BIS2005 Enterprise architecture Report Sample
This assessment is designed to assess develop your skills in Enterprise Architecture (EA). You are required to develop knowledge on EA methodology, EA Framework, data model and emerging EA. In completing this assessment successfully, you will be able to know major widely accepted Enterprise Architecture (EA) domains, layers, frameworks and governance, which will help in achieving ULO-3, ULO-4, and ULO-5.
Report: Part-I (Case Study)
Techbank is a mid-size financial company. A couple of years ago Techbank decided to establish a full- fledged EA practice to accommodate with the growing problems around non-transparency of its IT investments and poor business and IT alignment in general. To boost its EA initiative, the company decided to purchase a specialized software tool for enterprise architecture. For this purpose, its IT leaders studied the available offerings on the EA tool market, contacted most promising vendors, organized meetings with vendor representatives and listened to their presentations. As a result, Techbank had selected and acquired a rather powerful and expensive tool for enterprise architecture from a well-known vendor. Then, the company had installed and configured the tool, established a central repository for storing architectural information and sent its architecture team to a special training supplied by the tool vendor. After the training, architects had documented most areas of the organizational IT landscape and associated business processes in the EA repository and started to update this information to keep it current. Architects were also impressed with the modeling, visualization and analytical capabilities offered by their new EA tool.
However, Techbank’s CIO is sceptical towards the chosen EA tool. He believes that the company is only wasting money on the tool as it is essentially nothing more than a sophisticated repository of current-state information. Furthermore, the tool is used by only 4-5 people in the entire organization (all architects), does not facilitate informed decision-making among business stakeholders in any sense and does not contribute to achieving the original objectives of the EA initiative to improve business and IT alignment.
As a newly manager at Techbank, Techbank’s CIO has asked you to provide a report that addresses the following:
1. Discuss 5 reasons why the implementation of the EA tools at Techbank is NOT a waste of money.
2. Discuss the five key difference between EA Tools and CMDBs(Configuration Management Databases)
3. Based on your lecture notes, discuss 4 archetypes of architects that would be employed at
Data#7 is a diversified, multi-profile company. Essentially, it is a conglomerate company consisting of three diverse strategic units acting as independent businesses under separate brands in different industry sectors: Unit Alpha, Unit Beta and Unit Gamma. Data#7 is governed from the central head office, which oversights the three subsidiary business units and their financial performance indicators, though without any operational interventions. Each strategic business unit has its own managing director with full discretion and responsibility over its competitive strategy, investment priorities, budget allocation and ensuing yearly profits.
Unit Alpha is in the food manufacturing business. The unit produces and distributes a variety of goods including, but not limited to, vegetables, groceries, meat and dairy products. Each of these product lines requires unique production processes, storage arrangements, transportation approaches and underlying equipment and is organizationally implemented by a separate specialized product department. However, these products are delivered largely to the same circle of customers, including both major retailers and local food shops. All product lines are also served by a number of common unit-wide functions, e.g. HR, finance, accounting, logistics, legal, marketing and sales support.
Unit Beta competes in the restaurant business with 450 IT staff. Specifically, the unit controls a chain of small fast-food restaurants occupying the low-cost market niche. In total, the chain includes more than 159 restaurants located in different geographies and more restaurants are planned to be opened in the foreseeable future. All restaurants offer same interiors, menus, prices, meals and services to their customers and imply standardized policies, working procedures and supporting equipment. However, each restaurant is run separately by a chief manager responsible for its overall financial well-being and all necessary business processes, e.g. recruiting, training, procurement, cooking, servicing, cleaning and complaints management. With the exception of Unit Beta’s lean central office, where chain-wide branding, marketing and other strategic decisions are made, the restaurants operate independently from each other and even have their own profit and loss statements.
Finally, Unit Gamma runs a chain of resort hotels. These hotels gravitate towards the high-end price segment and offer premium-quality services to their customers. Unit Gamma’s competitive strategy implies improving its brand recognition and achieving consistent customer experience. For this purpose, the unit’s leadership plans to standardize all customer-facing and, to a lesser extent, back- office processes across all hotels of the chain as well as all its suppliers and service providers.
