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SRM776 Introduction to Construction Management Essay Sample


1. This document is to be read in conjunction with the Unit Guide for this unit.

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For this individual assignment, each student must undertake secondary data research (at least 10 relevant journal articles) and produce an essay that addresses the essay topic. Please include a completed rubric (self-assessment) that indicates how you would assess your submission, including comments for the grades you have given.

Topic: Discuss the critical factors affecting skills shortages in construction in developed and


You must use journal articles only, rather than conference articles, blogs, and textbooks, to find the information for this essay. For background/introduction section on delays in the construction industry, you can refer to government data/websites. It is crucial to analyse the ‘what’ and ‘how’ of current knowledge to form your own opinions as well as comparison among developed and developing countries. There is no ‘correct answer’ to an essay – your task is to form a valid opinion based on the existing research.

The Week 2 lecture will include advice from library staff on how to search for appropriate materials as well as advice from language and learning support advisors on how to analyse journal articles and structure your essay. In Week 2 seminar, we will help you understand annotated bibliographies, find journal articles, and further understand this assignment's expectations.



The type of labour needed in construction might range from highly qualified experts to utterly unskilled workers. One of the most significant project risks is labour scarcity, which might transform successful efforts into ones suffering substantial costs and schedule overruns (Alshihri, Al-Gahtani, and Almohsen, 2022, p11). For Assignment Help, The need for more trained personnel is one of the critical construction risks that multinational builders operating in underdeveloped countries feel causes projects to be delayed. This research also determined the most crucial mitigating action: "raising salaries to prevent qualified worker movement to pursue jobs abroad." Each firm's performance is primarily determined by its human resources, especially in today's complicated, fiercely demanding, and ever-business climate. Human resources have been highlighted as a crucial element of an institution's long competitive edge and among the main catalysts for a nation's financial growth. Workers require specialised expertise and education to meet the difficulties of risky and complicated sectors. Raising the standard of constructional labour requires a great deal of effort and knowledge, particularly in surroundings, wellness, and protection. Anxiety over private subcontractors submitting bids for projects they lack the necessary knowledge of has been raised by specialists. As a large percentage of the workforce has constantly aged out and fewer new employees pursue professions in specific specialisations, there is a severe issue with skilled people.

Body of the essay

Skills shortage in developed and developing nations

The stockpile of troops in a labour sector could be assessed using the percentage of joblessness, the number of jobless employees, and available jobs noted within the industry (Aloisi and De Stefano, 2022, p9). In contrast, the requirement forces could be assessed using the GDP, the number of people under labour pressure, as well as sector spending. Among the most significant project hazards is a labour shortage, which can potentially turn profitable initiatives into ones that experience significant expense and timetable shortfalls. A lack of competent workers is one of the main dangers associated with construction that large builders working in developing nations believe contributes to project postponement. Employers, and various industry partners, may have ongoing issues due to insufficient workforce education and entrance into the labour market there in the construction sector. When a firm or collection of companies has more labour requirements than people willing to operate at the standard industry pay, there is a scarcity.

Moreover, they point out how a scenario whereby a company is unwilling to spend the salary necessary to end the labour shortfall should not be considered a real labour scarcity. Businesses might alternatively regard labour shortfalls as intrinsic skills inadequacies, in which the abilities of their current employees lack an ideal standard, or deficits in capabilities, in which current employees possess the necessary skills to perform respective tasks successfully (Bademosi, Blinn, and Issa, 2019, p60). It could be challenging to identify employees with the knowledge needed, and it's possible to have a "skill shortage" if a company's current employees cannot carry out their duties efficiently.

Among other things, the provision of competent and experienced staff is a component crucial for the attainment of building venture accomplishment, and it's a factor that the construction sector is strongly reliant on. Reliability, duration, budget, and profitability are all significantly impacted. The lack of skilled workers affects the economy and the social cohesion of the nation and sector. Most organisations solve skill gaps by effectively using their central personnel (e.g., extended weeks, higher compensation and circumstances, and institutional education), but some use additional measures. Skill gaps are a complicated labour marketplace phenomenon. For instance, offshoring and temporary employment). Such actions are frequently performed as quick solutions, and specific steps may have adverse long-term effects (Christensen et al. 2020, p131). For instance, working long hours might have a burning impact, potentially affecting adherence. Construction venture schedule overruns are a direct outcome of the primary important cause reason for a talent shortfall: "insufficient quantity of skilled employees flowing out of educational centres as well as reaching the labour marketplace."

