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MGT603 Systems Thinking Assessment 3 Sample

Assignment Brief

 Individual/Group - Individual
Length - Up to 2000 words
Learning Outcomes

a) Analyze, select and apply systems modelling tools in integrating, optimizing and enhancing business processes within contemporary organizations.

b) Synthesize technological and non-technological solutions to business problems that promote integration and that optimize whole-of-enterprise operations

Submission - By 11:55pm AEST/AEDT Friday of Module 6.2 (week 12)

For intensive class:

By 11:55pm AEST/AEDT Friday of Module 6.2 (week 6)
Weighting - 40%
Total Marks - 40 marks


There are two approaches towards improving systems, short-term approaches that normally addresses the symptoms and rarely help understand and address the cause of the problem, and long-term approaches, which allow managers to address the real cause(s) of the problem. In this assessment, students will try to solve a practical problem by using Systems Thinking tools called System Archetypes combined with value stream mapping.

Instructions for assignment help:

Assessment 3 is about uncovering the complexities in operations management generally, identifying key themes, intended and unintended consequences and proposing a holistic solution to the problem using a Systems Thinking lens.

The following scenario study provides you with a brief overview of a hypothetical problem. Be aware that the scenario provided may not cover every detail that you will need to address in the Written Report, in which case, you will need to conduct additional research, including further research on how emergency departments function in any hospital.



Consider yourself as part of a team responsible for managing the operations of an emergency department of a public hospital. The emergency department has received feedback from patients suggesting that the patient wait times need to be improved. The value stream map of the current operations is shown in the attached diagram.

The Value Stream Map is can be Found via the Assessment Link.

It is recommended that you identify and critically analyses intended and unintended consequences, recommending holistic solutions that will optimize the operations of the emergency department without compromising the performance of other functions of the hospital.

Suggested format: Your Written Report should include the following sections and sub-sections.
Cover Page (Subject Name & Code, Assessment No., Student Name and Surname, Student Number, Lecturer, Year and Trimester)

Executive Summary

Table of Contents

1. Introduction/Background

2. Main Discussion

2.1. Identification and analysis of the System Archetypes that may impede performance

2.2. Analysis of the current State Value Stream Map of the emergency department based on SystemArchetypes

2.3. Recommended new State Value Stream Map with desired reduction in patient turnaround time

2.4. Discussion on Intended and unintended consequences of the modified system

3. Conclusion

4. Recommendations

5. References

6. Appendices (Appendix A, Appendix B, ...)

Submission Instructions:

This Written Report is to be written according to academic writing guidelines and must be submitted in compliance with the following;

1. You should make significant references to the subject material and substantial wider reading. A minimum five (5) academic (books & peer-reviewed journal articles) & two (2) other sources (newspaper article, trade publications, websites, etc.) must be used. These should be referenced in the APA style, both in-text and in a reference list. References to ‘Wikipedia’ or similar unsubstantiated sources will not be accepted.

2. The assignment is to include in-text citations and a reference list following the latest APA referencing style. The APA referencing guide can be located in the Academic Writing Guide at http://library.think.edu.au/ld.php?content_id=1882254

3. Submit Written Report (with references) via the Assessment link in the main navigation menu in MGT603 Systems thinking on the Student Portal. The Learning Facilitator will provide feedback via Grade Centre in the Student Portal. Feedback can be viewed in My Grades.

Students should use the brief to guide what to include in the assessment and the following rubric to inform the standard required. 




Time access to emergent patient care is a significant matter that concern emergency division across the Australia and in overall world. Emergency divisions of the hospitals have responsibility in providing fast services delivery with respect to primary care. Since, any emergency divisions are running 24 hours in a day that assists towards exhaustion of the restricted supply of resources and dealing of a several conditions with severe significance. Patient turnaround is one of the most common issues in the public sector hospital, and this study is mainly concentrated on such issue. System thinking with the timely mechanism is one of the most major operational requirements in the healthcare services. In the given case scenario, public hospital of Australia is witnessing an issue with respect to significant patient turnaround time. There is a stark increment in the number of complaints of long waiting time by patients who acquire services in emergency division. Goal of the prevailing study is to reduction in such waiting time by 50%. The aim consists of evaluation present value stream map with the help of system archetype and recommends suitable modification.

Main discussion

Evaluation of system archetype by which performance impede

System archetypes means recurring trend of behavior that provide understanding into the structure by which system is run. There are several system archetypes used in the health care by which for analyzing an organization (Ahmad, et al. 2017). It can be said that, by this an individual could observe recurring behaviours and connected them to the fundamental arrangement of the business, which is reflected in appendix 1. In the given case scenario, following are the system archetypes by which performance impede –
Shifting of burden: By considering the case scenario, it has been observed that process of the organization for treatment of emergency patient is quite comprehensive. It could be evidenced from the fact that, they are required to complete a series of formalities prior to obtaining service delivery from the emergency division. Such behavior reflects about shifting of burden, in which one division transfer their burden on another.

