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## DSAA204 Data Structure and Algorithms Assignment Sample

### ASSESSMENT DESCRIPTION:

This assessment is an individual report about the design of an OOP system using Data Structures and Algorithms. The report should follow the following structure

1. Title Page
2. Executive Summary
3. Introduction
4. Background
5. Case Study and the Design
5.1 Variables, Ranges and Keys
5.2 Operations and the Justification
5.3 Algorithms and the Justification
5.4 Modifications
6. Conclusion
7. References

### Case Study:

You are required to design a health system for a small medical partitioning centre with information about doctors and patients. Assume that there are: 50 Doctors 100 Nursing staff

Around 1000 patients. You need to decide how would you like to represent the doctors, nursing staff and patients. For each of these decide what variables should be there (think in terms of OOP design). Also provide ranges for these variables. You will need to specify keys as well to carry out some essential operations related to this health system. Identify and list down potential keys for given entities.

Use your knowledge of real world and think about operations that will be needed for the health system. Keep in mind that it is not a complete hospital management system but should support the main/basic operations. Mainly, we are interested in locating the records of doctors, nursing staff and patients, but should support all basic operations of any information system. For each of these operations, discuss the most suitable algorithms that can implement these operations efficiently. Use your knowledge of various algorithms to suggest why your chosen algorithm for each operation is the most appropriate one. Your justification should talk about the different properties/characteristics of algorithms and explain as to why your chosen algorithm is best suited to the problem in question.

Now, a public hospital wants to adopt your system for computerizing their records of staff and patients. The hospital has a total of 1000 doctors, 4000 nurses and around 10,000 patients. Do you think your previously suggested algorithms would be able to handle this volume of data efficiently? If yes, justify and if not, suggest the new set of algorithms (and change in data structures, if needed) that will ensure that system will work smoothly and efficiently.

## Solution

### Executive Summary

A database was built for the health-care system. It makes it easier to maintain track of all of the patients' and physicians' information. It stores all databases in a secure manner for future usage. More than 100 nurses and 50 doctors have been assigned to this new system. They will be responsible for roughly 1000 patients. This detail will aid in the storage of all information pertaining to each and every member of the nursing staff, as well as doctors and patients. The database integrity restrictions are being rechecked for all data by system developers. Keys such as foreign keys and main keys will be stored in certain data. All database developers are concentrating on using enough variables. This new information system has a large amount of data.

### Introduction

The purpose of this paper is to explore the fundamentals of implementation. All data formats and their algorithms will contribute to the development of a contemporary health information system. In comparison to other manuals, this one, or the conventional one, is not as effective. Currently, however, this storage technique is making this massive dataset more time-consuming. The efficient application of sorting and searching algorithms will improve all of these data management and storage activities. Healthcare for assignment help is a collaborative endeavour. Each healthcare professional is treated as a valuable part of the team who plays a specific function. Some members of the team are doctors or technicians who assist in illness diagnosis. Others are specialists who cure diseases or look after the physical and emotional requirements of patients. Administrative staff members plan the appointment, locate the medical record, phone the patient for a reminder, meet the patient, and check insurance details. A nurse or medical assistant takes the patient's weight and vital signs, leads them to an exam room, and documents the purpose for their appointment. Each health system's primary goal is to improve people's health, but it isn't the only one. The goal of excellent health is twofold: the highest possible average level – goodness – and the lowest possible disparities between individuals and groups – fairness. Fairness indicates that a health system reacts equally well to everyone, without prejudice, and goodness means that it responds well to what people expect of it. Each national health system should be oriented to accomplish three overarching goals, according to the World Health Organization (WHO): excellent health, responsiveness to community expectations, and financial contribution equity.

### Background

This new health information system was created as a result of the previous system's inability to handle such large amounts of data. However, the engineers are striving to improve this new system by enabling all of these new sorting and searching approaches to be considered. Developers are always attempting to improve the contemporary system. Allowing all of these approaches for searching and sorting reasons, as well as providing some attention, will be beneficial. However, because health systems lack the ability to offer access to high-quality treatment, private health-care systems have evolved at the same time, with a steady and progressive development of private health-care services. Healthcare is a highly fragmented sector, with different healthcare systems in different countries. In the United States, insurance coverage is mostly the responsibility of the individual; however, new legislation will make it more universal. Other industrialised countries, such as the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and Italy, give free healthcare to all residents. During the previous decade, technological advancements have dominated healthcare activities, resulting in enhanced techniques of detecting and treating diseases and injuries. Infection control, less invasive surgical procedures, advancements in reproductive technology, and cancer gene therapy have all emerged as clinical developments

### Case Study and Design

Variables, Ranges and Keys

In object-oriented programming, the program modules are broken down into classes and objects. The classes and known as the user-defined variables in this programming concept. The classes in general consist of member variables and member functions. When a program creates objects of these classes which are also known as instance variables, several instances of the class type are created (Varga et al. 2017,p. 7). These objects are then be stored into respective data structures such as arrays or lists, which can be accessed and modified as necessary. In the case of this health system, a similar object-oriented programming design would be constructed and the classes, variables, function, and data structures would be listed with their respective ranges and required justification. Each of these classes will also consist of a member variable that will be unique for each of the created objects.

