7138SOH Global Healthcare Challenges Assignment Sample
Description of the coursework
You are required to write an essay addressing either TYPE-2 diabetes or Tuberculosis. For either option, your essay will be provided with a case-study to inform or use as knowledge- base to write your essay exploring and analysing factors in globalisation and global change that influence aspects of the disease that you chose to write on.
OPTION 1: A Global Health Perspective in Fighting Diabetes – The China Case-study
Type-2 diabetes, a consequence of malnutrition, is now one of the commonest non- communicable diseases whose emergence, control and management are influenced by globalization process and global change.
Critically analyse how factors within globalisation process and global change contribute to the increased global burden of type-2 diabetes, and set out the challenges facing global and public health agents in their fight against the disease.
Guiding Instructions for doing the essay
Through analysing and interpreting globalisation issues beyond those identified in the case- study on fighting type 2 diabetes in China, use guidance 1-4 below to structure a 2,500 word essay in response to the task described in Option 1.
Students will be required to analyse a case-study of a global healthcare issue and use it as knowledge base to do the essay coursework.
Word count: 2,500 words (± 10%), Credit worth: 20 credits
1. Identify and describe FOUR globalization factors and explore to clarify how EACH factor influences global emergence and prevalence of type-2 diabetes [1000 words].
2. Identify and describe the role of FOUR categories of agents involved in activities for the prevention, control and management of type-2 diabetes [375 words].
3. For each of the FOUR categories, identify and examine the challenges facing specific Organisations or initiatives in performing their role to reduce the global burden of type-2 diabetes [1,000 words].
4. Draw your conclusions about (i) globalization and type-2 diabetes emergence, and (ii) challenges facing global efforts to reduce impact of type-2 diabetes [125 words].
An effective essay should demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the connections between complex globalisation processes and malnutrition leading to type-2 diabetes. The essay should therefore critically analyse the meaning of globalisation and clarify how its processes influence malnutrition, health inequalities and emergence of type-2 diabetes. An effective essay also shows evidence of thinking about global and public health systems’ response to type-2 diabetes crisis by discussing the challenges facing global agents and partnerships in fighting the disease.
For further advice on writing the essay see module guide subsection 6.3.3 General essay guidelines Assessment
OPTION 2 – Fighting Tuberculosis: A Global Health Perspective
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the commonest communicable diseases whose emergence, and effectiveness of the control and treatment strategies are influenced by globalization process and global change.
Critically analyse how factors within globalisation process and global change contribute to increased emergence, spread and global burden of tuberculosis, and set out the challenges facing global and public health agents in their fight against the disease
Guidance for doing the coursework
(i) Guidance for doing the coursework will be provided in synchronous sessions in Week 5 or Week 11.
(ii) The weekly student-led seminars are also designed to help students develop the skills to critically analyse and interpret ideas about globalisation and health that are highlighted in case-studies. We expect students to actively participate in seminar discussions to familiarise themselves with the approaches to critical analysis of the concepts that feed into their coursework because they will be expected to use the approaches to do their coursework.
(iii) As the module progresses students will complete a Proforma Essay Plan (use template provided) for weekly review with the tutors to show how they plan to logically respond to the coursework task in order to achieve the module learning outcomes.
Structure of the essay
(i) The work should have a concise and informative essay title that shows full interpretation of the coursework task. Title of the case-study being used as the knowledge base for the essay is therefore NOT appropriate.
(ii) The case-study will be accompanied with FOUR clearly numbered instructions to follow in structuring your essay responding to the coursework task.
(iii) Introduction - The essay should have a helpful introduction that interpret the assessment task, clarify about its aim, and an outline of the argument to be presented in response to the coursework task.
(iv) Main Body - The essay should be structured as A FLOWING RESPONSE to the coursework task and must logically follow the order of the guiding instructions provided with the case-study.
• No subheadings
• No bullet points or listing of ideas, and
• No graphs, maps and / or tables.