Figure 1 Shifting the burden
(Source: System Archetypes 2018).

Success to be successful: In this aspect, it can be said that, resources has not been applied by the organization in effective manner, by which patient have to wait significant amount of time for getting treatment from the emergency department. Success to be successful archetype shows that performance of the organization is required to be developed through reward or recognition element, which is missing in the public sector hospitals (Currie, Spyridonidis, & Oborn, 2020).

Figure 2 Success to be successful
(Source: System Archetypes 2018).

Based on system archetypes analysis of current value stream map of the emergency division

Value stream map is applied for gaining in-depth insight of bilateral involvement of material and information flow. The procedure in which value stream map is created is shown in appendix 2.

Figure 3 Current value stream map of emergency department

The above value stream map reflects the comprehensive mechanism of the services provided by emergency room with the involvement of various factors and requirement of documentation for obtaining services from cited department. Emergency patient are required to go through from the comprehensive procedure before getting services. A detailed analysis of parties requires time as well as coordination with some other department as well like laboratory testing. Public sector hospital remains emphasized on providing well-documented service and insurance provision. Complying with the procedure of insurance could assists towards delay in availability of treatment therefore; it could not be neglected for financial constraint and hospital registration. It can be said that, insurance services could be regarded as impedance for the emergency services of the healthcare.

Further, public sector hospitals run activities with the analysis of past medical history of patient and acknowledging of in-depth treatment mechanism flow as per the depicted value stream map and address with information and material flow in simultaneous manner. Flow of information handles the maintenance of earlier case history and registration procedure of the patient as per medical requirement. Notably, information flow starts when patient get registered in the hospital and delayed activities status assists towards overall delay in the information streaming. Such delay takes place for the longer level of information route and finally reaching at place for treatment availability. The value stream map reflects about centralized system for nursing services for the usual element of outlined information and system flow (Frank, Shaked, & Koral-Kordova, 2016). Enhanced number of patient requires adequate nurse employees by which delivery of information could be provided in timely manner, which is decreased for several cases dealing by only one nurse. Healthcare professional diagnose patient thoroughly repetitively that handles with a delay of whole treatment module.

Overall, it can be stated that by going through the current value stream map that every element consisted in the material flow with a delay in services obtaining and that could assist towards significant delay in the overall procedure. Information dealing and process is more complex because of the interconnected paces as well as participation by the external entities. Block reflected in the above current value stream map are reflect various array of flow of information and collection of information and recording of such requires time and reversely directed indication could enhance delay in providing services to the patient of emergency ward.

Recommendation about new value stream map with required dropping in patient turnover time

The above analysis reflect that major issue of the public hospital is related to the significant patient waiting time, and therefore new value stream map should be created in a manner that provide effective services in timely manner as well as keeping good quality of services (Knoll, Reinhart, & Pru?glmeier Marco 2019).
In the new value stream map, it is required that time required in the information flow should be less than in the present system, and in case of larger volume of patient, appointment from doctors directly would be possible by which efficiency in the time management could be obtained. In the context of minimization of time, process patient required to comply with treatment procedure and on the basis of treatment process and expenses, report of insurance should be created. In the new value stream map, there would be not any requirement of testing for insurance gain. It leads towards saving in time as well as improvement in efficiency level as insurance checking could assists in the acceleration of deadly health matters (Oberhausen, & Plapper, 2017).
Delay in the treatment because of the insurance testing is not restricted to delay in particular patient service, but it could assist into advancement of a chain reaction for treatment consequently in major delay. The new value stream map includes of an information flow system with a latest mechanism of sharing of data overall. Sharing of information in the unified system could provide support to the healthcare experts as well as care provider to ascertain condition of the patient and decrease the time required in data flow. Therefore, it is recommended that, data related to patient history and diagnostic information should be shared into the unified system, in order to understand the medical background (Toivonen, & Siitonen, 2016). Overall, it can be suggested that, new value stream map should be equipped with effectiveness of data-driven network for the overall improvement in the public sector hospital. There is requirement of robust information technology system for the entire transformation and implementation of the servers (mainframe) by which communication process could be improvised.

Analysis of intended and unintended results of the modified system

Intended outcomes

In this aspect, it can be asserted that, implementation of the new infrastructure and new system could assist towards improvement in the time efficiency of the public hospitals. All interconnected activities would be take place in systematically, for example, due to unified system for data sharing, information about patient could be obtained by nurse as well as professional health experts in effective manner (Abouelmehdi, Beni-Hessane, & Khaloufi, 2018). However, this system may result in some drawbacks consisting of sorting of patient on priority basis, which can result in negative performance. However, it can be said that, the new value stream map would reduce the current issues faced by public sector of hospital such as significant patient turnaround time.

