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ECL101 Language and Print Literacy Development Assignment Sample

This is an individual essay in which you will discuss the typical patterns of child development in language and early print literacy. To complete this task, you will draw on the teaching materials and essential readings for modules one-four. The recommended readings will be a helpful resource to support students who are aiming for a high mark. We discourage the use of outside resources as these are not necessarily reliable.
You will:

a. define oral language, phonological and phonemic awareness, grapho-phonic decoding, and language comprehension

b. discuss key stages in the development of each of these skills. Please discuss at least three and no more than five stages for each skill. You may condense stages or choose up to five distinct ones. It is particularly important that you are selective with your oral language and language comprehension stages.

c. highlight how each of these skills contributes to students’ print literacy development in the early years of schooling.

Your essay will include a brief introduction and conclusion. Use either Deakin Harvard or APA referencing style to show the sources of your ideas.


In the last two decades, phonemic awareness and phoneme recognition have been identified as important factors in determining literacy development (Kardaleska & Karovska-Ristovska, 2018). The study by Bradley & Bryant (1978) found evidence pointing toward the opposite conclusion regarding the relationship between early reading and phoneme awareness. They compare two sets of people for a phoneme awareness test during their study. The first group was a group of older disabled readers to a younger group of typically reading readers who were matched by reading level with them. It was not possible to attribute the differences in learning between typical readers and the disabled to differences in orthographic knowledge because of how the study was designed (Bradley & Bryant, 1978).

One task involved detecting rhyme and alliteration by each group of young people, while the other required them to come up with their rhymes. Both of these tasks for assignment help were performed significantly worse by older disabled readers than by younger matched readers. According to Bradley and Bryant, both groups were reading at the same level of proficiency, even though Morais (1987) concluded that reading promotes phonemic awareness (Morais, 1987).

From the various test on the phoneme awareness test on the children, it was found that the conclusion that phoneme awareness tasks can teach children to recognize or write words they were never exposed to before (Ball & Blachman, 1991). Once children realize that speech can be segmented into different bits and that these segments are represented by letters, they seem to be able to understand and use sound-symbol relationships much more easily (Blachman, 1991).

(Note - The difference between Phonological Awareness and Phonemic Awareness by Christina, 2022)

Phonemic awareness has many components it includes identifying and manipulating parts of the oral language, including rimes, onsets, syllables and words. In addition to identifying and making musical rhymes, children who have phonological awareness can recognize words with similar-sounding beginnings, such as 'mother' and money' and in addition to this, they can also clap the number of syllables in a word.

Phonemic awareness refers to the skill of manipulating and focusing on individual sounds in spoken words. These smaller units make up spoken language. Syllables and words are composed of phonemes. For instance, the word 'mat' has three phonemes: /m/ /a/ /t/. Languages such as English have 44 phonemes, including combinations of letters such as /th/. A sound understanding of phonemic awareness is necessary for recognizing words and spelling well. Children's level of phonemic awareness during their first two years of school is one of the best indicators of their ability to learn to read. Phonological awareness and phonemic awareness are lower among students at risk for reading difficulties.

When it comes to students' phonological awareness, there is a continuum of progressively acquired skills. These skills are essential to a student's success in developing reading and spelling skills, as they are fundamental to being able to decode and spell written words. When children are developing their reading skills, phonological awareness is especially crucial in first grade, kindergarten and pre-school. Some students can eliminate reading problems in the future with the explicit teaching of phonological awareness during these early years. It is possible to enhance phonological awareness in struggling decoders at any age, especially in those who have difficulties in segmenting or blending phonemes.

There are five different levels according to which progress in phonemic awareness can be measured. They are discussed in this paragraph. Phoneme segmentation; the phoneme segments often deal with the segmentation of the phenome. The phenome segmentation can include the segmentation of syllables. The first segment is the sentence, then the second is the word, and finally, the third segment is the sentence; when all this segment comes together, they add meaning to the sentence. An understanding of the sound of a word involves counting and recognizing the phonemes individually. It means different things when one moves from word segments to sentence segments as phonemic awareness involves identifying the sounds of various parts of sentences, letters, and words. Learners are internalizing how each letter sounds differently when they attempt to grasp syllable segmentation. The ability to pronounce a word properly requires knowledge of which parts of the mouth are used. In addition, it can improve reading comprehension and improve word recognition (Müller et al., 2020).

