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ENEM28001 FEA for Engineering Design Report Sample

Task Description:

This is an individual assessment in which you will perform a comprehensive finite element analysis on the following problem.

Please refer to the Criteria Referenced Assessment (CRA) document to get more clarity on how you will be assessed.

Figures below show a 3D knuckle joint (see assembly provided in a separate folder).

Perform a transient structural analysis and a fatigue analysis by carrying out the following tasks:

1. Conduct background research on the design, characteristics and uses of knuckle joints

2. Assume suitable material properties and boundary conditions

3. Specifically, create cylindrical joint(s) as required and issue a choice of rotation (say 5° or 10° or any value)

4. Apply any additional forces as you may desire

5. Perform an FEA and examine the behaviour of the knuckle joint

6. Comment on

a. Deformations
b. Joint behaviour
c. Stresses
d. Contact behaviour
e. Static factor of safety

7. Perform a stress life fatigue analysis on the knuckle joint and estimate

a. Life
b. Damage
c. Fatigue factor of safety
d. Biaxiality indication
e. Fatigue sensitivity

Note: While performing the fatigue analysis, you may want to pay attention to the type of theory used based on the material of the knuckle joint.



The design ideas, traits, and typical uses of knuckle joints in engineering applications will be covered in the background research section. In order to choose the best materials for our investigation, The learner will investigate the various materials frequently used for knuckle joints and their mechanical characteristics. The knuckle joint's response to time-varying loads will be the subject of the transient structural analysis, which will evaluate its deformations and behavior under dynamic circumstances. For Assignment Help, For the joint to be reliable and safe in practical applications, this study will provide invaluable insights into any potential instabilities or dynamic impacts. Empower rotational movement between two associated parts, the knuckle joint is a principal mechanical component that is oftentimes utilized in various designing applications, Because of its unmistakable shape, which empowers enunciation, it is a fundamental part in various sorts of designs, including modern gear, large equipment, and vehicle suspension frameworks. Through transient primary investigation and exhaustion examination, The student looks to concentrate on the way of behaving of a 3D knuckle joint under different stacking conditions as a feature of this broad limited component investigation. This study's principal objective is to become familiar with the knuckle joint's mechanical reaction, including its distortions, stresses, and contact conduct. To achieve this, an exhaustive 3D model of the knuckle joint will be constructed, finished with the expected material properties and limit conditions (Pawar et al. 2020). To additionally work on the exactness of our review, pivoting powers of different forces will likewise be utilized to copy true occasions.

The distribution of strains within the knuckle joint under static loads will be examined by stress analysis. The learner can assess the structural integrity and assess the necessity for design alterations to improve performance by finding high-stress zones and comparing them to the material's yield strength. The fatigue study will also determine the knuckle joint's fatigue life, damage buildup, and fatigue factor of safety. This will examine how the joint behaves under cyclic loading conditions. This evaluation will offer crucial data for projecting the joint's durability and assisting with well-informed design decisions (Muhammad et al. 2019). In order to help its optimization, design improvement, and reliable utilization in a variety of engineering applications, The learner wants to support the knuckle joint's structural behavior by undertaking this extensive finite element study.

Problem Description

The issue at hand entails performing a thorough finite element study on a 3D knuckle joint to comprehend how it will behave structurally under diverse stress scenarios. To allow rotational motion between linked elements while maintaining mechanical integrity and flexibility, knuckle joints are an essential part utilized in engineering applications. This analysis has two goals: first, to perform a transient structural analysis to see how the joint behaves under time-varying loads, and second, to conduct a fatigue analysis to evaluate how well the joint is performing and whether it might fail due to cyclic loading.

A thorough 3D model of the knuckle joint will be made, taking into account its complex geometry and complicated features, to serve as the basis for the analysis. Using suitable CAD software and taking into account precise measurements and material properties, the model will be built. In order to accurately and validly simulate real-world circumstances, appropriate boundary conditions will be used. The knuckle joint will be subjected to various loads as part of the transient structural analysis, and its reaction will be tracked over time. Any potential dynamic impacts, deformations, and stress concentrations that can develop during operation will be easier to spot thanks to this research (Gupta et al. 2021). Engineers can modify the joint's design in a way that will provide stability and safety under dynamic conditions by studying the joint's transient behaviour.

A stress analysis will be done after the transient analysis to look at how the stresses are distributed within the knuckle joint under static loads. Finding important areas with high-stress concentrations that could cause early failure is dependent on this phase. Engineers can examine the necessity for design modifications by comparing the predicted stresses with the material's yield strength and other failure criteria to establish the joint's structural integrity. The next step will be fatigue analysis, which aims to assess how well the joint performs under cyclic loading. Knuckle joints are not an exception to the general rule that mechanical components subject to repetitive stresses are at risk of fatigue failure. Engineers can determine the joint's fatigue life and evaluate potential damage accumulation over time by applying the relevant fatigue theories depending on the material parameters of the joint. To guarantee the joint's dependability and longevity in the environment where it is designed to operate, the fatigue factor of safety will be computed.

