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DAT7001 Data Handling and Decision Making Assignment Sample

Assignment Brief

As part of the formal assessment for the programme, you are required to submit a Data Handling and Decision Making essay. Please refer to your Student Handbook for full details of the programme assessment scheme and general information on preparing and submitting assignments.

Date for Submission: Please refer to the timetable on ilearn
(The submission portal on iLearn will close at 14:00 UK time on the date of submission)

Learning Outcomes (LO):

After completing the module, you should be able to:

1. Analyse methods of auditing data holdings and gap identification.

2. Critically analyse theoretical and core processes of data manipulation and mining.

3. Utilizes and evaluate basic statistical concepts.

4. Appreciate ethical issues and their importance to data handling and decision making.

5. Develop a practical ability with data analysis and data mining methods to analyse and interpret data sets.

6. Make recommendations based upon the findings from data analysis.

7. Graduate Attribute – Effective Communication

Communicate effectively both, verbally and in writing, using a range of media widely used in relevant professional context.

Maximum word count: 1,000 words
Please note that exceeding the word count by over 10% will result in a reduction in grade by
the same percentage that the word count is exceeded.

Assignment Part 1: Data Gap Analysis

Data gap analysis can be referred to as the process of inspecting an existing or planned big data infrastructure with the aim of identifying issues, risks and inefficiencies associated with the use of data in organization’s operations. Such analysis requires an integrated view on technical, managerial and legal aspects of organisational data. This activity represents a key initial step towards implementation of data-driven business decision-making.

For this assignment, you are required to demonstrate the data gap analysis for assignment help

You are encouraged to relate this assignment to your workplace, so that the outcomes can immediately be applied to improving its data analytics processes. However, if you have no immediate workplace to analyzed or its use for the assignment purposes is not possible, then you have an option of adopting another project (such as a commercial start-up, community project or social enterprise) which would take advantage of data driven decision-making. Either an existing or prospective project can be discussed. In the latter case, the data infrastructure might not exist yet, however, you have an opportunity to propose its design and analyze it for any potential gaps.

Please turn over for the questions

Task 1.1

Perform data gap analysis for an organization or project of your choice. Your response should include:
• Brief background to the organization or project in question.
• Identification of the key data sources and datasets available to the organization.
• Inspection of data integrity and current or potential gaps in data analytics and data protection.

Task 1.2

Using the findings of Task 1.1, recommend improvements to the organisational data analytics processes. These should be centered around the following:

• Reorganization of the current data-driven processes to streamline and enhance the data analytics and decision making.

• Roadmap to the development or enhancement of the big data infrastructure.

• Compliance aspects of the proposed changes in data analytics.

Task 1.3

Explain how the proposed big data analytics can be used in the organizational decision making. This includes the following:

• Identification of a range of business decisions that can be supported by the enhancements in data analytics proposed in Task 1.2.

• Formulation of a single decision of your choice out of those identified, in terms of the related business question to be solved, involved stakeholders and data available for its support. (You will then be required to analyze this decision systematically in Part 2 of this Assignment.)

 Submission Guidance

Assignments submitted late will not be accepted and will be marked as a 0% fail.
Your assessment should be submitted as a single Word (MS Word) or PDF file. For more information, please see the “Guide to Submitting an Assignment” document available on the module page on iLearn.
You must ensure that the submitted assignment is all your own work and that all sources used are correctly attributed. Penalties apply to assignments which show evidence of academic unfair practice.


Task 1.1

Brief Background of the organization

The subsidiary company of Google is Alphabet Inc. which was renamed in 2015. Alphabet Inc. allowed the expansion of Google into domains outside of the internet search. Alphabet advertises Google's services to become a technology conglomerate. The company is working on a big breakthrough and providing super-fast internet services (CNN 2021). Alphabet invests in long-term technological trends. The company manages the data of a huge range of consumers, which aims to improve the security of data.

Identification of data sources in Alphabet Inc.

Alphabet manages the data of six subsidiaries of Google, where the information related to the browsing history of consumers, location data, and business intelligence data are sourced. The shares of Google are transferred to the Alphabet stock, where the information related to the new company trades are specific datasets. Alphabet also researches health data where the focus is mainly given up on the management of Google investment (Franek 2019). Around 40 subsidiaries are related to investment, where Google LLC is the core part. However, the company also manages the data related to stock prices, press releases, company news, contact information, and board member executives. The unprecedented mass of data of the company's consumers makes it more ambitious in resource management.

