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HLTINF001 Comply With Infection Prevention and Control Assignment Sample

Questions need to answer for assignment help -

1) List the steps involved in medical hand wash and pre surgical hand wash.

Steps involved in medical hand wash:

- Firstly, apply soap to wet hands with the help of fresh, cold, or warm running water.

- Rub both hands with soap and create lather and apply soap to the backs of the hands, the spaces among the fingers, and the area of the nails.

- Washing the hands thoroughly with running water that is clean.

- Use a fresh towel to dry the hands or let them air dry. Pre-surgical Hand wash:

- Everyone who enters the operating room (OR) for a particular sterile process of sterile, must conduct a conventional surgical scrub.

-  Wrist Watches, rings, and bracelets must not be worn on the hands. There must be no chips or cracks in the nail polish. The nails are always kept clean because nails carry a number of bacteria.

- There should be no open sores or breaks in the skin’s integrity on the hands, forearm, or cuticles.
During cleaning, if hands come into contact with anything, the process must be restarted from the beginning.

2. List two (2) clinical instances when hand hygiene should be performed with soap and water, rather than an alcohol based hand rub.

- To maintain basic hand hygiene the most common thing that everyone should maintain is to use soap.
-  Compared to soap and water, they improve the situation of the skin with less dryness and sensitivity.

3. List two (2) non-clinical moments for hand hygiene.

Moment 1: Prior to contacting a patient.

Here are five non-clinical moments in hand hygiene that can break the chain of infection. These moments occur before contacting a patient, after using the restroom, before eating, after coughing or sneezing into the hands, and after coming into contact with an animal. It is important for healthcare workers to practice proper hand hygiene every time they touch a patient, and to wash their hands before touching any patient.

Moment 2: Before an operation

Hand hygiene is important for the safety of patients before operation. Nonetheless, the rates of compliance are low. The importance of hand hygiene should be emphasized before all contact with patients before an operation.

4. Outline the hand care guidelines related to:

Maintaining fingernails - Maintain clean, dry fingernails. As a result, there won’t be any bacterial growth there. Finger nails that split from frequent or extended contact with water. When using harsh chemicals, put on rubber gloves with cotton lining. Maintaining nail hygiene is also very much important. Use clippers and manicure scissors that are razor-sharp. Always trim the nails straight across and obviously most importantly, gently circle the tips.

Removal of jewelry and watches - In the guidelines of hand care, the removal of wristwatches and jewelry is very important. Because any kind of jewelry or watch carries lots of germs or bacteria, which surely affects the patients.

Maintenance of intact skin - The fact that CHG formulations continue to contain the most potent main ingredient for both preliminary and long-term log decreases of microorganisms.

Hand Wash achieves a similar log decrease of microorganisms almost as effectively as CHG and also leaves hands moist.

The most effective moisture retention is any formulation that is based on alcohol. Most importantly alcohol basically has tended to dry out the skin layers called epidermis of the caregivers. It is not just about the active ingredients when it comes to the ability to rehydrate care providers' skin and decrease microorganism loads on care providers' hands.

Management of cuts and abrasions -  Use sterile gauze or non-fiber shedding material to clean the wound, and then apply an antiseptic like betadine. Savlon or Dettol can be used if they present any embedded dirt because it helps to remove the bacteria. And after waiting for five minutes, wash the wound with sterile saline solution or running water.

- Scrubbing the embedded dirt can further traumatize the area. So, scrubbing is not good for the wound.

- Apply a suitable non-stick sterile dressing over the clean and free wound.

- The applied dressing should be changed as advised by the manufacturer.

5. Explain the scope and use of the following PPE in accordance with organizational policies and Procedures

Gloves - If anyone uses gloves, firstly they have to make sure that the gloves are compatible with the exact work. Not every glove is suitable for every job, For instance, medical gloves are very useful for preventing visibility to “biological hazards” and are frequently made of synthetic materials. And it is very important to know the exact details about the process of maintaining gloves. Otherwise, it will carry bacteria. So, when gloves are provided, workers must receive training on how to put them on, take them off, use them, and lastly how to discard them. The correct tools must be available involving a handwashing station with enough water, soap, and paper towels, as well as a closed trash can for disposal.

Gown/Apron - To maintain the basic hygiene, the particular gown has been made. A small amount of research has been done on particular designs of gowns, and it has been hypothesized that gowns with tightened wrists may cause less contamination of the hands during donning. Single-use, long-sleeved and plastic designs should have over-the-head design ideas that make removal through the loop of the head, according to the HSE and MHRA.

Masks - Using the mask in a proper way is also the most important part to maintain basic hygiene. Before putting on the mask, after taking it off, be sure that the hands are properly clean with sanitizer or fresh water. And make sure that the chin, mouth, and nose organs are covered properly. Maintain such things like when removing a mask, keeping it in a plastic bag which is properly clean, and washing it properly. And always remember that through it away in the trash.

