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BE486 Organisational Behaviour and Human Resource Management Assignment Sample

Assignment Brief

Critically evaluate the following statement:

“At its best, performance management is a holistic set of processes. It brings together many principles that enable good people management practice, including learning and development, performance measurement and organisational development.” (CIPD, 2019).

Discuss relevant concepts and theory behind the statement. In your essay, you should cover themes and readings from this module on HRM, along with additional sources that you have researched independently.

The word count should be in the range of 2300 - 2500 words (excluding references).

Assessment criteria:

- Evidence of wide reading and use of learning resources
- The clarity of your understanding of relevant concepts
- Critical thinking and judgement
- Coherence in the discussion you develop
- The quality of the organisation and structure of your argument
- Effective use of language (clarity of expression)
- The correct use of referencing (APA or Harvard style).

Additional instructions:

- The essay should be word-processed and written in an appropriate academic style.
- The total word count (excluding references) must be in the range stated.
- You should base your work only on authoritative sources.

- You should ensure that you have fully acknowledged the work of others by using in-text citations (in the body of the text) and a full list of references at the end.
- The essay will be processed with plagiarism detection software.



A management's performance may be managed by measures taken to guarantee that objectives are being reached in a timely, efficient, and productive way. The product or service itself, as well as the organization, department, and personnel performance that went into making it are all fair game for analysis. It's also the method through which an organization brings its assets and personnel in line with its most important goals and priorities. A successful business will have a performance management system in place. This report focuses on how performance management can help in training and learning and help in organizational development for assignment help.

Performance management

Even though performance assessment is central to performance management, the broader process encompasses all organizational policies, procedures, and design characteristics that interact to generate employee performance (Schleicher et al. 2019). This holistic viewpoint is representative of a configurational strategy to strategic hrm, which asserts that HR patterns, rather than isolated HR actions, are what's required to realize an organization's goals (Schleicher et al. 2018). Armstrong (2021) observes that the performance management process may serve as a platform for the synchronization of all HR policies and procedures. It has been demonstrated that for an organization's HR architecture to produce desired performance, HR activities must be "bundled" such that they complement and enhance each other (Aguinis, 2019). Mone & London (2018) propose that for performance management to be effective, all of its parts must be in sync with one another. Bundles of aligned HR practices form a virtuous cycle that drives the achievement of goals (Mahmoudimehr & Sebghati, 2019). Increased performance (task and contextual; Beeri et al. 2019) may be seen as a distant byproduct of performance management, yet it is the process' ultimate goal. Cognitive, emotional, and conative outcomes are examples of more proximal results that may be expected before any noticeable changes in performance. Dooren & Hoffmann (2018), for instance, discovered the connection between intrinsic motivation and self-reported performance when participants established developmental goals and received feedback on their progress. According to research by Schleicher et al. (2019), a worker's performance may be predicted by a collection of cognitive characteristics that influence how they react to feedback. It was discovered by Schleicher et al. (2018) that emotional commitment mediated the connection between the feedback context and citizenship behaviours (contextual performance). Therefore, in order to properly manage performance, it is necessary to attain outcomes that come before improved performance. The key to effective performance management, as pointed out by Aguinis (2019), is instilling in employees the drive and dedication they need to meet their goals. Creating these near-term results is a crucial part of performance management.

It was in 1968 when Edwin Locke first put out his idea of goal setting. Employees are more likely to go above and beyond the call of duty if they feel their efforts are valued and contribute to a greater whole, according to this hypothesis (Mone & London, 2018). This is the case because workers remain dedicated to their objectives. If they aren't able to achieve their goals, they will either perform harder or readjust their expectations. The objectives of the performance management system will have been achieved if performance levels actually rise.

Action steps are a crucial part of goal formulation. Strategies like this inspire and direct the workforce or group in the direction of success. The SMART criteria are one set of criteria that may be used to define objectives. S and M often stand for "specific" and "measurable." The most frequent iteration uses the remaining letters to stand for "attainable," "relevant," and "time-bound," respectively. Setting goals is an excellent way to boost staff productivity. The next paragraphs will cover Mahmoudimehr & Sebghati (2019) five main concepts of goal setting. When these concepts are utilized at a company's management level, productivity increases.

Clarity: A well-defined aim is more likely to be attained than a vague one. That is to say; intentions have to be very clear. When setting a goal, it's helpful to designate a date by which companies want to have it accomplished (Beeri et al. 2019). The worker should be aware of when his work must be finished. One of the benefits of this is that it aids in the successful completion of a certain project or mission. The difficulty of objective should be challenging. The staff will be encouraged to work harder toward the objective (Dooren & Hoffmann 2018). Given the difficulty of the objective, employees are more likely to use their initiative to come up with creative solutions. The person is motivated to do their very best in response to the challenge.

