering from the breast cancer. A future recommendation also given after this to mitigate the gaps those are existing in their service process.

Organizational overview

Bendigo hospital is the largest regional hospital in the Victorian region. The development project that has initiated in this hospital are worth $AUD 630 million with a specific aim in providing the welcoming, holistic and supportive environment for the service users (ArchDaily 2021). In the previous assignment it has observed that organizations in Victorian region are facing issues like fund unavailability, high staff turnover rate however at the same time use of latest technology and digitalization are being helpful to develop a smoother service. In external aspect, the political impact is highly evidenced through the changes of policies. The most challenging factor is the economic condition that is affecting the budget of the hospitals. From the Assignment 2 it has evaluated that the healthcare system of is constantly evaluating itself along with upgrading their tools, learning process in order to enhance the quality of their service and also for supporting the health progress in ageing population.

Analysis of the Challenges, Gaps and Opportunities

Standard of Care and Support

Bendigo hospital offers a range of comprehensive specialist care across the medical and healthcare disciplines. This organization provides services in emergency, maternity, women’s health, pathology, cardiology, aged care, cancer service and more. Referring to the interconnectedness of organizations and broader system of healthcare standards a detail understanding can be made to define the key standards of healthcare support and practices. Referring to the NSQHS (National Safety and Quality Health Service) clinical governance standards ensure that organizations must follow a clinical governance framework that ensure that the consumers can receive high quality care and safe service (Australian Government 2021). With this guideline, the organisation also provides a transparent informative guideline for patient who is taking an appointment for breast cancer screening. Through the website of the organization they clearly inform about density measurement, radiation, diagnosis and various screening programs.

The Bendigo hospital has built up a multi-disciplinary workforce which includes a skilled medical team that also has sub specialdepartments. In this aspect, the hospital is following the patient safety, quality improvement and safe environment in delivery of care for the cancer patients. In detailing about Bendigo hospital the organization follows Optimal Care Pathways for safe, consistent and high quality delivery of evidence based care system for people with cancer (Australian Commission 2021). This clinical governance framework is acquainted with the process of partnering with other health care bodies. As in this case of Bendigo hospital the health organization provides radiotherapy and radiation services with the partnership of Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre (Bendigo Health 2021). While this service standard is properly maintained by the organization, another aspect that is highlighted at the same time is National Registration and Accreditation Scheme (NRAS) which is highly important for all regulated health professionals for ensuring to deliver high quality care and maintain the consistency. It is helpful in saving time for health professionals who works in states and territories of Australia (The Department of Health 2021). According to the organizational website the health organization has included diagnostic imaging accreditation scheme in relation to policies and procedures. For the registration process of the medical practitioners the hospital focuses to use the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA) registration documentation. Under this, Bendigo hospital provides scope for every health service user that they can complain about the health professionals in case unsafe behavior, disrespect or inattentiveness.

Understanding of The Challenges

Referring to the strong consistency level with the above standards in medical practices, it can be referred that Bendigo has been continuing to focus on the effective health practices and development. They are committed in maintaining their employment relationship with strong focus on the policies and procedures (Bendigo Health 2021). Despite these excellences the area where this organization is giving issues in providing effective care towards the aged women breast cancer patients is the impact of Covid-19 for which they are facing difficulties for giving radiology appointments, support service and sometimes basic medical treatments. It is also seen that the hospital staffs are notifying about the emergency needs of patients due to irregular medical intervention among the breast cancer aged women (Dinh-Le et al. 2019).

Besides the barrier of pandemic impact, Bendigo hospital has been facing issues of the inadequate co-operation from the aged women of breast cancers as they often ignore the daily activities, food or nutritional suggestions. Along with this, the treatment phases are also intervened as there are only 7 radiation oncologists in this hospital (Peter Mac 2021). Apart from breast cancer these group of medical practitioners also assigned to take care of various other cancers. Additionally, while it comes to deal with the cancer patients and adult ones they require more time and attention to be supported with proper medical help. Being the largest hospital with consisting service support in Victoria region, a large number of adult women with breast cancer comes to this hospital. It is really challenging for the hospital to deal with a large number of consumer with limited number of medical practicing teams. In addition to this as identified in above part the projected number of cancer patients will increase rapidly in future years. From this aspect the present capacity of supporting the need of aged women breast cancer patients is rare.