Investigation of a current potential gap in data analytics and data protection

Alphabet Inc. integrates the data of consumers for promoting security and privacy of data by managing the network integrity. In the track records of Alphabet Inc., an unfair and deceptive practice related to data privacy and data security has been discovered. It has highlighted a data gap between the FFC's evident lack of remedial security and data privacy authority and Google's evident security and data privacy recidivism (Cleland 2018). The data gap analysis shows that FTC does not enforce any authoritative power to deter Google Alphabet. Around 17 pieces of evidence of major business practices have been discovered to support the argument. The personal data of consumers show an evident gap where the information of consumers is not secured. The data gap shows that the company has seriously harmed consumer welfare.

Task 1.2

Reorganization of current data-driven processes

The company Google Alphabet Inc. needs to promote the security of data where FTC has to reinvestigate the privacy and reinforce data security authority from the Congress to identify the company's rampant recidivist deceptive privacy and security practices. To promote security to the consumer data, the company has to build strong resilience in the internet platforms. Proper implementation of the data analytics process for decision-making regarding the security and privacy of data is necessary (Karthiban and Raj 2019, p. 130). The company uses Web Index to match the potential queries and to produce results where the data from trusted sources are driven. However, the accuracy in the machine learning process helps the company to manage reliability. Google Alphabet Inc. can manage the security issues by promoting data analytics like AI or block chain technology which will help to manage the data security of consumers by protecting the data rights. Operationalizing through XOps to create business value can help better decision-making and make analytics an integral part of security. Data-driven creatives may help the company in the decision-making process. Big data analytics helps monitor data breaches to ensure data security (Tang, Alazab, and Luo 2017, p. 318). For managing the information security of consumers, the company has to speed up the recovery process of data breaching and automate the big data analytics process to prevent further data privacy issues. Operating data and analytics processes as a core business function and promoting engineered decision insights may help the company manage data security. However, the FTC has to track the record of the company's data management process to analyze the gap and support the company to maintain data privacy.

Roadmap to the development of big data infrastructure

Compliance aspects of proposed changes in data analytics

The data security compliance regulation related to the company's data gap issue may help the company to achieve security, integrity, and availability of sensitive data and information systems. The GDPR helps protect personal data with proper legal enforcement (Blix, Elshekeil, and Laoyookhong 2018). This can help the company to manage the proper security of consumer information. The regulatory compliance in the data analytics process helps in managing the storage mechanisms and governing the respective data and semantics. However, the regulatory compliances related to security management of the information of the consumers may help to resolve the evident gap. With specific compliance analytics, the company will enforce policy for protecting the data from misuse. The FTC will help in reinforcing the security compliances to manage the data gap.

Task 1.3

Identification of business decisions

Enhancement in the data analytics process in Google Alphabet may lead to changes in financial decisions. The organization has to plan for cost estimation for the implementation of data analytics. To improve the operational efficiencies, engineered decision intelligence will be taken in guidance. Data analytics will help in the decision-making process regarding security management (Rassam, Maarof, and Zainal 2017). In this case, the company can implement AI or block chain for maintaining the privacy of data of the consumers. However, the analytics will comply with the regulatory policies of data security management, which will help the company manage the existing data gap. However, security experts should be hired for managing the potential risks in consumer data management. The organization has to make changes in system management to promote proper access control and authentication of data. Implementation of the data analytics decision-making process will encourage the company to document relevant information regarding the system operation.

The selected decision for the organization

Implementation of data analytics tools for information security can be an effective solution for the organization. AI or block chain tool implementation in the system network will help to monitor the data and to maintain the privacy of customer information. Consumers are significant stakeholders of the organization. Security of the available data related to the stakeholders will be possible through data analytics tool implementation.


Blix, F., Elshekeil, S.A. and Laoyookhong, S., 2018. Designing GDPR Data Protection Principles in Systems Development. Journal of Internet Technology and Secured Transactions (JITST), [Online], 6(1).