The task requires students to instead verbally interpret, describe and explain the information presented relevant to the topic being discussed.
(v) Conclusion – In line with instruction 4 on the guidance for doing the coursework, the essay should summarise the discussion so that the reader gets a clear overview of what you have argued in response to what the coursework required you to do.
Arguments in the essay should be referenced using APA style of referencing. As a guide, every 1,000 words used in the essay should have at least 10 references to show evidence of wide reading
OPTION 2 – Fighting Tuberculosis: A Global Health Perspective
Tuberculosis could be referred to as a potentially serious infectious disease that to measure only impacts the lungs (Churchyard et al., 2017). The bacteria which causes this disease tends to spread from person to person through tiny droplets that are released into the air through sizes and cops. Most people that have been infected with the bacteria do not have any symptoms. However, the common symptoms of tuberculosis include coughs that are blood tinged, night sweats, weight loss, and heavy fever. Treatment isn't always required for those individuals who do not report any symptoms. Patients with active symptoms require a long course of treatment which involves multiple antibiotics. It is a highly common disease in the world right now which is easily transmissible (Pescarini et al., 2017). It could be partially preventable by vaccine and is treated by a medical professional. In order to do so the individual needs to gain a medical diagnosis.
The globalisation factors that contributed in to spread and prevalence of tuberculosis on a global level are discussed as follows:
Migration: it has been identified that up to 2% of the world's population is living outside the country of their birth. It has led to an impact on the population mobility on use of health services and the entire health paradigm (Oppong, 2020). They have now become a burden on the host Nations and the importance of this particular aspect is regularly increasing. The drivers of mobility which includes the process of international movement along with back and forth transition between different risk environments have been major factors in the management of infectious disease in the areas which receive heavy influx of migrants. It is vital to note that the issues of Management and high level and broad which have also been cross-cutting in the past (Lönnroth et al., 2016). These include policies and managing the migration process for skilled labour requirements. It is upon the host country to make sure that people and the territory for fulfilling their purposes are not acting as the agent of diseases and imposing a burden on the Healthcare system. They also need to take into account biometric characteristics and population demographics for assessing the labour coming into the country and the ways in which they could impact others around them. Family reunification has also become a considerable factor with in the migration paradigm as it dictates the behaviour of the person entering another country and the ways in which the individual would contribute to these issues are also encompass Health Care professional. Training and maintenance of competence as the need to cater to the migrant population as well as the citizens while dealing with the communicable diseases such as tuberculosis (Lee, 2018). It is essential on behalf of the host country to monitor the health service use and health outcomes in both local and migrant populations in order to make sure that communicable diseases such as tuberculosis are not studied at white scale due to the influx of people in the country.
Global travel and tourism: it is vital to note that movement is associated with the spread of disease in many ways. One of the major ways in which travel helps infectious diseases to spread is by introducing new microorganisms into a new Geographic area. When a novel pathogen enters a population that did not have an experience of this microbe it is likely to cause disease outbreak. Microbes that mostly cause symptomatic and mild infections intended to spread widely and still manage to cause disaster outbreaks (Allen & Feigl, 2017). Microorganisms that survive in the human host completely such as the tuberculosis bacteria readily spread in a new area. However, if one or more intermediate vectors or hosts are involved or the microbe has a complicated life cycle the introductions of bacteria and to a new Geographic area really lead to outbreaks because the requirement of a catalyst can act as a barrier. It is necessary to understand that a permissive condition can exist in a new location that introduces the pathogen to infect and spread (Laranjo et al., 2018). For instance, in that location where people do not cover their mouth and face while sneezing and coughing can lead to a severe spread of Tuberculosis. However, in a particular location where people are educated about the disease and unaware that the need to cover their faces with masks when visiting in public for controlling the spread of diseases are likely to restrict the spread of tuberculosis on their own behalf (Abdisamdov & Tursunov, 2020). Introduction of a new micro oven use of graphical areas has been considerably facilitated by global travel and tourism because the countries now do not have many restrictions while welcoming people into their territory and are highly flexible which makes it easy for people to go to another region and infect the population for best assignment help.