Identification of The Gap

Referring to the future health opportunities, it is evident that the use of technology will be the most in delivering the most effective service and care support management. Clinical decision support system is the computer based information process where the health care providers can access strong aid with the help of technology. Though the Bendigo hospital is efficient in dealing with the strong consistency of care support yet their role is limited in developing a collaborative care support or depending completely on the medical practitioners’ knowledge and skills. While the development of the technology is highly effective to deal with the medical ground, Bendigo has still not implemented any such automation process within their service system. It is highly possible that the organization may face issues regarding the extended dosage and flaws in medical checkup of the patients who will be suffering from the breast cancer. Another aspect that requires to be mentioned here is that Bendigo hospital does not have its own radiation treatment service. They have to depend on another clinic in providing chemotherapy for the cancer patients. Identification of this gap in their service process is effectiveto reduce the trust and dependency of the cancer patients on the organization.

Referring to The Opportunities

There are multiple opportunities that can be referred for the support and development of the gaps of Bendigo hospital. Among these the aged women breast cancer patients will be supported if they are treated with technological development. For instance, delivery of remote checkup, home based care support will be highly appreciated if properly implemented by this organization. They also require implementing completed in-house cancer treatment process including radiology system so that the process of chemotherapy will be easier (McAlearney et al. 2016).As for example, the use of genetic mapping still under research and it is assumed that there is high possibility for the cancer cure from the interchange of genetic structure. Xenotransplantation is also another process that is still under concern however will be effective to support the individual patients with transplantation of living cells.

Ethical Considerations

Bendigo Health Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) is responsible for all type of ethical practices including the patients, clients, staffs and resources. Referring to the ethical guidelines it is seen that HREC of Bendigo has the role of protection and welfare of the rights of the participants. They specifically focus on the National Health and Medical Research council for proposing of the research projects, monitoring on the projects and approval of the project to maintain the ethical standards. In terms of providing the support to the aged women who are suffering from cancer it is essential that each of the individuals are equally treated and supported. HREC of Bendigo hospital usually provides strong guidelines, training and support for the medical practitioners who are in the service of vulnerable groups (Bendigo Health 2021). Along with this they also evaluate the work force operation process in order to determine wheather they are maintaining the ethical standard in clinical process and follow the organizational rules or not. Along with this evaluation of ethical support is also provided at Bendigo with the feedback evaluation and accessing feedback from the customers. At this area organization provides scope to the customers to tell on behavioral conduct, disrespect towards the privacy and safety issues. These are helpful in managing the entire organizational process efficiently and enable the ethical guidelines throughout the organization. Apart from this, they have to follow the basic consent level including autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice (Runciman, Merry& Walton 2017).

Concerning these ethical points, Bendigo is highly concerned for their cancer patients that all of their medical practitioners must take consent from the patient before providing any specific treatment to them. They take care that before any screening process individual disclosure is maintained by the medical practitioners about possible risks, benefits, nature of the procedure and more (Bendigo Health 2021). In terms of beneficence, the best interest standard that is every breast cancer sufferer assured that they are being treated by the most skilled and knowledgeable person. Though providing ration therapy or chemo treatment is not entirely helpful in physical wellbeing yet the cancer patients have to undergo this process. In terms of ethical guideline of non-maleficence it can be said that patients are properly informed about the harm that they can face while taking the radiation therapy. Finally, Bendigo also maintains the ethical practice of justice that is treating every of their breast cancer patients equally and support them with every possible technology that they have to provide earliest cure as possible by them.

Recommendations for Future Action

Reviewing the present needs of the patient care and management of the Bendigo hospital it can be referred that the Clinical decision support system will be the one that will be most effective in managing decisions timely and quickly. As opined by Zikos&DeLellis(2018) inclusion of CDSS analysis is helpful in managing clinical decisions and diagnosis every time the medical staffs providing care or medical help. Under this process, Bendigo hospital can create a digital log book where they can review every clinical parameters of the patient while treating them or making them ready for an operation. It is specifically helpful for the medical practitioners who are dealing with breast cancer patients as they can review allergic reactions to medicine, previous medical history, and therapeutic duplication alert. People who have to undergone a surgery due to breast cancer at old age require strong monitoring and observation which will be more effective to make with this system.

