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EAP2 English for Academic Purpose Assignment Sample

Assignment Brief

In order to meet the requirements for Academic Purposes 2, all students must write a Cause and Effect essay citing reasons from various sources for assignment help.

Cause and Effect Essay

Question: Discuss the effects of on society.

Possible Cause Examples:

• 3d printing (design, IT and business students)

• Antibiotics (health students)

• Preservatives/food additives (catering and hospitality students)

• Block chain technology (IT and business students)

• Negative gearing (accounting and business students)

• Zoning/lock out laws (hospitality students)

• Plastic (fashion, business, health students) Write a cause and effect essay based on at least 6 references (2 journal articles, 2 industry sources and 2 government sources)

Learning Outcomes:

• Can analyse and synthesize information

• Can identify relationships and/or patterns

• Can show understanding of the literature and evidence of critical evaluation

• Can provide an appropriate conclusion

In order to successfully complete this assignment, follow the steps listed below:

• Write 6 paragraphs: introduction, 2 cause paragraph, 2 effect paragraphs, conclusion, reference list (separate page)

• Read references to find evidence to support your 2 cause paragraphs and/or your 2 effect paragraphs

• See that you have explained the main reasons for the causes (e.g. why was there a need for antibiotics or plastic)

• See that you have explained the main effects of these causes (e.g. an environmental effect such as pollution from plastic or a health effect from food additives)

A well-structured Cause and Effect essay must include:

• A cover page clearly stating your name, student ID, title of the essay, your teacher's name and word count

• An appropriate introduction

• A critical analysis in 2 cause paragraphs and 2 effects paragraphs

• An appropriate conclusion in which you summarize the main points

• A reference list following the APA Gh referencing conventions



Plastic materials are diverse products and bi-products of petrochemicals. Global plastic production has increased exponentially in the past decade. Disposability feature along with the low rate of recycling of plastics considerably increase waste production internationally. For example in Australia in between the years, 2010 and 2011 plastic waste produced was around 1,433,046 tonnes. Around 20% of t his amount was only recycled. National plastic production rate production in the year 2017-2018 was 9.4 percent (Environment.gov.au, 2018). The country’s government acknowledges the threat caused by plastic to the marine ecosystem. To combat this better understanding of the hazards of plastic waste to marine life in Australia is made through this paper.


The advantages of plastic cannot be denied. Plastic material is lightweight, easy, and cheap and this has led to the huge production and use of plastic in the world. Such a trend will continue increasing in the next decade as well. The resulting environmental degradation needs the government of Australia to understand, regulation and innovate ways to optimize the waste creation and disposal of plastic for conservation of life. Plastics as bi-products are increasingly used for the vulnerable item packaging and containerization of manufactured products due to their durability and cost effectiveness. Gradually they have become a unique commodity in their genre (Comanita, Hlihor & Ghinea, 2018). The versatility of plastic has become an increasing trend all over the world. Unfortunately, a large mass of such plastics are disposed of in the environment. The vulnerable products which go through transit and transportation need to be protected from contamination. Moisture, microorganisms, humidity, insects, gases, and lights are such external and internal contaminants that can damage such products and impact their quality. As a result, its value will be degraded (Ritchie & Roser, 2021). Plastics are used for such vulnerable products for effectively safeguarding their quality and integrity.

The main reason for using plastic packaging is to protect food from getting spoilt. The food waste in the world is extremely high. This leads to a very high environmental impact since a massive carbon footprint is caused due to the waste created from packaging with plastic. There was an acute need for using the plastic package as using this food can travel too long distances, stay on the shelves for long and large wastage of food could be avoided. A large amount of resources is used all over the world for creating food. It is natural to take steps to maintain its quality as long as it is possible (MarketResearch, 2021). Moreover, countries located in all parts of the world can get a supply of food products such as powders, spices, and liquids which are even out of season owing to special plastic protection added to them.


Plastic debris is a continuous problem in the oceans of the world. Government worldwide is recognizing the need to manage such issues. Marine debris is the consistent, processed, and manufactured solid discarded materials which are abandoned or disposed of in the coastal and marine environment (Asuquo, 2018). The bio-diverse life in the marine ecosystem comprises of species which are to be protected. The debris causes threat to their life system. Injury, death via drowning, entanglement caused by internal injuries, starvation and ingestion are the major impacts created by plastic waste and debris in the water bodies in this nation. The marine mammals, turtles, and sea birds severely get injured sometimes and even die from the entanglement of such marine debris. This can limit their mobility, cause infection, starvation, drowning, amputation, and smothering. The sea birds at times become entangled in the fishing lines. Such fishing lines and nets have plastic-packed straps. Often marine debris is lost from them when the nets are used fast in the water. When consumed marine mammals can lose their fastness in movement in the water, ability to hunt prey as well as safeguard themselves from predators. This can lead to obstructions in blood circulation and sometimes leads to asphyxiation as well as death. The skin of the turtles and marine mammals is also impacted if cut through the plastic of ropes and nets in fishing lines. This can lead to infection and also sometimes causes amputation of the tail, flippers, or flukes.

Research has suggested that around 90% of marine birds in the last two decades have consumed some kind of plastic material in their lifetime. It can puncture the internal organs as it moves through the alimentary canal. At some time the plastic debris can remain in the intestine and stomach as well. Migratory birds, as well as their young nestlings, are also at high risks of death as they ingest the plastic which leads to a full feeling in their stomach. This is a misleading feeling since it is not food and hence they attempt early migration. The nutritional value of the consumed plastics runs out soon from the body of these birds. Their energy degrees and they drop down lifeless as they do not have food to sustain themselves for reaching their destination (Gbrmpa.gov.au, 2021). The birds which are young feed from parents attempt to get the nutritional value from plastic but do not get adequate energy and nutrition. Such young birds die early and do not even reach adulthood. This leads to the less addition of adult population in such birds. Sensitive species can even go extinct in this manner as the food web is directly impacted due to their total dependence on marine environment.


There are varied kinds of plastics and their chemical composition is also different. Some plastics are used for protection or wrapping, food packaging, or used as fishing nets and lines and biodegradable items. Although some plastics are recyclable yet the remaining can cause a disastrous impact on marine life. The massive production of such plastic products, their toxic impacts, entanglement, strangulation, starvation, malnutrition, and micro plastic impacts on Australian marine life is life-threatening. The government of Australia has developed varied environmental acts and policies for optimizing production, use, and disposal of waste from plastic materials to conserve marine life and the environment.


Asuquo, I. (2018). Plastic Waste in the Aquatic Environment: Impacts and Management. Environment, 2(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.31058/j.envi.2018.21001

Comanita, E., Hlihor, R., & Ghinea, C. (2018). Occurrence Of Plastic Waste In The Environment: Ecological And Health Risks. Environmental Engineering And Management Journal, 15(3), 675-685. https://doi.org/10.30638/eemj.2016.073

Environment.gov.au. (2018). Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment. Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment. Retrieved 26 March 2021, from https://www.environment.gov.au/protection/waste/publications/australian-plastics-recycling-survey-report-2017-18.

Gbrmpa.gov.au. (2021). Marine debris. Retrieved 26 March 2021, from https://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/our-work/threats-to-the-reef/marine-debris.

MarketResearch. (2021). Australia Plastic Market Research Reports & Analysis page 1. Marketresearch.com. Retrieved 26 March 2021, from https://www.marketresearch.com/seek/Plastic-Australia/1606/1358/1.html.

Ritchie, H., & Roser, M. (2021). Plastic Pollution. Our World in Data. Retrieved 26 March 2021, from https://ourworldindata.org/plastic-pollution.

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