Moreover, Unit Gamma also intends to become “closer” to its customers and build lifelong customer relationships. This strategy requires collecting more information about customers, their individual preferences and transaction histories, aggregating this information globally and leveraging it for providing customized services, launching loyalty programs, developing special offers and promoting personalized discounts.
As an EA manager at Data#7, you are required to write a report that discusses the following:
1. Describe five major roles that OUTLINE as EA Artifacts will play in Data#7.
2. Discuss four reasons why outsourcing of EA practice is NOT a good option for Data#7
3. Discuss three type of consulting engagement that Data#7 would consider and; recommend consulting engagement that would be approved by Data#7’s CIO
4. Discuss 5 reason why implementation of Architecture Debt is very important in Data#7
5. Based on IT staff ratio model and degree of decentralization as a factor, name and discuss architects positions that would be required in Unit Beta.
Yepstock is a large financial and stockbroker company. 8 years ago Yepstock decided to establish a full-fledged EA practice to accommodate with the growing problems around non-transparency of its IT investments and poor business and IT alignment in general. The establishment of EA practice was successful, and it was completed last 1 year. Due to recent advancement in technologies, Yepstock wants to implement Cloud Computing technologies that would empower their staff and customers for example, implementation of analytical Cloud Computing Technologies that would enable Yepstock staff to approve credit card application within 30 minutes of the submission of the application.
However, Yepstock’s CEO is sceptical towards the implementation of cloud computing technologies. He believes that the company is only wasting money on the cloud computing technologies as it is essentially nothing more than a sophisticated collection of data.
As a newly promoted IT manager at Yepstock, you are required to write a report that discusses the following:
1. Four (4) types of cloud computing that Yepstock could use or implement.
2. Five (5) challenges that Yepstock may have with implementation of Cloud Computing Technologies and how the challenges should be resolved.
3. Five (5) characteristics of cloud computing and explain 4 major cloud computing services that you would recommend to Yepstock.
4. Five (5) IT Governance and IT Service Management, recommend with 5 reasons if COIB or ITIL framework should be implement in Yepstock organization
This is a report for assignment help containing three parts that are all geared toward providing a reflection of an individual’s capability in interpreting and handling Enterprise Architecture(EA). The first part of the report focuses on establishing Enterprise Architecture(EA) practices in Techbank, a medium-scale finance organisation. This part of the report focuses on describing the benefits of Enterprise Architecture(EA) practices on Techbank’s goals and operation, along with the attributes that differentiate it from CMDBs. It also describes the architect archetypes that will be implemented in Techbank. The second part of the report focuses on Data#7, an amalgamation of three strategic units operating in different industries. How can OUTLINE, an enterprise artifact that can help Data#7 improve its functionalities, negative implications of Enterprise Architecture practices, and other elements of Enterprise Architecture will be discussed. The third part of the report will focus on factors and aspects of cloud computing such as perceived challenges, beneficial types of cloud computing, attributes of cloud computing, and others on the operations of Yepstock, a large company that operates in the finance sector.