Factors affecting skills shortages

Lack of proper investment in the construction industry

The levelling-up mission can only be achieved by investing in talent. According to the Certified Protection Professional study, the old regions of the Northern and the Central trail the nation as a whole on several abilities' metrics, whilst England and the Southern Part exhibit the opposite trend. The administration may significantly contribute to levelling the country by addressing such inequalities. A significant financial argument is also made. Investments in talent must be viewed as simply that investment instead of the usual discussion of financing amounts and expenses (Greer, 2021, p20-21). It has often been demonstrated that government funds invested in skill development are better than compensating for themselves. Those with better degree talents are less prone to need unemployed assistance and more inclined to contribute to greater taxation. Every expenditure should adhere to specific requirements, and expenses in ability development must prioritise both excellence and advancement. Upon that latter, previous programmes have far too frequently failed because they put numbers before goodness. By investing in construction employees' abilities, construction will not just increase their productivity and happiness, but it will also qualify individuals for more senior roles throughout the organisation. The company may give a devoted and experienced employee a raise rather than searching for outside applicants in this method.

Each company must try to limit staffing levels since it is costly and has unfavourable effects, including decreased productivity, overburdened employees, expertise loss, and higher training expenditures. The CPP has put forward an EcoBoost Entitlement to Reskill, acknowledging the province's position in providing individuals with the ability to traverse financial turmoil. This proposal is in response to the resilience of each other, the levelling up and financial instances for investing in skills in addition to the magnitude of the economic downturn the construction industry in developing and developed nation face (De Jong and Ho, 2021, p8). The metrics suggest as increasing web-based learning, as well as creating an innovative Beginners Monthly Stipend, call for a fundamental shift in how the construction skills scheme functions, with a preference for internet learning instead of traditional lecture hall instruction, gaining skills instead of stagnation, and municipal rather than nationwide handover. Such steps might be performed quickly, significantly, if web-based learning was accelerated in the construction sector so that delayed employees receive the required instruction before the programme is reversed. Because of its cyclical nature, the construction business frequently needs more employment stability. Individuals in the sector regularly abandon their jobs, but rarely because they lack ability; instead, it's just that the market for their products has stopped flowing. Individuals lose their employment when businesses go bankrupt, even if they may be due money over several months' worth of labour.

Lack of Experience in the Construction Industry

The construction industry usually has a skills and talent gap (García de Soto et al., p.206-207.). Many recently developed and developing nations are unable to secure employment. Furthermore, the quantity of unemployed, incompetent individuals appears limitless. There are plenty of individuals accessible; it is indeed simply that most of them have total absence experience, qualifications, or combination. But, whenever their contractors call for employees, the construction sector anticipates discovering qualified and experienced individuals. Mentorship and education are bad areas for constructing organisations. Several apprenticeship programmes have been eliminated, and the ones that remain in place are underutilised and frequently fail to place newly trained graduates into employment. Nations who have succeeded worked diligently and occasionally had a little fortune to get to executive roles in the construction industry. Employee training is a famously lousy practice for construction organisations (Newman et al. 2021, p7-8). Construction companies are hesitant to select and educate recent learners because they would instead go for skilled staffs that are frequently unavailable, pricey, or not necessarily the calibre candidate the organisation believed it was hiring.