Lack of monitoring measures: it is necessary to note that tuberculosis almost feels like a coughing and sneezing which is highly common. When an individual travel through a global border and reports coughing and sneezing it is highly unlikely on behalf of the airport authorities or other individuals to stop the individual and check the symptoms (Zumla & Abubakar, 2018). Due to this, most of the patients suffering from tuberculosis are able to enter another country without too many restrictions and monitoring measures which expose the people of a foreign Nation towards the development of the disease. However, it is vital to understand that people who themselves are suffering from tuberculosis do not have the slightest idea that they are suffering from this particular disease and hence act as an agent of spreading the same without the required information (Wirth, 2018). This is also because of lack of monetary measures where the first people tend to view fever and sizes as a response to the weather and not as something that could be life threatening diseases.
Lack of education and awareness: there are some nations that do not have the required education and awareness for detecting the diseases and end up acting as agents for spreading them in other developed countries. The World Health Organisation reported that eight countries accounted for around two third of the total disease count which was led by India. It was then followed by China, Philippines, Indonesia, Nigeria, Pakistan, South Africa, and Bangladesh (von Delft et al., 2016). All of these countries are developing countries and due to lack of awareness and education within the citizens contributed to the Global spread of Tuberculosis. Lack of education and awareness is a globalisation factor because now people have taken diseases and their spread very lightly as compared to the times when they were living their secluded borders (Schaller et al., 2019). For instance, there are still some countries in the world which have no idea about the existence of tuberculosis in the first place and feel that fever and sneezes are just a common response of the body and nothing they should be looking out for while screening people coming into their country or checking them.
Agents are of paramount importance as the preparation of documents by the health agencies requires specific knowledge of these agents (Verma et al., 2019). It is necessary to note that the role of four categories of agents which are involved in the activities of the prevention control and treatment of tuberculosis are discussed as follows:
International Healthcare Institutions: it is necessary to note that as tuberculosis processes a serious threat to people on a worldwide basis, Health Care Institutions are among the first agents who are responsible for treating and preventing tuberculosis in the region. International Institutions include Public Health Care facilities, World Health Organisation, CDC, NHS, etc. It was the World Health Organisation which declared the will clauses to be an international emergency 1993. It has helped the world to recognise the presence of tuberculosis and then develop ways for fighting the same. Presence of international Healthcare Institutions enables the entities to develop and implement a strategy on a global level for controlling tuberculosis and preventing the disease. It also streamlines the treatment because when a drug is developed in one country it could be given to the other regions as well so that they could minimise the impact of the bacteria (Mason et al., 2017).
Primary Health Care providers: when an individual suffers from basic symptoms of cough and sneezing the person is likely to visit the nearby hospital or clinic. The doctors there uh are known as Primary Health Care providers if they are in near to people and perform the early diagnosis of the situation (Camacho et al., 2020). They play an important role in detecting tuberculosis because the Primary Health Care provider needs to look out for all the symptoms and not classify TB as a common cold due to cough, sneezing, and fever (Armocida & Martini, 2020). It is essential that they take the required measures otherwise the cases can go undetected that can lead to a global epidemic of the bacteria. If the cases are not identified then it is highly unlikely that they could be prevented because the world would not have the information about an eruption of tuberculosis in a particular region.
Scientists and researchers: they are one of the most important agents because they work in order to develop vaccines and other Diagnostic procedures that could be used for identifying the prevalence of tuberculosis in the first place and then we used the antigenic method for developing the required vaccines (Rohde & McNamara, 2018). However, it is necessary to note that researchers also closely work with advanced and improved drugs which are effective for controlling the strains that are sensitive and resistant to existing medicines. Advancements in Global Medical Science have led to the duration of several drugs that have helped in controlling as well as curing tuberculosis such as MDR-TB (Balogun et al.., 2021). It is because of the efforts of researchers and scientists that it has been possible.