This thorough finite element analysis will shed light on the structural behaviour, deformation, stress distribution, and fatigue performance of the 3D knuckle joint (Liu et al. 2023). Engineers can enhance the joint's reliability, design it more efficiently, and choose the right materials and applications by knowing how the joint reacts to different stresses. This analysis is essential to assuring the safe and effective operation of the knuckle joint in a variety of engineering applications, enhancing the overall effectiveness and durability of the systems it supports.


A number of assumptions are made during the thorough finite element analysis of the 3D knuckle joint in order to streamline the modelling procedure, lessen computational complexity, and guarantee practicality while still producing correct and pertinent findings (Kumar et al. 2022). These presumptions are supported by the analysis's specific goals and engineering judgement. The following are the main presumptions for this study:

Linear Elastic Material Behaviour: It is presumable that the knuckle joint's material properties behave in a linear elastic manner. According to this presumption, the material will exhibit elastic behaviour and adhere to Hooke's law within the designated loading range. In other words, the analysis will not change the link between stress and strain.

Isotropic Material Properties: The knuckle joint material is considered to have isotropic qualities, which means that its mechanical characteristics, such as Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, are direction-independent. By lowering the number of material constants to take into account, this assumption makes the analysis easier and the model more manageable.

Homogeneous Material: It is presumed that the entire volume of the knuckle joint's material composition is homogeneous (Shuaib et al. 2019). Although the joint is treated as having uniform qualities, the material properties may really vary slightly.

Figure 1: Model and Setup
(Source: Generated and Acquired by the learner)

Steady-State Conditions: The transient structural analysis makes the assumption that steady-state conditions have been attained, which means that beyond a certain point, the system's behaviour does not vary over time. When analyzing systems with minimal dynamic effects in comparison to the total loading period, this presumption makes sense.

Small Deformations: The analysis makes the assumption that the knuckle joint will only undergo minor deformations. Because geometric nonlinearities are ignored, this presumption permits the application of the linear elastic theory and streamlines the analysis.
Frictionless Contacts: The model makes the assumption that the contact surfaces between the parts of the knuckle joint are frictionless. Although friction may have some influence, in reality, friction is disregarded in this analysis to keep the contact behaviour simple (Hana et al. 2021).

Perfect Bonding: The assumption for multi-component assemblies is that all contact surfaces have perfect bonding, which means that no separation or sliding may take place at the interfaces. Through the elimination of potential complications relating to touch behaviour, this assumption makes the analysis simpler.
Low Thermal Effects: The analysis makes the assumption that low thermal effects from mechanical loading will occur. A linked thermal-structural analysis is required when heat factors could considerably affect how the joint behaves.

No Material Nonlinearity: No material nonlinearities, such as plastic deformation, are taken into account in the analysis. If the applied loads fall within the material's elastic range, this assumption is reasonable.

No Buckling: This analysis does not take buckling phenomena into account. If the applied loads do not approach critical buckling loads and the joint is stable under the specified loading circumstances, the assumption is true.

These presumptions permit a realistic and manageable finite element analysis while still giving important information about the behaviour, stresses, deformations, and fatigue performance of the knuckle joint (Ramubhai et al. 2019). It is crucial to keep in mind, though, that certain presumptions may have limitations in particular situations and applications. To achieve accurate and dependable interpretations of the behaviour and performance of the knuckle joint, engineers should carefully assess the viability of these hypotheses and their potential impact on the analysis results.

Boundary Conditions and Loadings

The establishment of boundary conditions and loadings was a crucial step in the knuckle joint's finite element analysis using ANSYS Workbench in order to correctly simulate the joint's mechanical performance under actual operating circumstances. By accurately specifying these criteria, it was made sure that the research gave valuable insights into how the joint responded to outside influences and restrictions.

Table 1: Parts of the geometry


Model (A4) > Geometry > Parts


Boundary Conditions: The knuckle joint's geometry was subjected to limits that simulated how it would be fixed or supported in the application. Engineers took into account the physical limitations the joint would face during operation to provide a realistic picture. The ensuing boundary constraints were used:

Fixtures: To illustrate the knuckle joint's attachment to neighboring parts or structures, it was secured at certain locations. These fittings mimicked the real mounting circumstances of the joint by preventing stiff body movements and limiting degrees of freedom at certain points.

Symmetry: To make the analysis simpler, symmetry in the geometry of the knuckle joint was taken advantage of. In order to condense the model's size while preserving accuracy, engineers used symmetry boundary conditions. The reaction of one side of the joint to that of the other side was replicated with the aid of symmetry planes (Sahan et al. 2022).