One must be committed to the task at hand in order to achieve success. When a goal is communicated to the team, everyone takes more responsibility for ensuring its success. When workers are committed to their job, they take responsibility for it. As a result, they will take more pride in their work and become more self-aware (Schleicher et al. 2019). It's important to have a system in place for reporting on how far they have come. Regular meetings might be set up to assess the situation and brainstorm solutions. If the end result is too challenging, it is best to make the objective less demanding. Feedbacks allow for this understanding to emerge (Schleicher et al. 2018). The evaluation process of an employee and his performance may be improved with the aid of feedback. Complicacy of the task: More time should be allotted to accomplish a more difficult objective. That is to say, even if achieving a goal seems impossible, effective training regimens may be devised.

Victor Vroom first introduced expectation theory in 1964. According to this school of thinking, workers will adjust their behaviour inside the organisation in such a way that they have the greatest possible opportunity of accomplishing the most significant and personally meaningful goals they have set for themselves (Aguinis, 2019). Companies modify their behaviour in ways that are most likely to bring about the results companies want. As it is widely held that present and future actions are intertwined, this notion forms the theoretical foundation of performance management. One's level of expectation is set by the degree to which one is certain that engaging in a particular behaviour will unquestionably lead to the desired outcome (Mone & London, 2018). As a result, this quality aids people in identifying whether or not they possess the necessary skill sets for successfully completing a task. However, motivation decreases in tandem with unattainable performance objectives.

The act of providing compensation in exchange for a specified performance result is linked to instrumentality. So, people are prompted to take on tasks whose completion would result in more benefits for themselves (Mahmoudimehr & Sebghati, 2019). When the reward or instrumentality for several organizational activities is the same, however, the incentive to do those performances wanes. The value of the reinforcement received by a person for displaying an ideal behaviour. People thus consider a number of factors when making judgments on the merit of their monetary benefits. There are a variety of factors at play, such as individuals' varying requirements, values, objectives, and drives. Motives for completing certain endeavours might also change depending on valence (Beeri et al. 2019). People prioritize the factor that has the biggest impact on their motivation while making decisions about how to act.

Almost every business model makes use of expectations theory in practice. Used in all facets of the employer-employee relationship, but especially for keeping tabs on how well workers are doing in their jobs (Dooren & Hoffmann 2018). Organizational procedures like hiring and staffing are examples of expectation theory's application. The same holds true for assessing employee performance in relation to organizational objectives and evaluating the efficacy of training programmes (Schleicher et al. 2019). However, this theory is also used to determine what factors inspire certain workers inside an organization. Motives for joining an organization may be broken down into three categories: needs, objectives, and prior experiences, and this theory can provide light on all three.

Performance Measurement

Measuring performance has emerged as a pressing concern in recent times. In today's fast-paced world, the capacity of an organization to assess its important operations, and this at all levels of the organization, is very crucial to the organization's success. Yet, the state of performance measuring research and its application remains inadequate. Performance metrics, for instance, are hardly connected to the organization's goals and long-term vision. Critical tasks are frequently not supported byMcDavid et al. (2018).

Existing measuring methods, including information from outside sources, are not taken into account. Such problems may be traced, at least in part, to the lack of a holistic, overarching paradigm (Nigri & Del Baldo, 2018). Only a few models have been developed in the literature, and most of them either lack sufficient depth or fail to take into account important factors.

Those in the know agree that it's crucial to evaluate performance regularly. The measuring operations in organizations have benefited greatly from the various guidelines and frameworks that have resulted from research over the last two decades (Kaydos, 2020). Early on, it was recognized that automating the processes of collecting, analyzing, and disseminating performance data was crucial. In 1985, for example, Globerson suggested incorporating performance data collection into regular business procedures. The use of information systems in performance evaluation has been emphasized by a number of writers, including Bacon (2023). Several commercial solutions to performance assessment have been presented by software editors recently, and a few research-based methods have also been proposed.

Recommendations for improving performance assessment often include taking indications of success back to their roots in organizational strategy and goals. Once the organization's overarching strategy is defined, it may be broken down into more specific goals for which suitable performance indicators can be selected (Islami et al. 2018). It is important to derive performance indicators from the organization's strategy and goals to make sure everyone is rowing in the same direction.