The next is phoneme blending and splitting, in this expression, phonemes are blended and separated to form new words. The correct blending is required when the student has learned the sound of each phoneme. The process of onset-riming is a process by which the phonemes are split and merged in the mind to determine the end (riming) and the beginning (onset) (Singh, 2020). It is a pretext to teach spelling through phonetic splitting and blending when teachers ask students to speak.

The third is phoneme alliteration and rhyming, phoneme alliteration and rhyming involve words that sound alike to one another. Alliteration takes advantage of words that have the same sound at the beginning of the sentence, while rhyming uses the commonality of ending sounds (Singh, 2020). Learning tongue twisters is part of alliteration practice. Alliteration can be seen in phrases such as “she sells seashells at the beach”. The repetition of the same sound, over and over, acquaints the child with various sounds. Lastly, phoneme contrasting and comparing. It involves changing the sound of a word by using contrasting phonemes that change its meaning. The contrasting phonemes are f and v since they sound out differently due to the application of the phonetic difference. Furthermore, the meaning of these sounds is altered when they are replaced. The words Fan and Van may rhyme, but their differing phonetic meanings place them in separate phoneme categories. Finally, phoneme manipulation and writing. The goal of phonological manipulation is to manipulate or change individual phonemes while keeping in mind the specific roles each phoneme plays in each word. The act of reading is composed of several steps. Cognitively, students rearrange, replace, or alter sounds to arrive at the correct pronunciation. Students who can read connected texts successfully must be able to do this (Singh, 2020).

Teaching the student is a difficult job when it comes to phonological awareness. There are a few ways in which phonological awareness can be developed in children. These techniques are developed by different researchers. The first is by giving multisensory instruction ("How to Teach Phonological Awareness using a Research-Based Approach | SMARTER Intervention", 2021). The phonological awareness of many struggling writers and readers is particularly problematic. Providing these students with visual and tactile aids to show the way words are broken down is one of the best ways to help since many of them have difficulty processing the sounds. Students may be able to make this connection by using visual aids, placing their hands under their chin to feel the vowel sound drop, and using motor cues. Below are the many tips starting from visual, auditory, using different colours, and lastly kinesthetic tips.

(Note- Various styles for multisensory instruction by "How to Teach Phonological Awareness using a Research-Based Approach | SMARTER Intervention", 2021)

The above-mentioned various tips will help in teaching the small children about phoneme recognition and it will also raise phonemic awareness.

The next teaching style that helps teach phonological awareness is by focusing on every single phoneme. In the beginning, the biggest mistake was not understanding that phonological awareness activities could help with reading and writing. No letter knowledge or letter-sound pairings are needed for phonological awareness, it is simply sound understanding. Phonics-based instruction would be achieved by combining sounds with letters through phonological awareness instruction. Students could be shown the syllable pattern and the letter pattern as the teacher helps them understand how multi-syllabic words fit together as they read them. Alternatively, break out words into individual sounds (r-controlled sounds, vowel sounds, and consonant sounds) as everyone hears them.

(Note - breaking words into individual sounds by "How to Teach Phonological Awareness using a Research-Based Approach | SMARTER Intervention", 2021)

A Phonological Awareness Diagnostic Assessment can help teachers determine the level of phonological awareness students have ("Phonological awareness diagnostic assessment", 2021). Assessing student progress in developing foundational literacy skills complements existing strategies. By doing so, students have the opportunity to show what they can do and what they know, which in turn provides teachers with information about their students' skill levels. By selecting which subskills to assess, teachers can use the assessment for individual students, depending on their needs. Students are assessed by classroom teachers individually and the assessment takes 10-12 minutes ("Phonological awareness diagnostic assessment", 2021). The student assessment will be categorised into many sub-sections phoneme segmenting, phoneme blending, syllable segmentation, syllable blending, sound isolation, rhyming, auditory discrimination, and sentence segmentation ("How to Teach Phonological Awareness using a Research-Based Approach | SMARTER Intervention", 2021). Responses to the assessment are entered into the online tool by teachers for better analysis. This record will be checked to monitor the progress of the student.

(Note – Example of student assessment in Phonological awareness by "How to Teach Phonological Awareness using a Research-Based Approach | SMARTER Intervention", 2021)

A child's mind can be moulded to learn about phonological awareness, either through multisensory instruction or by breaking every phoneme down individually. It will be beneficial when using these two methods for teaching since they build a deeper understanding of the English language. In this teaching methodology, every single bit of phonological awareness will be highlighted by the teacher as part of the assessment, and the student will be able to learn the language quickly.


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