Cleland, S., 2018. A Case Study of Alphabet-Google’s 2004-2018 Privacy Track Record of Evident Unfair and Deceptive Over-collection of Consumers’ Personal Data Exposes an Evident Gap in the FTC’s Remedial Authority to Protect Consumers. [online], Available from: https://www.ftc.gov/system/files/documents/public_comments/2018/07/ftc-2018-0052-d-0005-147574.pdf [Accessed 2 July 2021].

CNN, 2021. What is Google’s new Alphabet? - CNNMoney. [online] Available from: https://money.cnn.com/interactive/technology/what-is-googles-new-alphabet/index.html [Accessed 2 July 2021].

Franek, K., 2019. What Companies Google & Alphabet Own: Visuals & Full List. [online] Available from: https://www.kamilfranek.com/what-companies-alphabet-google-owns/ [Accessed 2 July 2021].

Karthiban, M.K. and Raj, J.S., 2019. Big data analytics for developing secure internet of everything. Journal of ISMAC, [Online], 1(02), 129-136.

Rossum, M.A., Maarof, M. and Zainal, A., 2017. Big Data Analytics Adoption for Cybersecurity: A Review of Current Solutions, Requirements, Challenges and Trends. Journal of Information Assurance & Security, [Online], 12(4).

Tang, M., Alazab, M. and Luo, Y., 2017. Big data for cybersecurity: Vulnerability disclosure trends and dependencies. IEEE Transactions on Big Data, [Online], 5(3), 317-329.

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ISYS1004 Contemporary issue in Information Technology Assignment Sample

Due Date – Sunday of week 6
Weight – 55%

Some Options for Assignment 3: Essay Topic

The following offers a list of broad ideas suitable for students to consider as a topic for their essays. Students are encouraged to select an area to specialise in for their essays. The focus should be to define a narrow, but deep (detailed), area of research. It is anticipated that pursuing such a “narrow and deep” topic area is likely to provide students with high levels of autonomy, ownership, motivation and personalised learning outcomes.

The list is only intended as an idea prompt. Students are encouraged to identify alternative topic areas to pursue if they wish. If you are not sure about your topic, you may contact your tutor for consideration and authority to proceed.

Each of the topics identified below contains ethical considerations. Each is open to be viewed for its relative strengths and weaknesses (positive and negative effects). Such a balanced consideration of strengths and weaknesses must be incorporated into the Report. Select only one of the topics mentioned below each numbered header! Areas which do not hold such “two-way” arguments are not suitable as a topic area. For example, the incidence of malware (such as viruses) is not a suitable report topic area as it is “all bad” in its effect on society…unless a student can clearly argue some positive effects.

You are required to produce your essay in response to your selected topic area for assignment help

The essay will be about the impact of computers, information technology, and their applications, including ethical implications, in a specific area of business, society or culture.

The essay should not be less than 1500words, excluding references.
Your essay should contain three main components: Introduction, Body, and Conclusion.



Communication requires sending and receiving different thoughts and information from one place or person to another and this is emerging with information technology has impacted society differently and has created a lot of improvements for individuals to safely and securely communicate with each other. The data and privacy of an individual play an important role and the implications and impacts of computers to be discussed in the research study of communicating with information technologies with the facts that areas of business been involved with the new technology and impacts upon society and culture of this also to be discussed in the further report. The study research for communicating with IT presents various forms of communication and their applications.

Communicating with IT

Communication in simple terms explained as the means of transferring thoughts and messages from one source, person, or group of people to another where the information has been transferred or shared among them with texts or writing or listening, or sometimes by reading also. Information technology has been playing a major role in communication though as it is providing a platform for people to communicate with each other and a platform for means of sharing information easily from anywhere to everywhere. Not only for socializing but also in workplaces it helps in achieving and improving good relationships between people (Van der Bles et.al., 2019).

Information technology has made it easy for anyone to communicate anywhere around the world just by using any form of communication which has been discussed below:

Different Forms of IT Communication

There are mainly five types of communication forms in information technology which include:
• Verbal communication
• Non-verbal communication
• Written communication
• Listening
• Visual communication

1. Social Networking Sites

Social networking sites are online networking platform which does allow people to interact with public profiles of other users and build networks by themselves. The social media platform works on the schema to connect with the user whom they want to and the acceptance from that user confirm the connection over the platform (Sundararaj and Rejeesh, 2021).