In times of need, numerous construction businesses use subpar workers who cannot execute the work well, frequently damage the professional image, and spend the business funds. There is constantly an explanation, such as it would be too expensive, construction companies do not have sufficient time to educate employees, or if they do, they will quit or want more pay. Construction firms frequently lack long-term planning and focus primarily on the present job. As previously stated, the construction industry is seasonal, so businesses believe investing time in educating someone the company may not ultimately require would be inefficient. If the truth is known, it's most likely just that construction businesses are lazy and think they can quickly locate somebody to fill a job (Lu, Ye, Chau, and Flanagan, 2018, p7-8). But, everyone requires real-world expertise, and the sole method to obtain it would be if construction businesses offered the opportunity and mentorship. Several construction firms believe the state is responsible for giving construction abilities and certifications. And yet, the sector must not depend on government assistance. The image of the business is improved by employing competent staff. They are becoming more efficient, resulting in higher earnings and enabling the firm to lower its pricing. In the end, this implies that the business may get more business and expand, and newly qualified employees will be needed to sustain this expansion. Hiring freshly certified but unskilled individuals enables businesses to instruct employees in the practices and corporate culture. Since they carry the negative behaviours and poor environment of their previous employer behind them, new applicants hired because of their expertise and expertises are often disappointed since these traits may not be a suitable fit for the construction business.

Lack of Proper Training for Workers

In today's construction industry, skilled labour is essential because specialised work is required at various stages. As the pandemic scenario demonstrated, a lack of skilled workers has caused several ongoing projects to be delayed. Also, if talented people aren't available, the quality of the designs might stay the same, which is something one shouldn't risk these days. Thus, the development business has a severe work deficiency (Li et al. 2018, P6). Employees with insufficient training will produce less work of lower quality. Inadequate education and training have a negative impact on performance, which in turn has a negative effect on profits. This kind of work frequently results in mistakes, poor quality, and time-consuming reworking procedures. Its extensive effects have a negative impact on customers, suppliers, and other stakeholders. Worker morale and retention rates may suffer as a result of poor performance caused by a lack of training. Workers place a high value on having the skills necessary to perform well at work. When there are no learning and achievement tools and performance drops, attrition occurs. When mistakes are made and the company doesn't work as planned, morale in the workplace goes down, which makes retention rates even lower (Gao et al., 2019, P4). Complete the construction of a captive power plant not only takes a long time and costs a lot of money, but it also requires hiring highly skilled individuals. The lack of skilled labour in the country has a significant impact on project completion times, and the builders do not want to use more expensive options. The construction industry's important Part in all trades and jobs includes working at high Levels.

Everyone working there needs to be informed whenever there is a risk of falling. Construction companies face increased competition as a result of ongoing technological advancements and an increase in international trade. As a result, it is more important than ever to make sure that staff members have the education and skills they need to work safely and make a living. Poorly trained individuals, who are more likely to feel undervalued in their professions, contribute to workplace stress (Li, Greenwood and Kassem, 2019, P9). They will either leave in search of better opportunities, or the company will be forced to fire them due to their poor performance. Workers need specialised knowledge and training to deal with the challenges of dangerous and complex industries. It takes a lot of time and skill to raise the quality of industrial labour, especially in the areas of health, safety, and the environment. This requires knowledge, resources, and infrastructure. In this crucial EHS field, quality, expertise, and competence are urgent requirements. Delegates will get the secret sauce overall and information they need to safeguard themselves as well as others from surprising fatalities and wounds due to workspace security planning.

Additionally, it will assist in equipment and building protection and reduce associated costs. Skill shortages affect not only an industry but also the economy and society of a country's stability. Explain that the labour market's skill shortages are a complicated phenomenon and that the majority of businesses deal with them by increasing the use of core employees, while others use peripheral strategies.

Some of these actions may have long-term effects but are frequently chosen as quick fixes (Loosemore and Malouf, 2019, P3). For example, working longer hours may result in burnout, which may also be a violation of the law. It reveals that the primary cause of the talent shortage is "an insufficient number of skilled employees leaving training institutions and entering the labour market," which causes building projects to "overrun in time."The unemployment rate, the number of unemployed workers, and industry-reported job openings can be used to evaluate the supply forces in a labour market. In contrast, the demand forces can be evaluated using the gross domestic product, the number of employed workers in the labour market, and industry spending. One of the most significant threats to construction projects is a labour shortage, which has the potential to cause successful ones to run over budget and behind schedule. General contractors claim that a lack of skilled workers is a major factor in construction delays. Contractors and other workers in the industry can face ongoing issues as a result of inadequate workers' training and insufficient entry into the construction labour market in terms of numbers and required skills.