Using the right Data Structure is also very important in information system development. There are various data structures that allow static insertion and modification of data while there are other more convenient and efficient data structures that allow the dynamic handling of data (Weise et al. 2019,p. 344). In an information system such as this, a dynamic Data Structure would be preferred that would allow easy insertion, deletion, and modification of data.
This variable would be called the key data member for the entities with his help in unique identification. The identified class variables, objects and Data Structures are as follows:

### The Classes: Doctor, Nurse, Patient, MedicalCentreSystem

Doctor Class Variables:

Nurse Class variables:

Patient Class variables:

MedicalCareSystem Class variables:

Operations and the Justification

Insert new Doctors, Nurses or Patients: This operation will help the system administrators to add new doctors, nurses and patients into the system. This process will include the session of data that includes all the required details and variables mentioned for the respective classes (Kleine and Simos 2018,p. 54). On validation of these inputs, respective doctor, nurse, or patient class objects will be created and will be stored in their respective data structure. On the creation of each of these objects, a unique ID would be created and set into the object variables.

Search available Doctors, Nurses or Patients: Searching is another very important operation that is performed frequently on any information system. In this medical centre system, the searching can be performed due to the need for accessing user data or in order to modify respective data models (Lafore 2017,p. 242). Searching can be performed based on the criteria of searching doctors, nurses, and or patients.

Sort current patients on the basis of their net_bills: This functional feature would allow the system administrator has to look for patients who are admitted currently in the order of the highest to lowest medical bills. This will allow the administrators to offer certain amenities or in other financial and taxation utilities.

### Algorithms and the Justification

There are two major algorithms that can be primarily used for a smaller data storage system that has been identified in the initial case study. One of these algorithms would allow easy operations for searching while the other will allow the operation for sorting the required data elements. These respective searching and sorting algorithms are as follows:

- Linear search: Through this technique a data structure is linearly search from top to bottom in order to find the required data element. The complexity of this algorithm is O(n).

- Bubble sort: This is one of the most commonly used sorting techniques. In this program, the sorting technique can be used to arrange the patient in order of their medical bills. This sorting technique can be used to arrange both alphabetical and numerical data on the basis of ascending or descending order as required (Priyankara 2020,p. 317). In this algorithm, the sorting is done on the basis of the general swapping of two elements in a linear manner. The entire data structure is traversed having swapped through all the different elements in the required order that is ascending or descending, the list would be sorted in general. This algorithm can also be used with objects stored. The time complexity of bubble sort is O(n2).

### Modifications

Considering that the data requirements for this system would be rising in recent years, certain modifications will be required in terms of performing the various operations using the given algorithms. The above-mentioned algorithms are suitable when the data set is fairly low. However, in a larger data storage system, it is better to use algorithms that will perform this task in a more efficient manner in terms of time and resources (Chawdhuri 2017,p. 324). The following algorithms should be applied in order to search and sort on a system with a larger data set:

- Binary search: The time complexity of this algorithm is O(log n). This algorithm divides the data set into two halves in a particular sorted order and then makes it easier to search for the data.

- Merge sort: The time complexity of MergeSort is O(n*log n). This, therefore, helps in a very efficient manner of sorting on the larger accumulation of data. Merge sort is considered to be one of the most important and efficient sorting algorithms in computer programming (Teresco 2017,p. 3857). In this particular system, it can be used in terms of objects are taken as well on the respective data structures. Merge sort works on the concept of divide and conquer. It breaks down the list into various smaller sublists in such a manner that at the end when all the elements are broken down into single sub-lists, the result would be sorted.

### Conclusion

The importance of searching and sorting algorithms in managing all information related to the health information system has been demonstrated. They also specified the keys, variables, and all ranges that this new system employs. Finally, the binary search algorithm has been demonstrated to be the most essential algorithm employed in this system. To sort all data, randomised quicksort and insertion sort are quite useful. The health-care delivery system is a society's structured response to the population's health issues and demands. Countries differ significantly in terms of their levels of income and economic potential, the diversity of health problems and needs, the way they arrange their responses, and the degree of central management, funding, and control of their health-care system in terms of coordination, planning, and organisation.

### References

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