Table 2: Coordinate system

Model (A4) > Coordinate Systems > Coordinate System


Application of Loads: Loads were used to mimic the external forces that the knuckle joint would encounter when in use. Axial forces, rotational moments, and any other pertinent forces were included in these loads.

Contact Conditions: To mimic the interaction between contacting surfaces, contact between the joint components was modeled. In order to specify the frictional behavior and facilitate load transmission between mating parts, contact elements were utilized.

Loadings: The operational needs and unique engineering application were used to establish the loadings for the knuckle joint study. Engineers took into account both static and dynamic loading conditions in order to appropriately depict the joint's functioning. The subsequent loadings were used:

Table 3: Mesh properties


Model (A4) > Mesh


Static Loads: Throughout the joint's service life, it was subjected to steady-state forces or moments, which were represented as static loads. Axial forces, bending moments, or any other continuously applied forces might be these loads.

Rotational Motion: To simulate the joint's behavior in practical situations, a rotational motion was applied to it. To determine how the joint would react to rotational forces, engineers determined the rotational angle and angular velocity.

Dynamic Loads: Dynamic loads were used to account for forces that changed over time or repetitive loading situations. Vibrational loads, impact loads, or cyclic loading patterns are examples of dynamic loads.

External Forces: In some circumstances, external forces were thought to mimic the effects of environmental factors or external interactions. Examples of these forces include pressure and temperature loads (Ramteke et al. 2022).

Table 4: Results of the solution

Solver settings


In the limited component examination of the knuckle joint utilizing ANSYS Workbench, the choice, and setup of suitable solver settings assumed an urgent part in getting precise and solid outcomes. The solver settings decided the mathematical strategies and calculations used to tackle the overseeing conditions of the model, guaranteeing combination and proficiency in the examination cycle. Right off the bat, the kind of examination picked for the knuckle joint was a transient underlying investigation. This decision depended on the joint's powerful conduct under shifting stacking conditions, like rotational movement and applied powers (Han et al. 2019). The transient examination permitted architects to concentrate on time-subordinate reactions, catching powerful impacts and potential hazards that couldn't be satisfactorily tended to utilizing static investigation.


Figure 2: Transient Structural Analysis
(Source: Generated and Acquired by the learner)

The limited component strategy (FEM) was utilized as the mathematical philosophy for the underlying examination. FEM caused it conceivable to more to definitively and really reproduce the way of behaving of the joint by separating the complex math of the knuckle joint into a cross section of easier pieces. The size and sort of the parts were painstakingly decided to accomplish the most ideal harmony among precision and computational adequacy. In view of the calculation and intricacy of the joint, the solver boundaries included picking the proper component types, for example, tetrahedral or hexahedral components. Additionally, a linear or quadratic element order was selected to provide the necessary level of analytical accuracy. For the transient analysis, the necessary temporal integration methods were used to guarantee numerical stability and convergence. Depending on the joint's reaction characteristics and the applied stresses, engineers choose techniques like implicit or explicit time integration (Kimachi et al. 2022). Particularly when dealing with bigger time increments and nonlinear behavior, implicit methods—such as the Newmark-Beta method—were favored for stable and precise answers.


Figure 3: Joint Rotation
(Source: Generated and Acquired by the learner)

To guarantee accurate findings, the solver's convergence conditions were thoroughly established. To gauge when the analysis had arrived at a converged solution, engineers specified tolerances for the values of displacements, forces, and energy. At every time step, convergence tests were run to ensure that the solution was accurate and stable. Parallel processing capabilities were also leveraged in the solver settings to accelerate the analysis process and reduce computation time. By distributing the workload across multiple cores or processors, engineers expedited the solution process, particularly for large and computationally intensive models.

To validate the solver settings, engineers conducted sensitivity analyses by varying parameters such as time steps, mesh density, and element types (Mishra et al. 2021). The aim was to ensure that the chosen settings provided consistent and reliable results that accurately captured the joint's behavior under different conditions.

Results & Analysis – post process your results

ANSYS Workbench was used to post-process the findings of the finite element analysis for the knuckle joint. A thorough examination of the data is presented in this part, with an emphasis on deformations, stresses, contact behavior, a static factor of safety, and fatigue-related traits.

Table 5: Solution of total deformation

Deformations: The size and distribution of deformations in the knuckle joint under the applied loads and rotational motion were revealed by the post-processed data. Engineers might discover possible areas of concern for additional investigation by identifying areas of considerable displacement using the deformation contours' visualization.

Figure 4: Stress Analysis
(Source: Generated and Acquired by the learner)

Stresses: Stress distribution graphs provide an in-depth insight into the mechanical reaction of the joint. Areas of high concentration under stress were found, indicating possible breakdown spots (Sampayo et al. 2021). Engineers evaluated the structural integrity and possible dangers associated with overstressed zones by comparing stress levels to material attributes.