Lack of Safety Measures

Construction locations are among the most dangerous places to work in terms of employee health and safety. The construction industry faces a significant risk from fabricating processes, work-related seriousness, and word-related catastrophes that result in significant monetary losses and a poor reputation for the company. In the development business, well-being is an essential prerequisite that is, as often as possible, disregarded in places of work (Alsharef et al. 2021, P7). Workers are at risk of small and large daily accidents if appropriate safety standards are not in place due to the construction industry's risky and dynamic environment. Although the construction business has put forth various attempts to guarantee safe strategies, give labourers a protected workspace, and forestall mishaps hands in the vicinity, required well-being stays a far-off objective. Due to the size of the industry and the high number of accidents it causes, a construction safety management system is essential. Construction site safety management improves working conditions by lowering the risks posed by construction equipment, materials, and procedures. The contracts must be enforced if workers fail to comply with regulatory requirements. This is due to the fact that the company will be put in danger as a result of the development of a hazardous environment on the job site, which may result in financial and quality issues with the project if these standards are not adhered to (Chaudhary, Sodani and Das, 2020, P6). A portion of the problem can be attributed to workers' lack of interest in working in construction, despite the abundance of high-paying jobs on construction sites. White-collar jobs and four-year degrees have long been given top priority in American high schools and colleges, with some vocational programs being eliminated. Healthcare and social services take precedence over development. Construction businesses should spend more money training new employees in safety procedures and trade skills because they are under pressure to meet rising demand. In the past, new hires were taught specific skills and best practices on the job by experienced workers and new hires (Debata, Patnaik, and Mishra, 2020, P3). This kind of coaching is harder to do because there aren't enough qualified people. Another consequence of the skills shortage is the fact that some commercial contractors are entering residential construction, which can lead to problems. The skills and base of subcontractors required for residential and commercial construction are very different. Experts have expressed concern regarding commercial contractors bidding on tasks for which they lack expertise. There is a significant problem with skilled workers, as a significant portion of the workforce has consistently aged out, and fewer new workers are pursuing careers in particular specialities. This has become even worse as a result of a skills gap caused by the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19). Housing demand skyrocketed when the epidemic forced millions of workers to work from home. Residential home builders felt more pressure to find skilled workers as a result. In the early stages of a project, less efficient management methods are used when there aren't enough skilled workers, like project directors and managers. Exorbitant delays and unfortunate project termination and completion can result from the board's and course deficiencies (Alaghbari, Al-Sakkaf, and Sultan, 2019, P8). Contracting firms in the construction sector simply cannot afford to employ individuals who do not possess the necessary experience or qualifications because doing so will ultimately increase their costs in terms of time, effort, and money. In order to attract younger workers with higher levels of expertise, construction companies need to investigate ways to compete with other successful industries. Benefits, paid time off, financial aid for higher education, competitive pay, and other similar features may be included. Another way to connect with younger talent is to collaborate with the area's high schools, community colleges, and trade schools. Another way to show potential employees that you value work-life balance is to offer paid time off.


The construction industry mostly gets its work from skilled workers. In the development area, a significant issue is the absence of talented specialists. A lack of competent individuals affects the economy, social cohesion, and industry. While certain associations utilise helper systems, most of them effectively address expertise deficiencies by utilising their essential representatives (like broadened work weeks, expanded remuneration and advantages, and institutional schooling). General contractors claim that a lack of skilled workers is a major contributor to construction delays. Contractors and other sector employees may face recurring difficulties as a result of insufficient worker training and insufficient numbers and required skills for entry into the construction labour market. In today's construction industry, skilled labour is essential because specialised labour is required at various stages. Even though the construction industry has made a lot of efforts to make sure that procedures are safe, give workers a safe place to work, and stop accidents when they have their hands in the area, the necessary well-being is still a long way off. A development security board framework is fundamental because of the business' size and a large number of mishaps. This will eventually help mitigate the lack of skilled labourers in the construction industry.


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