Non-governmental organisations: there are also vital agents in the treatment and prevention of tuberculosis on a global level. This is so because these organisations work in favour of underprivileged and economically backward people who might not even have the required awareness and education of identifying the tuberculosis in the first place. Non-governmental organisations work in order to spread awareness and educate people about how to distinguish TB from common cold (Kaplan et al., 2018). In many parts of the world it has been because of NGO that people have been given the required vaccination and drugs which are very costly if procured on a private level.
It is necessary to note that the agents also face challenges while performing their role to reduce global impact of tuberculosis. The challenges are as follows:
International Healthcare Institutions: One of the major challenges faced by the international Healthcare institutions in reference to control, prevention, and treatment of tuberculosis is the early detection of bacteria. This is so because it is highly difficult to distinguish tuberculosis from common cold and in order to do so speciality centres have been developed that have the required equipment (Lanza et al., 2020). International Healthcare Institutions tend to monitor these activities because they need to allot emergencies and provide the required material for global management of diseases.
Primary Health Care providers: The major challenge faced by Primary Health Care providers is the lack of resources (Burzynski & Keshavjee, 2020). This could be both physical as well as human resources. This is so because Primary Health Care providers are unlikely to have all the machinery and equipment that is needed to test every particular disease including tuberculosis. In some cases, they also fall short of nurses and other Health Care staff which makes it difficult on their behalf to manage the patients.
Scientists and researchers: Researchers and scientists tend to face the challenge of time (Rizzo et al., 2016). This is so because after a disease has been declared as a global emergency or a local epidemic that they need to collect the samples of antigens and test it along with the performing experiments in order to identify the ways in which particular bacteria reacts to different vaccines and chemical compositions (Denecke et al., 2019) . It takes a couple of months or an entire year depending on the complexity of the disease. It is a challenge because until the researchers and scientists develop vaccines through extensive R&D procedures the patients continue to develop adverse symptoms without an effective drug or medicine to help them deal with the same.
Non-governmental organisations: However, it is necessary to understand that Non-governmental organisations also face tough challenges while dealing with Global diseases because of lack of proper funding and the strategic direction (Demetriades, 2017). On some occasions they tend to collaborate with the government or private business Institutions for making the vaccine or drug easily accessible to people. It is necessary to understand that funding can play a major role because if an NGO would not have the required money it is highly unlikely that they would be able to procure vaccines or other resources for helping underprivileged people (Brown & Savulescu, 2019). However, the money is not only used in procuring vaccine supporters for also spreading awareness and educating people against tuberculosis and the ways in which they could minimise the impact on their own behalf. It is because of these and those that if people in remote areas are aware about the existence of TB and able to distinguish the same from the common cold so that they could seek for advanced treatment and not contribute to spreading on a community level.
From the essay, it can be concluded that globalisation has facilitated the spread of tuberculosis. This is so because globalisation has made it easy for people to travel around the world along with the flow of goods and ideas. This has not only contributed to the emergence of opportunity there but it has also made it easy for diseases to travel across borders and become an epidemic.
The major factors include migration, travel, lack of education, and lack of monitoring measures. Lack of education and monitoring measures are globalisation induced factors because the countries around the world have eased the restrictions of entering into territory and do not test people against common cold or other aspects which exposes them towards the risk of welcoming tuberculosis as an epidemic. The four categories of agents that are involved in the activities of prevention control and treatment of tuberculosis include International Healthcare organisations, Primary Health Care providers, scientists and researchers, and non-governmental organisations. It is necessary to understand that these agents deal with their own challenges in order to handle the epidemic of tuberculosis. Have a comma the common challenges include lack of resources and funding.
List of References
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