Protective glasses - Protective glass is another important part for reducing contamination. During the covid-19 period it is actually mandatory to wear. The protective glass is another important piece of equipment for employees who are working in the medical sector. And every person who is using the protective glass should maintain the proper process of wearing the glasses. Putting the glass on or taking it off, always make sure that the hands are properly clean with fresh water.

6. Explain the roles of an EN in managing blood or body fluid spills in accordance with organisational policies and procedures. (Consider including care after body fluid exposure, spills removal, signage) Only employees who have undergone the necessary training should handle spills of blood and bodily fluids (Smoot, 2021). All the employees who have the responsibility for handling the blood and fluid they have must follow the below details:

- While on duty, apply a waterproof dressing to any lesions or cuts.

- While handling bodily fluids and blood, put on disposals, non-sterile protective gloves, and a single-use plastic apron.

- Expected disclosure of bodily fluid or blood.

- The personnel of the laboratory must wear protective gloves when handling any other risk sample or any blood.

7. Outline the procedures for disposal of the following two contaminated wastes

Disposing of sharps - Sharps, which are objects and devices with sharp edges, pose a significant health risk. These items should be disposed of properly to avoid exposing the general public to them. Many state and local laws govern the proper disposal of sharps to protect the public and waste handlers from physical and contamination risks. The guidelines for disposing of these waste items include the separation of sharps by type of contamination, as well as specific packaging and container requirements.

8. Your patient has been diagnosed with H1N1 influenza virus. List the additional precautions you implement as an EN to prevent the transmission of infection. Explain your rationale.

Infection control measures are critical for preventing the spread of H1N1 influenza. Standard precautions are guidelines that healthcare organizations should follow to prevent the spread of infections, regardless of the type of patients or healthcare setting. These precautions assume that everyone is potentially infected with, or colonized with, a pathogen, including the influenza virus (Hirotsu et.al., 2020). Precautions for infection prevention and control include washing hands frequently, covering the nose and mouth with tissues, and ensuring that patients are isolated. When not in isolation, infectious patients should wear a surgical mask. Entrances to a patient's room should be clearly marked with signs instructing staff to wash hands and to don a surgical mask when entering. The signs should also emphasize the importance of hand and respiratory hygiene.

9. List four (4) hazards in a hospital work environment including the infection hazard. For each of them, list the level of risk and appropriate control measures (Consider the hierarchy of control).

- Controls of Engineering
- Elimination
- Replacement
- Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).
- Administrative controls.

10) Explain briefly the concept of chain of infection with two (2) examples.

Infection Disease: Different types of microorganisms can be the reason of diseases like fungus, viruses, bacteria, and parasites. The organism's invasiveness, virulence, and pathogenicity can actually be the reason behind infection.

RESERVOIR: In this place, microorganisms reproduce, reside, and thrive, in human feces, food, elevator buttons, respiratory secretions, and toilet seat.
Portal Of Exit: Reservoir is left in this place by microorganisms, like the urinary tract, respiratory tract, blood, or another fluid and intestinal tract.
Mode of Transmission: The process where an organism spread from one carrier to the other, either directly or indirectly, through the use of a carrier intermediary, like medical equipment.

Portal of Entry: A cavity in the body or wound that allows an infectious disease to enter, like open wounds, mucous membranes, or any inserted tubes.
Susceptible Host: The individual who is susceptible to contracting the illness. A person is more susceptible to illness due to a number of factors, which actually include many things such as diabetes, impair immunity, and asthma.

Example: Reservoirs include things like, people who have syphilis or flu, and a dog who has rabies.

11) List four (4) factors that may increase an individual’s risk of acquisition or susceptibility to infection and explain why.

Neutropenia: The most frequent factor that puts cancer patients at risk for infection is neutropenia. Patients with acute leukemia have undergone the most extensive research on the connection between infection and neutropenia.

Dysfunction of cellular Immune: Cell-mediated resistance refers to all components of the immune reaction that are controlled by lymphocytes T.

The Dysfunction of Humoral Immune: Humoral immunity refers to the immune reaction that is arbitrated by antibodies, that are immunoglobulins with conditional particularity for antigens of microbial.

Bone marrow transplantation: The most common risk in bone marrow transplantation is infection. Patients are at risk for bacterial infections during the initial phase of neutropenia.

12) What are reusable medical devices and why are they reprocessed? Then explain the processes for reprocessing reusable equipment to prevent skin and mucous membrane exposures.

