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PRJM6002 PRM530 Project Time Mgmt Assignment Sample

Assignment Brief

Due date: As set out in the Unit Outline, submission is via Turnitin (Blackboard).

Word Count: 1500 - 1800 words


For assignment help Please read these assessment instructions carefully before attempting the assessment!
For this Assessment, you are to conduct your own research on the topic described (below) and review current literature and subsequently provide an essay on your research with cited references to Curtin University guidelines (Chicago referencing). Include a minimum of seven (7) references; some from scholarly journals, and from relevant texts that contribute to your essay. Articles need to be peer-reviewed.

You should support your arguments with evidence from your research. Use examples to illustrate your understanding of the issues and introduce your topic (inform the reader) and provide a conclusion to summarize your findings. 


When planning a project and estimating the expected duration of the component tasks, an important factor is the productivity of the labour assigned to a task.

For any labour intensive, ‘effort-driven’ project tasks for example:

• building a wall;
• interviewing clients for their requirements;
• developing a software module; or any other such activity, the degree to which the project manager accounts for labour productivity will influence the planned duration of the task.

Select a significant task from a project (social or workplace) with which you have some experience. You are required to describe and analyze the productivity of work on that task and to answer the Assessment, steps 1 to 4, as follows:

Step Task 1

Briefly describe your selected project and an appropriate, effort-driven task selected from that project. Explain the resources (human) that are required for the selected task. - 150 – 200 words 10 Marks

Step Task 2

Define productivity (in the context of project work) and define worker productivity and state how these can be measured. Explain how the productivity of your selected project task could be effectively measured. 200 – 250 words 20 Marks

Step Task 3

Describe three factors that may significantly affect the productivity of the workers for your selected project task and explain in what way and by how much these factors could influence the estimate of the work duration of that task. 650 – 750 words 35 Marks

Step Task Word Count Mark 4

Describe one management technique, appropriate to your nominated project and task, which addresses one or more of the factors described above (in Step 3); and which could be implemented on your chosen task to improve the worker productivity. Explain how you would expect the productivity of the work (and hence the task duration) to be impacted by this technique. 500 – 600 words 35 Marks

Instructions and Formatting Requirements:

• This is an individual Assessment that requires you to present your own work, apply critical thinking and in a format that follows the structure, mentioned elow.

• Your Assessment is to be submitted as single soft copy (MS Word file) via Turnitin on Blackboard. Ensure that you comply with the Guidelines for Submitting Soft Copy Assessments - available on Blackboard under Assessments.

• All Curtin policies apply to this work and you should particularly note those relating to plagiarism and late submission. Marks will be deducted for non-compliance with the Assessment instructions.

• Refer to the additional information on Essay Style writing (on Blackboard).
o The word count shall be declared clearly on the cover page by the student.
o The following parts will not be considered in the word count. All other parts (including tables) will be counted.

• Table of contents
• Introduction
• Conclusion
• References
• Appendices

o Submissions of 15% over the word limit will not be marked. The paper will be returned to the student to reduce the word count and resubmitted within 24 hours. Failing to comply with this requirement will result in the submission being disqualified.

o No text can be submitted as an image. Inserting text as images is not acceptable and could be viewed as an attempt to hide plagiarism. If you are experiencing issues with formatting in MS Word, please submit your MS Word file in TurnitIn.
• Page size: A4; Line spacing: 1.5
• Font size: 11; Font style: Calibri Margins: standard
• File format: Please provide your submission (paper) as an MS Word file (not PDF)

Submission through TurnitIn in Blackboard Late submissions will be penalized as per the Curtin Late Assessment Policy in the Unit Outline


1. Introduction

The application of the skills, expertise, instruments, and techniques to fulfil the requirements of the project is known as management of the project. It is distinct from the management which is an illustration of an ongoing process in one sense, that is, it has a time span and should be delivered within the given duration. Effort-driven tasks are those tasks in which people are assigned or removed which alters the length of the project based on utilized resources. Importantly, it does not alter the amount of work required for the task. The study aims to choose a task from a project and analyse the productivity of the labor. It includes the description of the selected project and a suitable effort-driven task. The study also includes an explanation of the productivity of the workers and factors that significantly affect their productivity.

2. Description of the Project

The project intends to build a thematic restaurant, which also includes architectural work on the restaurant wall. In the successful completion of a project, predetermined time frames, and standards play an important role. As mentioned by Irfan et al. (2021) that improper planning, over-budgeting, and delaying of the projects have been among the primary features behind the failure of construction projects worldwide. Therefore, this project includes a predetermined time frame of one year and standards for its successful completion. The role of the project manager in a project is crucial as it acts as the safety coordinator, decision-maker, controller of the process, coordinator of the quality, and team worker. Meng and Boyd (2017) stated that it also plays a crucial in increasing the satisfaction level of the clients.