Impact of computers: Social networking is performed over the internet connecting millions of networks and managing traffic over the internet and computers in the networking play a major role while connecting one user to another. Computers not only help in connecting but also play a major role in storing and managing data over social networking sites where people can communicate and can reach out to the information, they shared anytime through the database management system.

Applications The applications of the social networking sites include

Facebook, YouTube, WhatsApp, Instagram, Snapchat, Telegram, Twitter, Skype, LinkedIn, etc. engage millions of networks of active users, and the massive appeal engagement focus to optimize scale over social efforts.

Ethical implications: The ethical implications of social networking sites involve the danger of hackers which do enters into one’s privacy without their permission and using the information according to their needs and aspirations. Another implication involves Scammers, Spam, Viruses, and Malware present over the internet which do harm the security and privacy of the person.

Specific area of business: The specific area of business in social networking sites offers product promotions while connecting millions of people online, promoting their websites, products, services, brands, etc. Social networking is a benefit for e-commerce businesses as it requires people’s attention and support to run a business through the network to get customers and clients for gaining profit. Improving the awareness of the brands among people, collaborating with effective clients, engaging people, building trust and loyalty among customers, and better customer satisfaction.

Society or Culture: The practices and the beliefs among people connected build trust and loyalty to the social networking platforms to use it as a safe means of information exchanging platform and hence the social structure builds with all the beliefs and trust over social networking sites.

Mobile computing:

Mobile computing technology in today’s time plays an important role in transferring data from one place to another via the internet using any hardware device for the connection (Verduyn et.al., 2020). The environment where the connections on the devices build without any cables or physical links.

Source: https://digitalthinkerhelp.com/what-is-mobile-computing-advantages-disadvantages-applications/

Impact of computers: The computers on mobile computing have a major impact as the device for the transmission of information is a necessity as the person’s physical availability on the location is not required if there are mobile connections through hardware or software.

Information technology: Mobile computing is one of the fastest methods in information technology and the most reliable sector in the field of computing and communication with IT (Higham, 2020).

Applications: There are multiple real-life applications of mobile computing including:

Traffic, Emergencies situations, use in business, credit card verification, replacement of fixed networks, infotainment, courts, e-government, transactions, tours and travels, paging, and electronic mails.

Ethical implications: The ethical implications in mobile computing involve malicious destruction, industrial espionage, hacking, online fraud, etc.

Area of business: Mobile computing is a complete set of technology that can be used for products, Services, procedures, strategies, and operations, where any user from a mobile device can access any information and sources related to their requirements and helps end users to access computation procedures.

Society or culture: Multiple users and people are connecting to mobile computing and there are very less in today’s time who are not introduced to mobile computing. The benefits of mobile computing are engaging more and more people to use it for their reasons for work or for communicating with the person. Society accepts technology more over time and culture is adjusting to new emerging technologies in communicating with information and technology.

Work from Anywhere:

Mobile Computing has done it possible for people to work from home from any location without physically present over the location which has provided such a great platform for the youth in today’s time mainly for the female over the world who cannot relocate to the particular location due to their reason that they can work from home by connecting to anyone anywhere through mobile and communicating over the internet and exchanging information for the business purpose. The work from home anywhere had increased the employment rate over the world which is a great benefit in the information technology where many people do connect over texts, audio calls, video calls, etc. as a means of exchanging information and sharing thoughts helping in growing up of their business and creating opportunities for people to work from their preferred location. Freedom to work from a preferred location has made the work easy which has been done through changing technology over a period and people accepting change and presenting the best they can (Nazir et.al., 2019).

Applications for Mobile Consumers

The applications tend to be the software programs inside any computing devices through which every process is happening in information technology. The programs inside the software in applications contain a set of operations that are used by the users to perform specific functions.

Impact of computers: The application uses the computer’s operating system to run the program to perform the specific task or function according to the user’s requirement and provide communication services while connecting multiple people over the internet with different technologies and social networking sites.

Applications: The applications for mobile consumers include word processors, web browsers, image editors, communication platforms such as social media and social networking sites, deployment tools, database programs, etc.