Reference list

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PUBH6005 Epidemiology Report Sample


In Part B, you are able to apply their knowledge of causation and association. The skills gained from this assessment allows you to make a judgement on causality and association based on the epidemiological research and evidence. You will demonstrate your ability to apply the Bradford Hills criteria, a key tool in determining association and causality within epidemiological studies. Establishing association and causality are key skills in epidemiological disease investigation.


Part B requires you to choose one of the articles that you have critically appraised in Part A, and using the Bradford Hills criteria as a guide, write within 1000-words on your judgment of association and causation. You will need to provide your opinion/decision/recommendations for a couple of the Bradford Hills criteria. Headings can be utilised where required. You may need to search for additional research articles to support your findings. Please refer to the Instructions for details on how to complete this task.


Select 1 of the 2 articles that you critically appraised in Part A. Address a couple of Bradford Hill’s Criteria's to present your opinion/decision/recommendation in establishing the causality and association of the findings. Your assessment should include should include the following:

1 Give the title of the article and introduce the objective of the paper
2 CHOOSE ANY TWO of the following criteria's and and address them accordingly
2.1 Temporality
2.2 Strength of association
2.3 Consistency
2.4 Dose-response relationships
2.5 Biological plausibility
2.6 Specificity
2.7 Experimental data
2.8 Coherence
2.9 Analogy



The paper aims to apply Bradford Hill’s criteria to a chosen article to determine the causality of the article. In the year, 1965, 9 viewpoints have been published by Austin Bradford Hill in order to check whether the “epidemiologic associations” are causal. These criteria have been the popularly used for determining “causal inference” within epidemiologic studies. Here in this article, two of Bradford Hill’s Criteria have been chosen to establish the causality (Shimonovich et al., 2020). For Assignment Help These two factors are “temporality” and “strength of association”. “Strength of Association” is basically critical to the ‘assessment of significant causal relationships” (Fedak et al., 2015). Temporality on the other hand is perhaps the only aspect which is agreed to is important to the “causal inference” (Fedak et al., 2015).

Title of the Chosen Article: “Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Human Infection with a New Zoonotic Paramyxovirus, Nipah Virus, during a 1998–1999 Outbreak of Severe Encephalitis in Malaysia” by Parashar et al., (2000).

Purpose/Object of the paper:

The article mainly discusses the outbreak of “encephalitis” that had affected 265 patients and amongst them, 105 got fatally affected by the virus between 1998 and 1999 within Malaysia. This outbreak was associated with the “paramyxovirus, Nipah”. This is the virus that affected human beings, pigs, cats and dogs (Parashar et al., 2000). The main purpose of the chosen article is thus to examine and to determine the aspects of exposures to Nipah infection amongst human beings while the outbreak of the encephalitis tool place (Parashar et al., 2000).

Assessment of two Bradford Hill’s criteria:


Temporality is regarded as one of the most important criteria for a “causal association” amongst a particular “exposure” and an effect. In other words, the exposure should precede the effect, though it is not required to measure the exposure before measuring the effect (Fedak et al., 2015). Also, it has been explained by Bradford that in the criteria where the relationship between the cause and the effect is casual in case cause or the exposure results in the onset of the infection or the disease (Cox, 2018).