Report Part I
1. Discussing the five reasons for implementing the and seeking benefits of EA
Techbank can be benefited from the use of enterprise architecture in many ways, shapes, or forms. The infrastructural changes that have been taken up by Techbank, since when it decided to design and adapt a complete set of Enterprise Architectural methods, must have had a severe impact on the foundational information systems. EA has been proven beneficial for companies. Enterprise architecture can allow Techbank to achieve prosperity by making sure that the operations taken up by the bank are coherent and adaptable. Utilising Enterprise Architecture framework and techniques allows the bank to incorporate modern and updated technologies which are being invented continuously. It allows the company to develop its organisational goals, organisational performance, and organisational operations in such a way so that it can keep up with the continually changing market. Enterprise Architecture (EA) can also be beneficial for the company by providing the company with control over its investments. Cost-effectiveness is the main focal benefit of the Enterprise Architecture (EA) framework, which is why the integration of the Enterprise Architecture (EA) framework is not a waste of money. Enterprise Architecture (EA) helps Techbank focus on Enhancing the ways that the company uses to communicate with its customers. The creation of customer journey maps and Customer Satisfaction Index, a major element of the Enterprise Architecture (EA) framework, can be beneficial in making sure that the company is maximising the experience of its customers while interacting with or utilising its products and services. It can also help the company to gain a competitive advantage over its competitors in the international and domestic market by letting the company be more aware of trends and shifts in the market along with new technical requirements by successful analysis provided to the company by the usage of Enterprise Architecture (EA). Enterprise Architecture (EA) frameworks also help companies such as Techbank to analyse, organise and categorise huge volumes of digital information that is being created each second. Techbank can also use various services data provided by Enterprise Architecture (EA) frameworks such as data modelling, application linkage, detail image, and others to make sure that it is abiding by various governmental regulatory acts while collecting and analysing personal information. Visibility and transparency are associated features of incorporating Enterprise Architecture (EA) practices. So it can be said that Enterprise Architecture (EA) is a beneficial addition to Techbank’s technological arsenal. The perception of the CIO of Techbank is inaccurate.
2. Key differences between Enterprise Architecture (EA) tools and CMDBs (Configuration Management Databases)
- Configuration Management Databases (CMDBs) and Enterprise Architecture (EA) tools are extremely distinct. A configuration management database (CMDB) is a normalised database that can withhold various pertinent datasets regarding organisational information technology facilities and the link between various parts, such as hardware and software parts. It is essential for making sure that company representatives can easily access the configuration of the facility and can analyse the saved information. On the other hand, enterprise architecture is a guide that helps company representatives shape and leads the changes that the organisation is adapting to keep up with an evolving market.
- Even though both EA tools and CMDBs help companies accelerate their response to any sudden shifts in the business climate, increase the visibility of the system and improve the customer experience, they are significantly different in their usage and utilisation.CMDBs help the organisation by providing an all-around view of the core assets supporting its IT infrastructure. It facilitates metadata transfer (Oberhauser, 2018). Enterprise Architecture tools are lacking in this regard as the visibility provided by CMDB is unparalleled by the capabilities of any Enterprise Architecture tools.
- Enterprise Architecture tools, on the other hand, are fully focused on providing a seamless connection between business strategy and IT strategy. The linkage between these two strategies is beneficial as it helps organisations understand how to properly utilise and apply their IT capabilities in such a way that can boost profitability. However, CMDBs are not equipped to do this task, as figuring out the applicability of IT systems is not their forte.
- CMDBs are beneficial for highlighting the interconnectedness of various components of the IT infrastructure, which is not a task that Enterprise Architecture tools can handle.Enterprise Architecture tools are more apt for handling situations and point out a way to reduce managerial issues, which are not the main focus of CMDBs.
- The main purpose of CMDBs is to optimise IT activities by reducing errors, providing better access to IT configuration, and recognising the correct occasion for change. On the other hand, the main purpose of AE tools is to provide company representatives in scheming, evaluation, plotting, and performance enhancement of operations.
3. Archetypes of architechts
There are four types of archetypes which are mentioned below.
It is seen that the solution archetypes are one of the most narrow architects that help to focus non-planning the IT initiatives. The methods of this process help to specialise the concrete technologies that help align the specific technical EA domains. The idea behind this process is straightforward, which helps to find the problems. It also helps the person to figure out the way so that they can immediately solve the situation. The process is based on the different arrangements made by the individual companies.
The process of the domain architect helps to focus on the comprehensive planning of the companies, which are based on the specific EA domains on the data or the business (Haki &Legner 2021). The processes are responsible for the adjacent domains based on infrastructure and security. The employee can work on high-level projects so that they can make sure that the process has fallen in line with the business.
Business unit architects
This method helps the employee focus on the IT planning for the separate business unit. The formal title of this business helps to reflect the business areas. This helps the employees to find out the problems so that they can solve them immediately. The unit can carry out the strategic planning so that the company can participate in the initiative delivery process.
The process of the enterprise architects can help to focus on the IT planning of the companies based on the EA domains. The formal positions of this method help to title the enterprise appropriately.