Ethical implications: Ethical implications of the applications involve the misuse of the personal information of anyone, lack of responsibility of oversight and acceptance, moral use of data and resources, disruptive technology adoption, customer trust, and respect, etc.

Specific area of business: The business purpose applications include;

• Reservation software system
• Communication applications
• Accounting applications
• Human Resource Information application
• Inventory management applications
• Demand forecasting applications
• Schedule management applications
• Service management applications

Society or culture: The changing technology rapidly affects society to learn and communicate while also helping each other to be independent and not rely upon anyone for daily activities. The applications in society have to impact positively as well as negatively as some applications may effecting the culture and minds of youth which is making society impact lives but on a positive side, the culture is not getting affected by applications as it is providing a platform for everyone to learn and think and grow on their own (Das and Bhatia, 2022). Technology through communication with information and technology has grown society and culture to another level.


The communication with information technology study research described the various forms of communications made possible by changing technologies impacting society and culture and the various applications of the different forms of communication in IT with the ethical implications impacting technology. The study report consists of the different areas of business with the different social networking, mobile computing, and other forms of communications made possible for people to communicate and interact with each other easily and work effectively. Technology positively impacts business by sharing thoughts of each other and learning and growing in every aspect. The concluded report of the communication with information and technology has been described with all requirements fulfillment.


Van der Bles, A.M., Van Der Linden, S., Freeman, A.L., Mitchell, J., Galvao, A.B., Zaval, L. and Spiegelhalter, D.J., 2019. Communicating uncertainty about facts, numbers and science. Royal Society open science, 6(5), p.181870.

Higham, P., 2020. Communicating with technology, computers and artificial intelligence: Are human rights and privacy being neglected?. Journal of Data Protection & Privacy, 3(4), pp.363-375.

Verduyn, P., Gugushvili, N., Massar, K., Täht, K. and Kross, E., 2020. Social comparison on social networking sites. Current opinion in psychology, 36, pp.32-37.

Sundararaj, V. and Rejeesh, M.R., 2021. A detailed behavioral analysis on consumer and customer changing behavior with respect to social networking sites. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 58, p.102190.

Nazir, S., Ali, Y., Ullah, N. and García-Magariño, I., 2019. Internet of things for healthcare using effects of mobile computing: a systematic literature review. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, 2019.

Das, S. and Bhatia, R., 2022. based microfluidic devices: Fabrication, detection, and significant applications in various fields. Reviews in Analytical Chemistry, 41(1), pp.112-136.

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MBIS4010 Professional Practice in Information Systems Essay Sample

Assessment Description

This assessment task assesses students’ ability to apply theoretical learning to practical, real world situations. The aim is to help students to understand the benefits of ethical values in their professional life. Modern communication technologies allow for the transmission of opinion to a larger and more diverse audience. To what extent should Australian law limit one person's speech to minimize the impact on another? Prepare a business report on this issue that provides a brief historical background of freedom of speech as a universal human right and outlines some examples of where free speech should be limited. Your essay should be a synthesis of ideas researched from a variety of sources and expressed in your own words. It should be written in clear English and be submitted at the end of week 5 in electronic format as either a Word document of a pdf file. This electronic file will be checked using Turnitin for any evidence of plagiarism. You are expected to use references in the normal Harvard referencing style.



The freedom to hold a personal opinion and impart information, ideas, and knowledge without the interference of any public authority correlates with the concept of freedom of speech (French, 2019). The reinforcement of human rights and laws over the concept of freedom of speech declares the non-violence of rights, and the legislations assure some limitations in the freedom of speech (Bejan, 2019). For Assignment Help However, the universal declaration of human rights regarding the freedom of speech is changing its meaning in the modern communication technology-oriented world where transmission of speech to a larger and diverse audience through electronic mediums has been possible. With this respect, the existing essay will show the responsibility of Australian law to limit the freedom of speech to minimize the adverse impact of an individual's speech over others.