Within the temporality criteria, the effect or the outcome has to take place after the cause and if there is any delay after the cause or the exposure occur, the effect takes place after that delay. The chosen article by Parashar et al., (2000) conducts a case-control study in order to characterize the exposures linked with the “Nipah Infection” of the human beings during the spread of the virus. This study suspected an association of “human Nipah infection” and the “proximity to sick pigs” earlier than the outbreak as most patients were “male pig farmers”. Also, the “viral isolates” from the infected pigs and from the “encephalitis patients” demonstrated the same sequence of nucleotides. Applying Bradford Hill’s Temporality criterion here, it can be said that the cause here is the exposure to the sock pigs or proximity to the infected and the outcome of the effect is the “human Nipah infection” (Cox, 2018). It is clearly observed from the study that after the exposure to the sick pigs takes place, the pig farmers get infected by the virus and thus temporality can be justified here to be causal. Another demonstration of the study that justified the temporality criterion of the article to be causal is that the outbreak was stopped after the “pigs” were slaughtered and were buried. Thus, it can be said that the direct contact of the proximity of the human first took and then the effect, that is the infection within the human body took place and thus cause had clearly preceded the effect.

Strength of Association:

The “Strength of Association” is one of the most important criteria amongst the 9 criteria proposed by Bradford Hill for measuring the causality of an epidemiology study. He explained that the greater the relationship between the “diseases” and the “exposure”, the more it is likely to be causal (Shimonovich et al., 2020). In other words, the stronger the risk magnitude of the association between the “risk factor” and the resultant disease the more probable it is for the relationship to be “causal”. In order to study the relationship between the Nipah infection in humans and the exposure to infected pigs, case patients and control subjects have been chosen (Fedak et al., 2015).

After carrying out the case-control analysis of the study, the activities involving proximate contacts with pigs have been combined in the form of a “single variable”. The study of the results of the article suggests that the exposure to the infected pigs (cause) is potentially associated with the “effect” that is the Human Nipah infection with 86% of “case-patients” as compared to 50% of control subjects (Fedak et al., 2015). In addition, Bradford Hill’s “Strength of Association” criterion can thus be verified here and thus the relationship is said to be causal the as the findings of the study suggests that there is a potential strength of association between the cause (contact to sick pigs) and the effect (Nipah infected humans) and also show that the activities like close proximity with the infected pigs were associated with the “infection”. This argument can be further strengthened by considering the fact the outbreak was prevented by slaughtering and burying the pigs (Fedak et al., 2015). The strength of association is very significant here and thus the relationship is “causal” (Shimonovich et al., 2020).


In this study, two of Bradford Hill’s criteria have been applied on the study by Parashar et al., (2000) and the application and the analysis of these two criteria on the study demonstrates and establishes a strong causal relationship between the “presumed cause” (contact with sick pigs) and the “observed effect” (Nipah infection in humans). It can thus be concluded that there is a close association between proximity with encephalitis infected Pigs and Human Nipah infection and thus the exposure to these pigs can be considered as the primary source of the disease.


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PUBH6013 Qualitative Research Methods Report Sample


This assessment is prescribed to advance literature searching, critical analysis, research question development, research planning skills, and reflexivity as a researcher. This assessment involves developing a research question, preparing interview and probe questions, identifying four people that you can interview on this topic (for example, your family or friends, colleagues), and reflecting on your motivation and justification of your research proposal.

It assesses the key understanding necessary for conceptualising and developing a qualitative research proposal, which will prepare you for the use of qualitative methods in research and evaluation as a public health practitioner. There are three steps to completing this assignment.


Step 1:

Develop a research question (similar to the ones you have explored throughout this subject) that supports qualitative exploration of a topic of your choice. Review the materials from Module 1 to familiarise yourself with the scope and purpose of qualitative research.

Warning: Topics must be low risk. This means that the topic should not be likely to cause distress or humiliation, and should not focus on vulnerable groups (such as children or people with a disability). You should discuss with your learning facilitator if you are unsure whether your topic is suitable.

Step 2:

Write 6-8 interview questions that:

• Focus on obtaining information that will help you to answer your research question

• Are qualitative (focusing on experience, opinion, values, perceptions etc) in nature

• Comply with best practice principles for interview question design (Module 4) Obtain feedback from 2 (two) people to refine and improve your questions, and keep records of this feedback for submission with the project proposal.

Step 3:

Write a research proposal for your qualitative project. You must include:

• A brief literature review to summarise the existing knowledge in this space, and justify your proposed project.

• Your research question and the knowledge gap that it will address.

