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Biology Case study Assignment Sample



Case Study: Jane

After finishing a practice run, 38-year-old marathon runner Jane showed up at her doctor's office. She works out three days a week, but the previous three runs have left her feeling dizzy and with severe muscle pain. Jane acknowledges to the clinic nurse that she is feeling tired and that her "heart is racing." She was a touch shaky on her feet the night before and stumbled as she climbed the stairs of her house. She admits that she has been consuming fewer calories and less hydration than usual, but continuing to eat properly. In the previous month, she lost 2 kg. She adds that her Garmin watch showed that her resting heart rate used to be 51 bpm.

After her morning run, Jane immediately applied Voltaren Emulgel, a topical NSAID, to her calves and quadriceps in an effort to lessen the pain.

Answering the following question while keeping in mind the case study above

Describe the variations in pressure and volume.

Question 1, will be happening in Jane's chest cavity, in order to achieve exhalation during a lengthy run. Give a justification for these modifications and how they affect airflow.

A. Describe the gas exchange that takes place between the air in Jane's alveoli and the blood in her lungs. Will exercise affect the rate of gas exchange? Justify your response.

Question 2

A. Which ANS reaction would you predict would predominate throughout Jane's runs? Justify your response.

B. Which glucose homeostasis hormone would you anticipate being most active during this ANS response? Why? Explain your response using what you know about glucose homeostasis.

Question 3

A. Describe the function of the kidneys in maintaining fluid balance with reference to the function of antidiuretic hormone in question 3A. (ADH). Is Jane susceptible to failing to sustain homeostatic fluid mechanisms? Whether or not

B. What is a urinalysis and how important is it in this case? Would you anticipate this outcome based on Jane's urinalysis's specific gravity (SG) component and your understanding of typical kidney function? Whether or not

Question 4

A. Take into account Jane's blood pressure reading and examine if the mean arterial pressure is likely to differ from normal. You must indicate a potential change in blood volume and briefly discuss the effects of any BP change on renal function in your response.

B. Which system will be more important in maintaining Jane's blood pressure in this situation, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system or natriuretic peptides? Explain your response by describing how the system you choose contributes to blood pressure equilibrium.

Question 5

A. A major hemorrhage occurred during Jane's caesarean delivery, necessitating a blood transfusion. What blood type or types may have been safely given to Jane? Describe what may have happened if Jane had been given A+ blood.

B. Jane had a calcium shortage at the time of her caesarean delivery, it was discovered. What impact would this have had on her blood's ability to clot? Explain your response.



The newest case study in this biology assignment is about Jane, who is brought to the GP clinic at the age of 38 after finishing a training run. She has recently had dizziness, severe muscle pain, and reports of being lethargic, having a racing heart, being unsteady, and other dehydration-related symptoms. She used Voltaren Emulgel to sooth her painful muscles. The case study investigates bodily changes by looking at pertinent homeostasis, the function of the kidney in maintaining fluid balance, and Jane's blood pressure analysis.


Long-term adjustments will be made to Jane's chest cavity's pressure and volume to facilitate exhalation. The muscles in the thoracic cavity and the pressure differential between the lungs and the atmosphere both have a role in exhalation. The slightly negative pressure in the chest cavity helps to keep the lungs' airways open. As a result, during exercise, the volume of the chest will significantly expand during inhalation and decrease during exhale. The intercostal muscles are relaxed as a result of the lung recoil, which forces air from the lungs (chest) outside during exhalation. This relaxes the diaphragm, which is located higher in the thoracic cavity and brings the chest wall back to its natural place. The gradient of pressure between the atmosphere and thoracic activity causes the pressure in the thoracic activity to rise in relation to the environment as air rushes out of the lungs (Shao et al., 2014). Since no muscles are contracted to remove air from the lungs, these alterations are thought of as a passive event.

Gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary blood takes place over the long term and changes during activity. Inhaled oxygen travels via the lungs to the alveoli. There, the capillaries encircling the alveoli and the layers of cells that line them continue to be in intimate contact with one another. Jane will carry through this procedure quickly while running or exercising to allow for more oxygen and rid the blood of carbon dioxide. The blood in the capillaries' air-blood barrier allows oxygen to travel through quickly. After that, the blood transports the carbon dioxide to the alveoli for exhalation. The oxygenated blood travels from the lungs through the pulmonary veins to the left side of the heart, where it is then pumped to the rest of the body (Qureshi, 2011). After that, blood will be pumped down the pulmonary artery to the lungs, where it will be used to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide.

The ANS response during Jane's runs comprises the control of the cardiovascular response, which will predominate. The commencement of the somatomotor signal is accompanied by the creation of a cardiorespiratory pattern by the central nervous system (CNS), which is thought of as a central command. This central order causes the heart's parasympathetic activity to decrease, resulting in increased breathing rates, and also resets the arterial baroreflex, resulting in higher pressure. When Jane is jogging, the cardiorespiratory system's main goals are to provide enough oxygen to the bodily tissues and remove waste. Normative blood flow is maintained between all bodily tissues by cardiovascular controls. Running while exercising increases the demand for oxygen to the muscles by 15 to 25 times compared to resting (Liu et al., 2013). The heart cannot function alone because it would be unable to carry out its tasks. Heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rates all rise as a result of an increase in the body's need for oxygen. This necessitates significant changes in the blood flow from numerous inert organs towards the skeletal system's active muscles.