Therefore, sub-optimizations at the local level. However, modern performance measurement systems tend to place more emphasis on the indicators themselves and their aims than on the relationship between objectives and performance indicators (Rita et al. 2018). It's also uncommon for efforts meant to bolster the goals and boost performance to be directly tied to the targets and KPIs. However, as Kaplan and Norton point out, many organizations' actions are not always tied to the achievement of specific goals (Newman et al. 2020). Performance indicators should be able to be connected to goals and activities in a performance assessment system.

Training and Learning

Training in performance management is a programme through which workers may enhance their abilities and productivity on the job in tandem with their manager and the organization. Training in performance management is designed to accomplish two goals: first, it is meant to increase productivity right away. Second, it is meant to move participants ahead in their professions (Ismail et al. 2021). Traditional methods of performance management training, such as one-on-one meetings and annual reviews, are being phased out in favour of their digital counterparts as a growing number of firms put a greater priority on education and development.
Training, performance evaluation, and an employee's overall contribution to the business are all inextricably linked (Prentice et al. 2020). Management of employee performance may be enhanced via training. Employees get a sense of direction and purpose in their work by learning the standards by which their work is judged and, more crucially, the expectations of their superiors. Knowledge in the workplace is consolidated in this way (Armstrong & Landers, 2018). Customers and clients are only two of the groups who stand to benefit greatly from a company's investment in training. Training that emphasizes performance management may reduce attrition, boost productivity, improve service quality, and boost revenue.

Depending on the level of detail and personalization of a given training programme, different metrics will need to be used to evaluate its performance (Alduayj & Rajpoot, 2018). To keep tabs on how well their training is improving employee performance, they may use the metrics they already have in place. Create a starting point for new hires and employee longevity rates. Then they can track the progress of these indicators as they integrate more strategic training into the various phases of the employee life cycle (Marvin et al. 2021). Leverage measures like productivity, employee morale, and internal promotions as their training-enhanced quality management plan matures.

Deloitte claims that many companies' approaches to employee compensation and benefits are lagging behind the times because of the rise of new talent strategies. Presently, just 11% of respondents believe that their compensation structures are well correlated with the aims of their companies (Huang et al. 2022). Organizations should completely integrate performance management with training activities and match it with business objectives to shed performance management's image as a punishment and reward system. The success of an organization may be ensured by training programmes that aid the employees and through management that is based on measurable performance targets (Guan and Frenkel, 2018).

Organizational Development

When companies practise continuous performance management, they proactively cater to their development demands for professional development (Chanana, 2021). By often meeting to review employee performance, development possibilities, and individual development goals, they can maintain a culture of continuous improvement. Talent may be developed via tactics that not only reflect individual capabilities but also the direction of the firm, using data gleaned from interviews and an employee's previous performance and present efforts (Raffoni et al. 2018).

With a shared knowledge of their employees' abilities and an agile platform that enables them to often shift priorities and concentrate on new development areas, they can foster a setting in which they are encouraged to grow in a way that provides the most benefit to the company (Yavuz, 2020). Effective performance management reveals any obvious gaps in performance. It puts more pressure on both management and staff to raise performance levels. The report pinpoints weak spots in the company so they may be addressed (Roscoe et al. 2019). It aids the company in ensuring that quality, cost, safety, and the satisfaction of customers are always being enhanced.

The term performance management refers to the performance of using charts and graphs to keep tabs on how well a company is doing and to identify and address problems as they arise (Bellisario & Pavlov, 2018). To fulfil commitments to customers, workers, shareholders, and other stakeholders, a formal performance management system is essential in every business. Organizational development in achieving the organization's purpose and objectives may be enhanced by a concerted effort by management and staff members through a process known as performance management (Raffoni et al. 2018). It is the single most important factor in a company's development. The performance with which a company manages both its own and its workers' performance is a key factor in the organization's ultimate level of success.


Time is required for the performance management process, which includes both preparation and execution steps. Management and staff alike may benefit from the process's reduced workload. Most significantly, the process is a powerful motivator for both management and staff since it facilitates the realization of both individual and collective goals while also advancing the organization's mission. Systematically improving individual and leadership team communication is a key component of every successful performance management strategy. Employees are better equipped to express issues, handle difficulties, and propose solutions when dependable communication channels are able to be built. Improvements in both employee enthusiasm and output may be achieved via performance management. Employees that are invested in their job are more likely to remain, contribute more, and achieve greater success. Increased productivity and return on engagement may be achieved by increasing employee enthusiasm. 


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