Limiting the concept of freedom of speech

The concept of freedom of speech

Articles 19 and 20 in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights advocate freedom of opinion and expression (Ag, 2021). The right to speech freedom includes both the mediums such as oral and written communications. Apart from it, the broadcasting, media, commercial advertisement, and public protest also correspond with the idea of freedom of speech. Modern communication processes include information technology where the restrictions in freedom of speech consist of restricted access to several web sites, urging violence and classification of the art materials. Article 19(1) advocates for the right to freedom of opinion without any interference, and article 19(2) protects the freedom of speech in various communication mediums, be it media or face-to-face communication. In the information communication technology-oriented world, the exercise of the right to freedom of speech includes several responsibilities. It includes respecting the reputations or rights of others and protecting national security for keeping the sanctity of morality. However, the Australian constitution advocates for freedom from government restraint rather than individual human rights. The Universal Declaration of human rights corresponds with the specific legislation and political rights where Australia favours the UDHR and affirms fundamental human rights, including the freedom of speech (Aph, 2019). The fundamental right to speak freely is built upon a history of human rights where the milestones have developed the current status of human rights in various countries and its universal approach.

Limitations to the freedom of speech and relevant legislation

Article 20 of ICCPR in Australia has some mandatory restrictions for the freedom of speech and expression, which relates to the country's existing Commonwealth and legal statuses in various stages, reservation rights are being prioritized. The Australian law related to human rights regulates the publication, display or promotion, broadcast, and content containing violence. For example, the law interferes in copyright violation where the written medium of communication is protected with the right to privacy, and this restricts the access of other users to the authentic content. However, the active vigilance of the legislation restricts fraudulent attempts to copy the content of a writerwhich is a significant benefit of the ethics.Therefore, the law protects human rights and limits the freedom of speech in both written and oral communication mediums in electronic or technical mediums (Hallberg and Virkkunen, 2017).

The materials involved in a specific kind of media, be it films, written or news, require to be verified and approved by the legislation containing article 20 in Australia. For example, films containing child pornography and obscenities are banned by the censor board. Obscenity can lead to violation of human rights and spread a wrong message in society. Australian government limits the publication of contents containing child pornography and obscenity to ensure proper use of the right to freedom of speech and to ensure the non-violence of human rightswhich benefits the people in the country to remain obedient to the laws. Another example is commercial advertisement or expression through media. Commercial advertisements are also specific media of communication in the technology-oriented world where freedom of speech to portray the wrong content in the advertisement can lead to violence of commercial expression (Gelber, 2021). Article 20 in Australia regulates the expression or advertisement of businesses that might prove harmful to society.The step is considerably beneficial in restricting the wrong messages to theaudience.However, the imposed censorship ensures proper classification of the entertainment content where the law limits freedom of speech for social good.

Freedom of speech is closely related to political uprights in a nation. An individual may not induce political chaos by bringing controversial statements in public. For example, during an individual's political opinion in social media, the freedom of speech is restricted to some extent as the speech of violence and criminality are abolished by the law. The proper regulation and observation of information contained in social media ensure the resolution of political violence occurring from freedom of speech (Howie, 2018). Article 20 ensures the approval of public protest in electronic media as it can instigate turmoil and conflict in people belonging from diverse regions and distant locations, which may result in widespread anger and chaos. To restrict any wrongful protest due to the freedom of speech, the Government blocks the path of access to information. This helps to keep peace in public and political environment in the country.

Declaration of law related to freedom of speech ensures obliteration of racial discrimination and religious conflicts (Stone, 2017). For example, due to the emergence of modern communication technology, people from different regions of the world have the scope to mingle where the opinions related to racial differences may hurt an individual community, which can lead to violation of human rights. In the case of religion, the diverse religious background of people has different faiths over their religions where unlawful and negative comments regarding each others' religious faith can lead to creating sensitive issues. So, article 20 in Australiabenefits the public bysecuring the racial and religious grounds through enforcing strict laws and punishment for violation of human rights.


The positive aspects related to freedom of speech allow an individual to express their valuable ideas and options to the public through using modern communication systems which results in the preservation of social rights and well-being. On the other hand, the negative aspects such as violation of human rights concerning politics, religion, race, and other factors may result in chaos, conflicts, and even criminalization. Therefore, limitations in the rights to freedom of speech and expression are required in specific cases to maintain proper sanctity in social structure. Article 20 in Australia promotes proper protection of human rights through restricting the freedom of speech where it can create significant issues for society.


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