• A summary of the key elements of the methodology that you think would be the most appropriate methodology to use to explore your research question (ie grounded theory, phenomenology etc), and why it is appropriate for exploring your research question.

• Your methods, including how you will select your participants (in this case, four people whom you already know) and your interview process.

• Your interview questions.

• A personal reflection on your motivation for exploring this research question, any ethical or cultural considerations for your project, and anything that could create a risk of bias in your data (ie interviewing friends).

• An appendix containing records of the feedback received on your interview questions (such as a copy of the interview questions with tracked changes).

• Your assessment submission must address all of these points



The likelihood of diabetes is quite common among the indigenous community of Australia. The key reason behind the diseases and its major consequences on the life of community members are still considered as a key concern (Titmuss et al., 2019). For Assignment Help Thus the topic holds a significant relevance.
The project proposal details a brief background on the topic of discussion with the indication of methodology and the process of selecting participants for the current project.

Literature review

Diabetes affects Indigenous peoples around the world for a variety of reasons, but one unifying connection is a shared history of colonisation. Colonisation has been identified by the World Health Organisation as the most major social factor of indigenous peoples' health across the world. Many countries, especially those with advanced statistics systems, have health inequalities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people. The International Group for Indigenous Health Measurement was formed in response to the need to enhance the evaluation and comprehension of Indigenous health inequalities (Crowshoe et al., 2018). The group is made up of Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples, the ruling party and non-governmental organisations, experts, and healthcare providers. Health and data statistics are critical for finding and analysing inequities, tracking progress between and within groups, and, eventually, lowering health burdens. However, if the aim of health equality is to be accomplished, information is needed to show that these discrepancies are not merely a third-world concern and that Native peoples in developed countries such as Australia, the USA, Canada, and New Zealand have much worse health outcomes. Consequently, medical information for Indigenous peoples in these countries is inaccurate and incomplete, as are statistics on the underlying social, financial, social, and political variables. The IGIHM was established in 2005 and gathers together a wide group of individuals, including both Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples, governmental and non-governmental organisations, statisticians, academics, and healthcare professionals (Yashadhana et al., 2020) The declared goals of the IGIHM are to inform people of the gaps in health statistics for Indigenous populations in the four nations and to cooperate worldwide on improved procedures and policies that will greatly boost Indigenous health.

The difference in the health of Torres Strait Slander Australians, Aboriginal Australian, and non-indigenous Australians is widely documented and several policies and programmes are presently striving to close the gap. Even after all these efforts, Indigenous Australians have a ten to eleven year lower mortality rate than non-Indigenous Australians, with 65 percent of fatalities occurring before the age of 65, compared with 20 per cent in the non-Indigenous community (Kirkham et al., 2017). The majority of the difference in life expectancy is due to diabetes and cardiovascular disease illnesses, which are linked to greater hospital admission and mortality rates. Indigenous individuals were 1.6–2.5 times more likely than non-Indigenous Australians to be hospitalised for heart disease in 2013, based on their age, and Indigenous adults are six times more probable to die from diabetes than non-Indigenous Australians. Indigenous adolescents who have type 2 diabetes are ten times more likely to be admitted to hospitals than non-Indigenous adolescents. While hospitalisation is a poor estimate of the prevalence rate of diabetes-related problems in the population, they do show that the burden of disease linked with a diabetes diagnosis is higher in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities (Zimmet, 2017). Furthermore, the development of cardiovascular disorders such as diabetes, obesity, and heart disease occurs at a younger age among Indigenous Australians than that in non-Indigenous Australians and the occurrence of these conditions is on the rise among Indigenous kids. Nonetheless, the incidence of diabetes among indigenous youths is unknown due to a lack of national statistics (Koye et al., 2019). Indigenous Australians have greater rates of youth-onset type 2 diabetes than the general population, according to studies from several jurisdictions. While there has been an increased incidence of new diagnoses among all Australian kids over the last 20 years, Indigenous younger folks have seen a significantly bigger increase. To determine the exact incidence and disease burden of type 2 diabetes among Indigenous young people, physicians and scientists from all over Australia have collaborated.

Research question

The main research question is as follows

What are the causes and effects of high diabetes occurrence among Australian indigenous communities?