Unintended outcomes

It can be said that, new value stream map primarily creates for improvement in the waiting time of patient, but it would definitely assist towards some unintended outcomes as well. Since, it has been suggested that, patient could also obtain direct reference from healthcare professionals. However, it would avoid the primary assistance of nurse and directly obtaining treatment from doctors could assists towards significant pressure as well as burden on professionals and this could also influence other factors of the hospital and continuous workflow. Further, new value stream map requires installation of robust information technology system, in which the requirement of recruitment of new employees may arise (Meghan, Rune, Alain, Paolo, & Eirik A?rsand. 2016). It is because of the fact that present employees of the hospital may not possess adequate knowledge and skills regarding dealing with IT software. Moreover, the primary objective of the proposed value stream map is mainly connected with the reduction in waiting time of patient. However, it would also lead towards improvement and growth of the public sector hospitals. The reason behind the same is that, by this reduction in time, hospital could provide services to the enhanced number of patient, which directly influences the performance of the organization.


The above-mentioned analysis reflects that, it is required by public sector hospitals to improve time management along with effective management of resources and installation of information technology software. In the healthcare sector, the role of emergency division is vital for life-saving objective and mitigation of risk because of sudden health breakdown (Narke, & Jayadeva, 2020). It has been observed that, present system of emergency division comprises with significant comprehensive procedures, which affects time management of service delivery. In this aspect, it is essential that, current system should be modified and new system should be comprised with simple and easy procedure by which patient can avail timely services as well as quality of services should not be comprised. All the aspects of new system have been reflected in the proposed value stream map. Further, such proposed value stream can result in some intended as well as intended outcomes such as reduction in the turnaround time of patient but at the same time there would be requirement of recruitment of new employees. Despite of this, by the new value stream map, public sector hospital could achieve their purpose and generate services in more effective manner.


It can be said that, proposed value stream map assists towards generation of the new system with the probability of error and incomplete process as compared to the earlier system. In order to obtain effective benefits of the new system, it is recommended that, hospital should provide training and development courses to the existing employees as well as recruit some new skilled person, so that advantages of the new IT system could be availed fully. Further, it is recommended that, in the unified system of data sharing, there should be adequate control, so that confidentiality of information could be maintained (Oberhausen, & Plapper, 2017).


Abouelmehdi, K., Beni-Hessane, A., & Khaloufi, H. (2018). Big healthcare data: preserving security and privacy. Journal of Big Data, 5(1), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40537-017-0110-7

Ahmad, N. A. A., Te, C. L., Rohaizan, R., Md, F. A., Norafifah, H., & Mustaqqim, A. R. (2017). Value stream mapping to improve workplace to support lean environment. Matec Web of Conferences, 135. https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201713500032

Currie, G., Spyridonidis, D., & Oborn, E. (2020). The influence of hr practices upon knowledge brokering in professional organizations for service improvement: addressing professional legitimacy and identity in health care. Human Resource Management, 59(4), 379–395. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.22001

Frank, M., Shaked, H., & Koral-Kordova, S. (Eds.). (2016). Systems thinking: foundation, uses and challenges (Ser. Management science: theory and applications). Nova Science Publishers.

Knoll, D., Reinhart, G., & Pru?glmeier Marco. (2019). Enabling value stream mapping for internal logistics using multidimensional process mining. Expert Systems with Applications, 124, 130–142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2019.01.026

Meghan, B., Rune, P., Alain, G., Paolo, Z., & Eirik A?rsand. (2016). The opportunity to evaluate the impact of our changing health care system through archetypes and reinforced use of medical coding. International Journal of Integrated Care, 16(5), 6. https://doi.org/10.5334/ijic.2550

Narke, M. M., & Jayadeva, C. T. (2020). Value stream mapping: effective lean tool for smes. Materials Today: Proceedings: Part 2, 24, 1263–1272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.04.441

Oberhausen, C., & Plapper, P. (2017). Cross-enterprise value stream assessment. Journal of Advances in Management Research, 14(2), 182–193. https://doi.org/10.1108/JAMR-05-2016-0038

Oberhausen, C., & Plapper, P. (2017). Cross-enterprise value stream assessment. Journal of Advances in Management Research, 14(2), 182–193. https://doi.org/10.1108/JAMR-05-2016-0038

System Archetypes (2018). (Pdf). Retrieved from<https://thesystemsthinker.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Systems-Archetypes-I-TRSA01_pk.pdf>

Toivonen, T., & Siitonen, J. (2016). Value stream analysis for complex processes and systems. Procedia Cirp, 39, 9–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2016.01.035

Value stream mapping process (2020). Retrieved from https://quality-one.com/vsm/


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