Report Part II
1. Roles concerning OUTLINE as EA artifacts in Data#7
Enterprise architecture artifacts are defined as distinct documents that contribute to forming Enterprise Architecture. As its definition suggests, architecture artifacts are the cornerstones of enterprise architecture practices that enable companies to make accurate decisions and form proper plans regarding information technology implementation. OUTLINE is one of these artifacts that can enable Data#7 to properly implement and execute information technology-related operations that will help each of the three strategic units of Data#7 to achieve success. It is one of the six EA artifacts.
- OUTLINE can be utilised by Data#7 and its strategic units by making sure that superior quality representation of certain information technology-related processes that were taken up by the independent strategic units such as Unit Alpha, Unit Beta, and Unit Gamma is provided to the central head office which will help the head office to assess the performance of these independent units.
- The head office and the strategic units can also utilise OUTLINEs to make sure that fund requests for implementing novel information technology-related processes and procedures are justified by evaluating Certain relevant elements of these projects.
- EA artifacts related to OUTLINE can help Data#7 ensure that the strategic units are performing as expected and are creating the maximum amount of value for Data#7 stakeholders.
- OUTLINE can also be useful in making sure that the investments that are being made by the company's strategic units are fruitful and efficient.
- Data#7 can also utilise OUTLINE as a tool for evaluating the progress and success rate of certain projects.
2. Disadvantages of outsourcing EA practices for Data#7
Even though outsourcing of information technology services is being opted for by many companies because of the cost-efficiency of the process and the benefits this provides to the companies regarding decluttering operations, outsourcing of enterprise architecture cannot be recommended to Data#7. There are many reasons why outsourcing cannot be recommended to Data#7. the most important reasons are recorded below.
- Outsourcing can only work If the existing enterprise architecture has core parts that can be separated from each other without causing damage to the entire structure. This is not possible for Data#7 as it is an amalgamation of three separate and independent business units. This complexity in organisation structure can severely impact the outsourcing of EA practices.
- The processes that are a part of the entire EA structure of Data#7 are severely dependent on each other. For example, for providing customer service and loyalty programs, Unit Gamma, the resort hotel chain, needs to acquire information regarding its customers, such as their preferences and transactional histories. Outsourcing a singular part of this entire EA structure cannot be possible because of the horizontal entanglement of these kinds of processes in the operations of the company's strategic units.
- Outsourcing is not optimal because of how outsourced parts of EA structures communicate with other parts. As parts of many Data#7 communicate with each other by using communicational standards only seen in Data#7, outsourcing will make for increased chances of miscommunication.
- Because of the severe emphasis on standardisation which improves the ability of a company to outsource parts of its enterprise architecture, Data#7 is encouraged to standardise its information technology-related processes. However, standardisation limits the scope of the enterprise architecture structure to be updated with new technology. This is also not advisable to Data#7.
3. Recommendation of consulting engagement will be approved by Data#7
There are four major types of consulting engagements practised by various reputed consultancy firms. The three possible consulting engagement types that can be suggested to Data#7 are; Consulting engagement focused on business strategy, consulting engagement focused on Information Technology implementation, and consulting engagement focused on proper management of Human resources.
Consultancy engagements focused on organisational strategy can help Data#7 improve the accuracy of its decision-making process regarding evaluating the sectors each strategic unit operates in, evaluating the performance of the competitors of the units in those sectors, along with other elements of operational strategy design. For example, it can help unit alpha better its product inauguration strategy, marketing, and logistics-related strategies. Information technology-related consultancies focus on improving IT-related infrastructure and services, which can also be beneficial for Data#7. For example, it can help in assessing the capability of unit gamma to provide loyalty programs and personal discounts by taking a look at the amount of personal information that is acquired by the unit and help with the implementation and infrastructure of the project. Human resources consultancy can benefit Data#7 by optimising and increasing the amount of value that the employee of the organisation creates. It can suggest enhancement approaches that can be taken up by Data#7 in order to manage human resources properly and maximise employee engagement. Employee engagement increases productivity (Agarwal 2017).