Knowledge gap

The topic of discussion has high importance since it attempts to promote the good health of the people of Australian indigenous community. However, there is a limited discussion about the spread of awareness which the current study will address. Awareness and proper learning about the diseases is necessary for a consistent recovery.

Summary of methodology

Here, the project will be conducted using a primary qualitative approach. The researcher will arrange an interview session for the participants. Here no secondary approach will be considered since the researcher wants to make a direct interaction with the participants for a better understanding of the topic. Primary approach is a key methodology used in projects which influence the data collection technique. In a primary mode of data collection, raw data, facts or information is gathered which justifies the relevance and authenticity of the information. Collecting information about the occurrence of diabetes among the Australian native communities from a secondary approach might not be relevant and current. Although it requires limited time and researchers get a sequential and organised form of data, the criteria covered by other researchers may not fulfil the requirement of the current study. This is why the primary approach is appropriate in this present context. Besides, the researcher will also select a qualitative approach through an interview session. With the interview session, it is possible to get an elaborative point of view from the respondents (Snyder, 2019). This approach is better and suitable compared to a quantitative approach which comprises numerical and objective information or facts which will not be suitable to discuss the matter of diabetes likelihood among indigenous people of Australia. This approach will thoroughly help the researcher to explore the framed research questions. The current project will be based on grounded theory in this regard since it will let the researcher develop a perception based on the collected response and related principles.

The interview will be conducted through a face-to-face session for a better assessment of the participant's expressions and their attitude. The researcher will not be able to meet the criteria in an online interview session. Moreover, the questions will be open-ended to give a scope to participants to present their point of view and elaborate their knowledge on asked questions. Close-ended questionnaires would have restricted the researcher to obtain subjective responses or answers which will not be suitable for this present study. Here, researchers will consider a non-probabilistic stratified form of sampling that will be used to select the 4 indigenous workers as the key participants of the interview session. Here, since all the known indigenous workers will be allowed to take part in the session, the mentioned sampling techniques will be suitable. Selecting simple random probability sampling will not help the researcher to get in-depth information about the health condition and extent of diabetes in the entire community.

Interview Questions

1: What is your lifestyle in terms of the work that you do and the diet which you consume on a daily basis?

2: Do you feel difficulty in accessing health care facilities in your locality?

3: Do you feel that the significant prevalence of diabetes has a negative impact on both the physical and mental health of people and the family? Explain your point of view?

4: What are the general measures that you will take to prohibit the occurrence of diabetes occurrence from your community?

5: What steps have been taken by your government to create awareness about diabetes occurrence?

6: How often do you get a routine check-up for yourself and your family members?

7: Is diabetes genetic diseases which has been running in your family over time or do you feel this is due to unhealthy consumption of food with high sugar content?

Personal reflection

The topic in research for this article is the assessment of the occurrence of diabetes among indigenous communities. While researching questions related to the matter of discussion, I have been motivated to the most since the prevalence of diabetes amongst the indigenous communities across the world has been concerning. While measures of prevalence and incidence are useful in determining the magnitude of a disease's burden in society, they are insufficient in determining the individual's risk viewpoint and I wanted to get into depth of it. For this research, I am committed to doing right by the people whom I will be interviewing; ensuring every type of confidentiality is maintained. I will make sure they get fair, honest and honourable treatment from my end apart from the feeling of security. It is necessary for them to feel comfortable given they belong to a completely different culture. After that, it will ensure that there is no biased interview happening even if the individual I’m interviewing turns out to be my colleague. Any kind of bias can harm the outcome for the project. There will be full transparency maintained between the people I will be interviewing, researching and my research team. I will abide by every ethical conduct and make sure things are in order.


Project proposal and a strategic plan form the base of a project. It needs to be framed with proper planning. The main aspect of a project proposal is the specification of the methodology which consists of the approach, methods and data collection techniques that researchers will consider while conducting the project or the study. It also includes the research question that will be focused at the foremost level. Here, the researcher will be focused on understanding the occurrence of diabetes among the native community people of Australia. Thus, the methods and the techniques have been specified accordingly.


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