Reprocessing reusable medical devices is a process used to make them safe for future use. Manufacturers of these devices must submit data about the effectiveness of reprocessing methods and instructions to the FDA. In some cases, reprocessing methods involve the use of chemical products, such as surfactants and enzymes, or high alkalines. When choosing a reprocessing method, manufacturers must consider how the device will be cleaned. Ultrasonic cleaning is not recommended, as it can damage the device.

A reprocessing program is an important part of the medical device disposal process. It allows healthcare facilities to ensure the safety of staff and patients by following regulations and industry standards. Proper reprocessing can eliminate skin and mucous exposures and ensure that instruments are sterilized for reuse. A reprocessing program should also include regular audits of reprocessing staff.Reprocessing reusable medical devices involves cleaning, disinfecting, and sterilizing the reusable device. The CDC recommends sterilization and disinfection as the primary steps to ensure that medical devices do not transmit harmful pathogens. In addition to ensuring the safety of patients, reprocessing medical devices can save hospital staff time and money.While the risk of infection from improperly reprocessed medical devices is low, the risk of outbreaks is a continuing concern. Often, infection outbreaks are not reported to the FDA or recognized as the cause. This makes it difficult to estimate the number of HAIs that are directly linked to inadequate reprocessing.

13) Explain the following:

A. Explain the difference between harmless microorganisms and pathogens.

Microorganisms that are not pathogenic are known as harmless microorganisms. In general, these organisms are found in every environment and do not cause disease. However, they can become pathogens if they are exposed to a compromised immune system. A common example of a pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus, which is part of the normal flora of human skin.On the other hand, Pathogens are microorganisms that are capable of infecting humans, domestic animals and crops. They can be a huge source of economic loss and can even cause mass migrations.

B) Explain the difference between colonisation, infection and disease.

Colonization is the presence of pathogenic microorganisms on the surface of a host. This colonization may occur on the skin, intestines, airway, or a combination of these areas. In contrast to colonization, infection is the invasion of tissues by a disease-causing organism. Infection is a process characterized by a complex interaction between the pathogen and the host's defenses. On the other hand, an infection is a condition caused by microorganisms. Different types of infections cause different effects on the body. Infections can be life- threatening or not. Fortunately, our bodies have a powerful immune system that can help us fight off infectious agents. However, in some cases, pathogens overwhelm the immune system and cause an infection and Disease is an abnormal condition affecting the structure or function of an organism. It does not immediately result from an external injury and is often associated with specific symptoms. The symptoms associated with a disease can range from pain to organ dysfunction.

14) As an enrolled nurse, discuss three areas of your responsibility in relation to infection prevention and control in the work environment.

The three areas of my responsibilities in relation to infection prevention and control in the work environment are elaborated below,

Hand hygiene

Hand hygiene is a vital practice that helps to reduce the risk of cross-transmission of infections. A recent WHO global initiative to promote patient safety focuses on the implementation of a simple, low-cost hand hygiene program. The goal is to reduce the incidence of HCAIs, which are serious conditions that can lead to death or long-term disability.

Hand hygiene involves washing hands regularly. This process helps to reduce the number of microorganisms on the hands, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and transient flora. Hand hygiene should also include using alcohol-based hand rubs to disinfect hands.
The role of hand hygiene in infection prevention is particularly important in critical care settings. In this setting, health care workers' hands are likely to be colonized with pathogens. These microbes can survive for up to 150 hours in the human skin. Hand carriage of resistant pathogens is associated with increased incidences of nosocomial infections.

Precautions to prevent infection in the care of patients

Standard precautions are an essential part of infection prevention and control in the healthcare industry. These include good hand hygiene, personal protective equipment, appropriate handling of sharps, and cleaning. These precautions should be taken with any patient, regardless of age, gender, or medical condition, and are the first line of defense against the transmission of infectious agents.

Standard precautions are based on a risk assessment and use common sense practices to limit the risk of infection. These precautions are designed to protect both health care workers and patients from disease and prevent infection from spreading from one patient to another. Often, these precautions will be combined with other practices.

Educating patients is an important part of infection prevention. They should be educated about how to properly care for wounds and should feel comfortable asking questions of their healthcare providers. Infection-related infections can occur in any healthcare setting, so it is critical to provide information to patients.

Infection Control Measures

Infection control is an important component of the health care process, and nurses have a responsibility to implement the necessary procedures to prevent transmission of infectious diseases. Infection preventionists (IPCs) develop plans to control and prevent the spread of infections and often serve as coordinators for an organization's IPC program. They work with healthcare facilities to reduce infection rates and help improve patient care by promoting best practices and enforcing infection control policies and procedures. They also study pathogens and work with scientists to develop new treatments. One of the most important aspects of infection control nurses is the ability to communicate effectively with patients, medical staff, and families. They must be able to explain medical procedures and how to avoid getting infected with diseases. They also must be able to provide education about infection control and patient safety.

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