The chief information officer of Data#7 monitors the human resources, technological infrastructures, and operational processes part of Data#7. information technology-related consultancy engagement can be recommended to the CIO as various Data#7 require information technology-related enhancements.
4. Implemeentation of Architecture Debt
Architectural debt is essential as it allows to avoid myopic thinking and irresponsible architectural borrowing. It also helps to implement tactical IT solutions so that the company can undermine the future strategic positioning. The entire process can also help the company stay on their track so that the employees can maintain the quality of their IT landscapes. It is seen that the architectural debt is also based on the measurements of the coupling based on the different approaches (MacCormac& Sturtevant 2016). This helps to note the various perspectives which can produce the complementary insights. It can also help the company to build a positive development. The process of the architectural debt can also help the company to represent a step in the architectural direction which can give a great benefit. It can also create a distance for the company from its ultimate design. The managers can assess the cost of the efforts after accessing the process of the architectural debt. It can also help to combine the data on the costs of the components in the architectural categories.
5. Discussing the architects position
The IT service desk staff has become swamped after working for long hours and trying to keep the IT infrastructure functioning for a period. It is crucial to determine the staffing levels for the IT, which can also help the company solve their complicating factors. This ratio is based on dividing the number of managers in an organisation by the number of employees working on a particular project. Technically complicated processes may require a smaller management ratio (Weiss 2018). It has become more significant for the interaction and coaching so that the employees follow the rules correctly. The larger ratio for the managers is best as they are already experienced in their skills and knowledge. This helps them train the employees in the technical systems so that they can also achieve success. The employees with the smaller ratios try to support the new managers so that they can gain experience in their roles. The smaller ratios help the employees to enhance their effectiveness by making sure that the managers are not too pulled in critical situations.
Report Part III
1. Four Types of cloud computing
Yepstock can use various types of cloud computing to optimise its operations. Four major types of cloud computing platforms are- Public, Private, Hybrid, and Community (Bokhari, Makki, & Tamandani 2018). Public clouds refer to the complete computing system on the server-side, which is the cloud computing service provider. Public clouds are known for their higher scalability and zero upkeep cost, which makes this type of cloud rather lucrative. However, various security risks plague the benefits of the public cloud because of its utilisation of shared resources to provide service to multiple parties. Private clouds share some similarities with public clouds. However, a private cloud dedicates resources to entertain the requests of a singular entity that is the owner of the private cloud. Private clouds are known for their enhanced security measures and offering far more control over resources than what public clouds provide. Hybrid clouds are clouds that share some characteristics of public and private clouds. In a hybrid cloud, arrangement companies use the facilities of public and private clouds to some extent. The public cloud facilities are used for processes that require less security, while storing and handling private information is done through private clouds. Hybrid clouds are known for heightened security measures and the flexibility it provides to their users. However, the usage of hybrid cloud requires being adaptive and being able to segregate components of certain tasks from others. Community cloud is another type of cloud that resembles public clouds but is only used by a select number of entities. These clouds are cost-effective but provide far less flexibility and safety than private clouds. All of these clouds can be used by Yepstocks and come with their particular advantages and disadvantages.
2. Five Challenges of implementing cloud computing
Various challenges come with implementing cloud computing technologies which can obstruct the progress of YepStock. These challenges are important to handle efficiently. Some of the highly important challenges are-
- Security issues that rear its head while implementing cloud services. In recent years, the rate of cybercrime has increased heavily (Bossler & Berenblum 2019). Breaching cloud databases to access information has become a serious concern for companies. YepStock must make sure that the cloud services that they will use are as secure as possible. Security features such as safe management of identity, proper verification, and authentication processes must be considered while choosing to incorporate cloud computing.
- Even though cloud computing helps companies with saving a fortune by not having to invest in maintaining relevant technological tools, there are some significant costs associated with scaling cloud computing facilities. Access to a lesser amount of information regarding the facility can create obstacles in predicting the amount of financial investment needed for seamless operation. However, YepStock can incorporate enhanced analytical capabilities to evaluate the investments that are needed properly.