Table 6: Solution of Elastic Strain

Contact Behavior: The contact analysis showed how the parts of the joint interacted as they were moving. The distribution of contact pressure and separation plots made it possible to assess the load transfer between mating surfaces. This knowledge was essential for enhancing contact behavior, lowering wear, and assuring efficient functioning.

Static Factor of Safety: Calculations using the results of the stress study gave the knuckle joint's static factor of safety. To determine the safety margin, engineers assessed the maximum stress with the material's yield strength (Attia et al. 2021). A safety factor greater than one denoted a design that was acceptable, but values below one denoted probable failure risks that need design modifications.


Figure 5: Status contact Behavior Analysis
(Source: Generated and Acquired by the learner)

Fatigue Analysis: The joint's fatigue life, damage buildup, and fatigue factor of safety were calculated. Engineers projected the joint's fatigue life by taking into account the cyclic loads and stress levels observed over its operating life. The study revealed crucial regions vulnerable to fatigue failure, allowing for focused design advancements.

Table 7: Solution of Equivalent Stress


Figure 6: Fatigue Sensitivity
(Source: Generated and Acquired by the learner)

Discussion on Post-Processing

A number of critical insights were discovered in the discussion of the post processing findings for the knuckle joint study performed using ANSYS Workbench in order to evaluate the mechanical behavior, structural integrity, and long-term reliability of the joint. The simulation results could be thoroughly examined during the post-processing stage, which produced useful data for design optimization and engineering decision-making (Pote et al. 2019).

Table 8: Solution of Strain Energy



The joint's reaction to applied loads and rotational motion was precisely seen through the study of deformations. Critical locations of displacement and strain were found using deformation contours. These results helped engineers identify possible structural weak spots and improved the shape of the joint to lessen excessive deformations. The joint could bear the anticipated operational pressures because better load distribution was made possible by a knowledge of the deformations.


Figure 7: Frictional stress contact Behavior Analysis
(Source: Generated and Acquired by the learner)

Discussion of the post processing data for the knuckle joint research carried out using ANSYS Workbench in order to assess the mechanical behavior, structural integrity, and long-term dependability of the joint revealed a number of crucial discoveries. During the post-processing stage, the simulation results may be extensively reviewed, producing valuable information for design optimization and engineering decision-making.


Figure 8: Fatigue Tool
(Source: Generated and Acquired by the learner)

Through the examination of deformations, the joint's response to applied loads and rotational motion was carefully observed. Using deformation contours, critical areas of displacement and strain were identified. These findings assisted engineers in locating potential structural weak points and enhanced the joint's design to reduce excessive deformations (Jayapriya et al. 2022). Due to superior load distribution made possible by knowledge, the joint could withstand the predicted operational forces.

Table 9: Solution of Fatigue Tool


Figure 9: Sliding Distance Behavior Analysis
(Source: Generated and Acquired by the learner)

The evaluation of the joint's stability under static loads depended heavily on the computation of the static factor of safety. Engineers could be confident in the joint's ability to withstand applied loads without failing if the factor of safety was larger than one. Where factors of safety were lower than anticipated, changes to the joint's design or material composition were taken into account to increase its capacity to support loads.

Figure 10: Penetration Behavior Analysis
(Source: Generated and Acquired by the learner)

Engineers were able to resolve concerns about long-term dependability thanks to the assessment of the joint's fatigue life provided by the fatigue study (Liu et al. 2020). The joint's service life might be increased by altering the design or operating circumstances in areas that are prone to fatigue failure.


A thorough investigation of the knuckle joint's mechanical behavior and performance using ANSYS Workbench's finite element program yielded important insights. The research, which covered deformations, stresses, contact behavior, a static factor of safety, and fatigue analysis, satisfactorily addressed the assessment's goals. The joint's reaction to applied loads and rotational motion was revealed by the study of deformations, indicating important regions with excessive displacements. Engineers were able to make improvements to the joint's design to strengthen its structural integrity and lessen deformations by identifying possible weak places.

Understanding the mechanical reaction of the joint was greatly helped by stress distribution analysis. A more reliable joint design was ensured, and the danger of failure under operating loads was reduced thanks to the detection of high-stress concentration locations. Examining the behavior of contacts between joint parts allowed for the optimization of load transmission, reduced friction-induced wear, and ensured smooth joint functioning. The knuckle joint's performance and durability were improved as a result.

The joint's stability under static stresses was largely determined by the computed static factor of safety (Kanthale et al. 2022). The joint's ability to safely sustain the applied stresses was confirmed when the factor of safety was greater than one. Design modifications were suggested to increase the joint's capacity to carry loads in places with lower factors of safety.


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