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CAM520 Global Health System Assignment Sample

Prepare a written report for assignment help to improve the capacity of the Australian health care system to address the evolving health needs of a target population. Choose one of the 31 Australian Primary Health Networks as the context for your report. Draw upon the epidemiological and demographic information in the most recent PHN needs assessment done by your chosen PHN. Your report will make four (4) evidence-based recommendations for change in the primary health care sector and discuss possible implementation strategies. Justify the proposed changes against Duckett’s criteria for an ideal health system – equity of outcomes, quality of care, efficiency, and acceptability for health consumers.



The Primary Health networks or PHNs are funded by the Department of Health of the Australian government in order to manage and coordinate the delivery of Primary Health care within the diverse regions of Australia. PHNs serves as an independent organization which focuses on assessing and evaluating the health needs of a community and providing significant health services to the general population according to their need as well as their favourable situation (Bates et al. 2022 p. 4). There are two significant goals of a Primary Health network which guide and account for the services the particular organization conducts. It focuses on improving and enhancing the effectiveness of the significant health services provided to people with a high risk of depraved health outcomes (Australian Government, 2022, p. 1). It also aims on improvising and supports the coordination of significant and necessary health-related services to the people in need along with increasing available and easy access to better care along with ensured quality service delivery. There are 31 Primary Health networks within Australia which function independently with an aim to minimize the risk of poor health outcomes as well as connect people with significant health services and maintain appropriate care delivery to people within significant time and locality (Australian Government, 2022, p. 1). In the following assessment, North Coast PHN has been selected out of the 31 Primary Health care networks in order to evaluate its significance in maintaining significant health service and quality care delivery within a certain target population of Australia. The assessment will thus focus on assessing the significant target population based on the epidemiological and demographic information accounted for by the north coast PHN in order to provide better health services and facilities to the general population of Australia.

Target population and health needs:

With growing age, the risk of several health issues and conditions develops in an elderly individual. According to World Health Organization, the common health issues or conditions witnessed by an elderly individual throughout the world account for osteoarthritis, diabetes, depression, hearing issues, loss of vision, dementia, a chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, joint pains as well as refractive error (WHO, 2022, p. 1). Within the premises of Australia, one in every five older individuals accounting for 22% of the overall population have reported the issues defies related to stroke, as well as heart or vascular complications. It has been found that 7% of the population sustains the risk of cancer while 15% are accounted to live with diabetes. Also, glaucoma, cataracts, blindness or muscular degeneration are also some of the issues witnessed by the elderly population living in Australia which develops a state of deprived quality of life and unhealthy ageing. With growing age the risk to sustain multiple health issues increases which serve as a depriving factor within their health conditions as well as the quality of living (Israeli et al. 2022, p. 3). The elderly population also sustains the development of several health conditions or stability which comes with growing age and they are generally accounted as geriatric syndromes. These syndromes serve as a prime factor in the development of different health issues and sufferings within an elderly individual such as the risk of falls, pressure ulcers, frailty, delirium as well as urinary incontinence. With growing age as well as significant health complications the basic needs and requirements of aged individual accounts for personal security, safety, financial stability, physical and mental health, significant health care services, management of health challenges along with self-actualization (Nguyen et al. 2022, p. 6). Thus this aged population explains the need of maintaining healthy ageing with growing time which explains the need of enhancing and improvising the significant physical environment they are ageing, the services they are provided with as well as the opportunities they sustain in order to maintain a healthy lifestyle as well as management of their health issues. It has been found that acknowledging the ageing population and significant planning for their benefit is one of the necessary investments for the future of the Australian population as it can ensure benefits for the younger generations as well as those who are growing older (Davern et al. 2020, p. 17).

According to the North Coast PHN, it has been found that more than 20% of the overall population of North Coast belongs to the age group of 65 and above when compared to those of Australia and NSW where the statistics are 15.7% and 18.5% respectively. It also highlights that more than 15.8% of the age population explains the need for assistance in conducting their core activities (North Coast Collective, 2022, p. 1). It was found that healthy ageing and living was the second health issue faced by the population of North Coast as well as a significant regional strategy in order to ensure better ageing within the elderly population. The health need assessment conducted by North Coast PHN highlighted the need for significant collaboration and partnership of health professionals with the elderly population in order to manage their health as well as the risk of sustaining illness. It was found that the elderly population mainly needs assistance based on non-disease approaches such as health care expenses or cost, overcoming the barrier of distance to seek services, and informed and well-guided services based on residential care or home-based care (North Coast PHN, 2022, p. 1).

Evidence-based recommendations and implementation strategies against Duckett’s health system criteria

Recommendation 1:

Access to transportation as well as health care services are two prime factors that serve as a barrier in the process of healthy ageing in the older population it has been found that travelling long distances to seek health care services often becomes a major issue for the older population as with growing edge several disabilities and mobility issues increases (North Coast Collective, 2022, p. 1). Also according to the North Coast PHN, it has been found that distance of travel was one of the issues reported by the general population which serves as a barrier to accessing significant health services. It was found that in order to seek specialist care and service, 42.9% of the population reported having issues due to the distance of travel that they had to meet (North Coast PHN, 2022, p. 1). Also in terms of allied health services such as podiatrists, dentists or physiotherapists the distance of travel was also a common barrier reported by 29.9% of the population. the population living on the North Coast explain the need to travel distance to seek better services in relation to their mental health condition as they lacked significant counselling and psychiatric services within their local premises. Approximately 40.3% of the population reported having a lack of services in their mental health facilities which has a direct association with the increased need for travelling distance (North Coast PHN, 2022, p.1). Hence focusing on the issues of travelling long distances as well as lack of services it is recommended that significant home-based or residential care services are provided to the elderly population on the northern coast. It is necessary that the elderly population or the population with a demand for healthy ageing are provided with significant attention and resources within their homes instead of nursing homes to seek better health conditions and undergo healthy ageing (Gordon et al. 2020, p. 75). Thus the North Coast PHN needs to develop a significant health care team which precisely functions on providing home-based care or residential care two people with increased health needs. In order to implement the strategy, it is necessary to develop a significant proposal with collaboration from other stakeholders such as local government, national government, NGOs, the Primary Health network as well as professionals with skills and experience in delivering home-based care. The intervention or the strategy will highlight the delivery of services to people in relation to their health needs living in every demographic condition in order to maintain equitable outcomes (Siette et al. 2021, p. 997). According to Duckett’s health system criteria equity of outcome explains that every individual belonging to every demographic or epidemiological condition is provided with equal and rightful opportunities in terms of their health and well being. Home-based care and residential care explains the significant delivery of services and health needs to the aged population with disability issues or mobility barriers within their living premises. It serves by minimizing or removing the need of traveling distances in order to seek better services as well as bringing effective specialist care and interventions at home to the people in need (Doh, Smith and Gevers, 2020, p. 1371). The recommendation in relation to the Primary Health network will ensure that people living on the North Coast with the need for home-based care will sustain a significant opportunity for healthy ageing with minimized risk of travel discomfort. Also, home-based care will reduce the increased health expenditure which rises with the need to travel long distances in order to seek specialists and professionals in relation to their health issues such as mental health, physiotherapies as well as other underlying health issues.

Recommendation 2:

It was found from the elderly population of the North Coast explains the lack of understanding and guidance related to the services as well as resources that are available in relation to their health issues. From the North Coast PHN, it was found that in relation to mental health services 35.3% of the population reported that they do not understand or are sure about what kind of services are available for their treatment (North Coast PHN, 2022, p. 1). In relation to alcohol and other drug services it has been found that out of 50.4% belonging to the age group of 15 to 64 years, 38.1% reported a similar issue of having a knowledge barrier about the services or facilities that are available. Also, 35.2% of the population belonging to 15 to 64 years reported that in relation to age-specific services these sustain and charity as well as lack of understanding of the diverse range of services or treatment facilities that are available within their communities (North Coast PHN 2022, p. 1). Thus, based on this statistical evidence it is recommended that significant awareness and guidance strategies or measures should be taken into account in order to guide and educate the population regarding the services as well as facilities that are available (Archibald and Kitson 2020, p. 99). According to Duckett health system criteria, acceptability for health consumers explains the suitable and appropriate guidance or services delivery to health consumers in relation to their health and well beings. Thus their recommendation explains that the North Coast Primary Health services need to guide the population regarding the services and treatments that are available to respective illnesses two people in need the implementation strategies for the recommendation explain the usage of primary healthcare services which will function in delivering appropriate guidance and knowledge to the local people as well as the communities.

Recommendation 3:

On assessing the North Coast PHN evidence on the local Health Network as well as services attainment by the general population as well as the issues they witnessed while seeking access to health services it was found that cost was one of the common factors which was identified in each aspect of health service. In terms of seeking specialist care, allied health, mental health services, alcohol and drug services, general practice as well as age-specific services. In each of the health service aspects, more than 25% of the population reported witnessing issues with cost in terms of their health care (North Coast PHN 2022, p. 1). With a lack of knowledge about available services the increased risk of spending a higher amount of economy on inappropriate diagnoses, medicines as well as services (Le et al. 2021, p. 5). By providing significant guidance and knowledge in relation to the available services the elderly population sustains the ability to invest their healthcare funds and economy in relatable and appropriate health services in terms of their underlying issues. Also, elderly health care funds must be ensured to people with financial instability in order to assist them in seeking better ageing and sustain efficient and effective services in terms of health according to Duckett’s criteria.

Recommendation 4:

It was also found from the North Coast PHN statistics it was found that in terms of age-specific services approximately 31.1% of the population reported having difficulty in organizing their services and care along with the daily necessities. They reported having issues with managing doctors’ appointments, normal domestic support and assistance as well as care packages with funding. Thus, it is recommended that significant home-based nursing care is provided to patients with deteriorating health conditions where they lose their ability to manage home-based services as well as their health care needs (North Coast PHN 2022, p. 1). According to ducats criteria, the recommendation will focus on providing effective and efficient services to elderly people and guide them through healthy ageing.


It can be stated that the elderly population of Australia explains the increased need for significant and necessary services related to their health and well being in order to restore the process of healthy ageing. The North Coast PHN highlighted the significant needs explained by the elderly population of the North Coast related to their health and the ageing process. Thus focusing on the needs as well as the risks sustained by these populations significant recommendations had been made and guided in the assessment which will serve in ensuring the process of healthy ageing. These recommendations are maintained using buckets health system criteria which guide equity of outcomes, quality of cash, efficacy as well as acceptability. The North Coast PHN explains the need for certain recommendations which highlight the implementation of advanced and well-organized home-based or residential care for age populations, cost-effective treatment intervention or health care funds as well as maintaining education and awareness in terms of health services available.


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