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PUBH6005 Epidemiology Assignment Sample


Part A: covering modules 1 to 3 (due at the end of each modules, 1, 2, 3)
Part B: covering modules 4 to 6 (due at the end of each modules 4, 5, 6)

Step 1: In the Assessment 3 Discussion Forum nursing assignment help, post a comment in regard to ONE discussion topic related to EACH module (Refer to module discussion topics provided by your lecturer).

Discussion Topic 1: Observational Study Designs

What study designs could be used to explore the relationships between work-related factors and mental health?

Different designs might be more useful for exploring different relationships. Please suggest a proposed observational study design for a study which considers the relationship between work overload and mental health.

Why did you choose this study design? 

Discussion Topic 2: Experimental Study Design

When would the use of a randomised controlled trial be inappropriate? Give a public health example and outline the reasons why conclusion randomised control trial would not be appropriate in this context.

Module 3

Discussion Topic 1: Comparing Screening and Surveillance

Apart from prostate cancer, are there any other conditions for which the benefits of screening may not outweigh the risks? If you have been involved with any screening or surveillance initiatives, you are encouraged to share your experiences and perspectives

Discussion Topic 2: Comparing Screening and Surveillance

Considering the methods by which surveillance data are collected, what elements of the social context or community in which you live create barriers to or facilitate effective disease surveillance? Feel free to draw from your personal and professional experiences.

Module 6

Discussion Topic 1

How does systematic review differ from the critical appraisal task set for assessment 3? How is it similar?

Discussion Topic 2

How are you going with your critical appraisal? Take this opportunity to compare notes with the other students about what you’ve struggled with and what you feel confident with.


Module 2

Answer 1

For exploring the relationships between work-related factors and mental health the case-control study design is used. In this type of observational study design researchers select the respondents for the study. With the help of this study, the design researcher gets appropriate data for the subject and helps in developing the best outcomes (Cahill et al., 2021). The case-control design helps in developing the data which is related to the real-life cases and can also observe the respondents behaviour and use it as data. In this design, the participants referred to as control who have no outcome of interest whereas participants referred to as cases who have the outcome of interest. At first, the pollution is defined and studied, cases are defined and selected, controls are defined and selected and exposure is measured. Lastly, the results are analyzed and calculated and link it with the objectives to draw the final conclusion.

Answer 2

For the questions which are related to health promotion research, randomized controlled trials are inappropriate. In the health promotion field, certain questions are developed through research methodologies that are more appropriate than random appropriate trials (Finkelstein et al., 2020). This trial is inappropriate because the test for efficiency is not conducted effectively and results developed from this test are not appropriate. Also, test effectiveness is larger and not cost-effective. The results are not related to real-life treatment. The hypothesis and objectives involved in the RTC are unclear, endpoints have poor selection, selected subject criteria is inappropriate and information provided is not relevant.


Cahill, J., Cullen, P., Anwer, S., Wilson, S. & Gaynor, K. (2021). Pilot Work Related Stress (WRS), Effects on Wellbeing and Mental Health, and Coping Methods. The International Journal of Aerospace Psychology, 1-23.
Finkelstein, A., Zhou, A., Taubman, S., & Doyle, J. (2020). Health care hotspotting—a randomized, controlled trial. New England Journal of Medicine, 382(2), 152-162.

Fulmer, R., Joerin, A., Gentile, B., Lakerink, L., & Rauws, M. (2018). Using psychological artificial intelligence (Tess) to relieve symptoms of depression and anxiety: randomized controlled trial. JMIR mental health, 5(4), e9782.

Module 3


Screening has become a very regular practice in the health and medication field. Most of the healthcare professionals are of the opinion that the benefits of screening outweigh the cons. Apart from prostate cancer, ovarian cancer is another condition in which the risks of screening outweighs its benefits. The reason is that the ovarian cancer screening might provide false positive-screening tests (Carlson, 2020). False positive might end up as women having surgery when they do not need any. Surgery also leads to anxiety, incurrence of additional costs, loss of work and might even lead to serious complications for many healthy women.


Carlson, K. (2020). Patient education: Ovarian cancer screening. Retrieved on 25th March, 2021, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/ovarian-cancer-screening-beyond-the-basics#H5


Surveillance of public health is essentially important and compulsory in almost all the countries across the world. However, despite the benefits that it casts in the society in context to keeping the spread of diseases in check, it is faced with a lot of challenges (World Health Organization, 2017). The inadequacy in the number of health professions is the most serious barrier which is faced at the time of surveillance of public health. Apart from this, lack of proper diagnostic centres for the detection of diseases is another challenge that the regulatory bodies face in keeping the spread of diseases in check by using the instrument of surveillance.


World Health Organization. (2017). WHO guidelines on ethical issues in public health surveillance. Retrieved on 25th March, 2021, from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/255721/9789241512657-eng.pdf


Module 6

Discussion Topic 1

In general the genre of systemic review is following a chronological format and the main foundation of this style of review is referring to dates of publications. The critical styled tasks for appraisals are those which also make use of data of publication but these are descending order. Critical appraisal studies make extensive investigation about LR or literature review so that they can come in a conclusion of their quality parameters (Li, 2020, p. 87). All components which exists internally, their important, validation as well general approach is reviewing. Review here focuses over the work and discuses whether researcher has developed a neutral work or not. Critical appraisal is somewhat similar as the aim is to make in-depth analysis in both cases. Secondly both might make use of grey material as references.

Discussion Topic 2

My critical appraisal is going in a positive direction. Using this organised process i am finding out strength and weakness of the research study. I have however struggled to find the weaknesses of this research. Hence to solve it I have compared notes with other fellow students and checked out varied unpolished gray materials as well on the internet. This has helped me develop crucial understanding of the subject from different perspectives. This has also helped me make my own conclusion with a clear approach (Gundogan, Fowler & Agha, 2018, p. 1). A critical thinking approach is as per me helpful in making the study analysis become effective.


Gundogan, B., Fowler, A., & Agha, R. (2018). Assessing the compliance of systematic review articles published in leading dermatology journals with the prisma statement guidelines: a systematic review protocol. International Journal of Surgery Protocols, 10-12, 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isjp.2018.11.001

Li, S. (2020). Quality control of the peer-review process by forensic sciences research. Forensic Sciences Research, 5(1), 87–88. https://doi.org/10.1080/20961790.2019.1700886

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