The fundamental function of the brain is to control peripheral glucose metabolism via signalling mechanisms and metabolic pathways. Exercises have an effect on several areas of the brain, changing how genes express proteins involved in synaptic plasticity, cellular bioenergetics, neurotrophic factor signalling, cellular stress tolerance, and the removal of harmed organelles and proteins. When the pancreas maintains blood glucose levels that vary within a relatively small range of 4-6 mM throughout the ANS response, the glucagon and insulin hormones are most active (Mitrakou, 2011). The maintenance of glucose homeostasis is accomplished by opposing the balanced activities of glucagon and insulin. The ANS response will cause the glucose homeostasis response to be most active in order to achieve a balance of glucagon and insulin for the maintenance of blood glucose levels.

The kidneys' job is to regulate the urine's concentration so that it reflects the body's demand for water. They do this by creating more diluted urine when the body needs to eliminate surplus water, or they do it by conserving water when the body is dehydrated. Because Jane is dehydrated, her kidneys will retain more water, and the ADH hormone helps the body retain water by improving the kidneys' ability to reabsorb water. By inserting water channels in the kidney tubule membranes, ADH promotes water absorption. The channels subsequently return solute-free water to the blood through the tubular cells, reducing the osmolarity of the plasma and raising the osmolarity of the urine (Cuzzo, & Lappin, 2019). Given that Jane is already dehydrated, she is more likely to fail to maintain a homeostatic fluid mechanism. Osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus monitor the concentration of electrolytes in extracellular fluid to regulate the body's level of hydration. When excessive sweating causes water loss, which causes neuronal signals from osmoreceptors to be transmitted from hypothalamic nuclei, the concentration of these electrolytes in the blood rises. Aldosterone, a steroid hormone generated by the adrenal cortex, is in charge of maintaining the electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids. Aldosterone, as opposed to ADH, promotes NA+ reabsorption and K+ secretion from the extracellular fluid in the cells of the renal tubules, assisting in maintaining adequate water balance (Zittema et al., 2012). A drop in blood potassium levels triggers the release of this hormone, halting the loss of Na+ through sweat, saliva, and gastric juice.

A urine test called a urinalysis is used to diagnose and treat a variety of illnesses. The look, concentration, and urine content are all examined. An illness or disease may develop as a result of an abnormal urinalysis. In this instance, the importance of urinalysis is in identifying elevated protein levels or identifying symptoms of kidney disease (Callens & Bartges, 2015). According to Jane's urinalysis results' specific gravity of 1.035 and knowledge of typical kidney functions, an increase in specific gravity in the urine is a sign that the adrenal glands are underproducing hormones, that there is a lot of sodium in the blood, that the person is dehydrated from a loss of body fluids, that the kidney artery is narrowed, or that there is an associated syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (Ristic, & Skeldon, 2011). These are the cases that were discovered as a result of Jane's elevated levels of physical activity, together with her ingestion of protein and dehydration.
Given Jane's dehydration, it is more possible that Jane's blood pressure will vary from normal ranges. Due to a reduction in blood volume, dehydration can cause blood pressure to drop. Dehydration causes the blood volume to decrease, which lowers blood pressure since adequate blood volume requires that the blood be able to reach all body tissues. The organs won't obtain the necessary amounts of oxygen and nutrients at such a reduction in pressure levels. The kidneys will lessen the amount of urine produced, which tightens the capillaries in the heart and certain parts of the brain (Daugirdas et al., 2013). It can put a great deal of pressure on the kidney walls since the kidneys won't be able to filter out urine as they normally would under conditions of low blood pressure. Renal disease can result from kidney damage caused by urine retention.

The condition calls for the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway to predominate over natriuretic peptides in maintaining Jane's blood pressure. The RAS controls the fluid balance in the blood as well as blood pressure. Blood potassium levels rise and kidney cells produce the enzyme renin when blood volume or sodium levels in the body fall. Due to the hormone angiotensin I, renin transforms the angiotensinogen generated in Jane's liver. Angiotensin I is converted into angiotensin II by the lung-located enzyme ACE (Provenzano, & Sparks, 2020). In order to restore the potassium, sodium, and fluids and return blood pressure to normal ranges, aldosterone and angiotensin II work to increase blood volume, sodium levels in the blood, and blood pressure.

The blood type that can be safely given to Jane in the event that she haemorrhages during her caesarean delivery and needs a blood transfusion is her blood group. If Jane had received A+ blood, she would have quickly recovered. If Jane had a calcium shortage at the time of her caesarean delivery, it would have prevented her blood from clotting (Fyfe et al., 2012). Calcium ions, the most significant mineral in blood, are required for clotting.


In conclusion, Jane has experienced significant difficulties with her dehydration, which has had a significant negative influence on her kidneys. She needs medical care right away to get her water levels back to normal so that her kidneys and other organs can start working again and her blood pressure will return to normal.


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