- Cloud computing also needs to be done by capable individuals that have significant knowledge regarding how the whole system operates. Utilising cloud computing services leaves YepStock open to risks of employee discontentment and the lack of skilled individuals that can increase the efficiency of the cloud computing system.
- Utilising cloud computing can often mean relinquishing control over the operations. Without pre-established stringent governance policies, YepStock will be heavily inconvenienced by the lack of control over information technology-related assets.
- YepStock has to make sure that it abides by the government regulations and data protection acts while implementing cloud computing. If these regulations are not complied with, YepStock can face serious legal actions from the regulatory authorities.
3. Five Characteristics of cloud computing and recommendations for Yepstock
Cloud computing services can often be identified by the unique characteristics and attributes linked to such facilities.
- Cloud computing can grant companies access to on-demand self-services (Ali 2019). The facilities that provide the cloud computing services provide complete control of the digital assets to the users so that they can overview, handle, and process information as they see fit.
- It also has the characteristics of being accessible from different devices anywhere in the world. It is accessible through the internet (Alshammari et al. 2017). Reputed large-scale cloud computing services provide significant accessibility options which can enhance the convenience of the users.
- Because of no requirements of upgrading hardware and software on the user side, cloud computing is hugely scalable, which is a significant attribute.
- Cloud computing also uses a huge centralised system to provide its users.
- Unlike traditional computing facilities, cloud computing services only charge an entity based on how much of the resources were used by said entity. This makes cloud computing services more affordable than traditional services.
Many IT giants such as Microsoft, Google and others have committed to providing improved cloud computing services. Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud, and IBM cloud are some of the cloud computing services that are known for their service integrity and security. Google Cloud has its advantages (Dutta & Dutta 2019).
The four major cloud computing services
The IaaS mainly functions on a specific pay-as-you-go model where it accepts payment from the user to give services, which includes basic services of cloud infrastructure like networking services, renting IT infrastructure and others. IaaS could help to the company to gain and hold a upgraded networking system in a profound manner.
PaaS provides a suitable infrastructure for the IT development works which includes tools for testing, developing, delivering and others. It could help company to do projects without taking headaches of setting and maintaining infrastructure, servers, storage and others.
SaaS offers on demand software for various IT works on a subscription through cloud which help the user to get access on a variety of softwares at a rate and on multiple devices. It could help the company by providing a profound reach of the software easily and it also helps to be a flexible user.
FaaS offers the concept of serverless computing, where the client company or user will be able to do the stuffs without the worry of virtual servers. It reduces the hassles of maintaining and working on a virtual server which can be an easy going for a company.
4. Recommending five IT governance and service management concerning ITIL framework
Implementation of ITIL framework can be recommended to the company over COIB framework for various reasons. ITIL has an extensive model for procedures (Lopes 2021). This can be usable by Yepstock to improve process management. Some of the other reasons are-
- ITIL has been proven and tested regarding its capability to meet the continual shifts in the digital landscape that surrounds the company.
- ITIL framework has a flexible structure that can be utilised by the company to foster enhancements of certain services.
- ITIL framework is merged with every relevant operation of the company, which can enable better coordination and lessen chances of miscommunication.
- ITIL framework focuses on innovation and novelty, which enforces effective service through creative ideas.
- ITIL framework has been developed for international usage, which means that it can satisfy the demands of a large-scale financial company such as Yepstock.
Usage of Enterprise Archetype frameworks and cloud computing in businesses of different sectors is the main theme of this report. The first part of the report describes how the utilisation of EA tools by Techbank can improve its operations and provides a distinction between CMDBs and EA tools. After rigorous evaluation, the benefits that can be achieved using EA tools are established to be beneficial for Techbank. The second part of the report describes how OUTLINE enhances Data#7's capabilities. It provides necessary information that establishes that the company should not outsource its EA structural components because of the dependence and interconnection of processes in many of its strategic business units. The third part of the report identifies various types of cloud computing. The identification along with advantages and disadvantages of cloud computing are described. Major attributes and challenges of cloud computing implementation are discussed, along with recommendations of industry leaders to Yepstock to incorporate cloud computing. Reasons are also provided why the ITIL framework can be more beneficial than the COIB framework for Yepstock.