In the case of an effort-driven task, the current value of the task remains the same irrespective of the number of resources utilized to it. When new resources are added to the task, total work gets distributed among them. In this project, the selected effort-driven task is to create a set of architectural drawings on the walls of the restaurant within the time frame of 64 weeks, which is the required time to complete the task by one architect. Since the task is effort-driven, thus 8 workers are assigned to it, and the task is scheduled to be finished in 8 weeks. Therefore, eight human resources are required for the selected task.

3. Productivity and its measurement

It is the belief of business fraternity, and governments that productivity is among the prime solutions to the improvement of living standards. But, in technical terms, productivity is the efficiency and effectiveness of the organizations, and the economy as a whole to transform the inputs into output. As influenced by Liao, Teo, and Low (2017), the relationship between resources utilized in the production process of a good, and its output is known as productivity. The productivity of an organization or economy increases when the growth in the output is greater than the amount of the input used in its production.

Productivity is not the reflector of the value of the output. It is only a measure of the amount of output produced from the utilization of the inputs. The relation between the resources utilized and the output is considered as the ratio of productivity (Priya and Aroulmoji 2020). The input in the process of the production could be the human resource or machines or both of them. However, output could be referred to as the unit or volume. As influenced by Priya and Aroulmoji (2020) productivity index is one when a worker completes a task in the given time frame. Thus the productivity of labor can be computed by dividing the total production with the inputs (Nakamura, Kaihatsu and Yagi 2018).

In the selected project task the productivity of the labor is measured by dividing the total set of architectural drawings by the number of the workers assigned to it. The amount of total architectural designs on the wall of the restaurant is 128.

Productivity = Total amount of architectural drawings/No. of worker
= 128/8 = 16
The productivity of the workers assigned to the selected project task is 16.

4. Factors affecting the workers’ productivity

The productivity of the workers is among the major concerns of the project managers. Agrawal and Halder (2020) stated that many factors influence the productivity of the workers. It includes both internal and external factors. External factors affecting the productivity of the laborers are political unrest and environmental condition. Internal factors that have a significant impact on the productivity of the workers include individual worker's skills, workers' mindset, and dedication regarding work (Agrawal and Halder 2020). The lower level of productivity puts inflationary pressure on the budget of the project. Therefore, the project managers must recognize these factors that influence the productivity of the workers. The three factors that may significantly influence the productivity of the workers for the selected project task are:

? Engagement of the employee
? Environment of the workplace
? Technology

4.1 Engagement of the employees

The success of the project significantly depends upon the productivity level of the employees. Employee engagement is among those factors that influence the productivity of the workers. As mentioned by Barik and Kochar (2017) highly engaged employees lead to successful completion of the task and let the organization earn a significant level of profit. It is an approach at the workplaces that inspires the workers to stay dedicated to the goal of the project and perform at their best. Employee engagement is the extent to which workers are committed to their work and invest the efforts that are necessary for the completion of the project. An engaged employee is way more productive than their counterpart. In the effort-driven task of architectural drawings, the engagement of the employees would help in its successful completion. Osborne and Hammoud (2017) stated that US corporations cost USD 350 in a year. Therefore, it can be realized that employee engagement is an important factor that significantly impacts the productivity level of the workers.

In the selected project task, an employee works for 8 hours daily. If the employee engagement would be increased through successful management practice, the output of 8 hours of work could increase, and the task could be completed in eight weeks successfully.

4.2 Environment of the Workplace

Productivity is an important element of the projects, and it requires constant effort from the project managers to keep its level up to the requirement of the project. Environment of the workplace is the key aspect of the productivity of the workers. A negative environment at the workplace could lead to a lower productivity level of the employees. As stated by Massoudi and Hamdi (2017) that the environment of the workplace determines the motivation level, performance, and productivity of the workers. A better environment at the workplace is the most required element for improving the productivity of the workers. The productivity level of an employee is directly associated with the environment of the workplace. A positive environment motivates the employees and thus it assists in increasing the productivity level and successful completion of the project. Aldoseri and Almaamari (2020) stated that leadership has a crucial role in forming a friendly environment in the workplace that motivates and increases the employee satisfaction level. Therefore, a positive and friendly work environment would help in the completion of architectural drawings by increasing employees’ productivity.

4.3 Technology

The rapid changes in technological advancement have changed how businesses used to operate.Technological advancement in an organization could significantly increase the satisfaction level of employees as well as the customers (Van Zyl 2020). The growth in employees’ satisfaction level would lead to higher productivity which would ultimately increase the profit level of the organization. In project management, the use of technology at the workplace increases the productivity level of the employees and helps in its successful completion. The use of technology such as building information modelling (BIM) would assist in streamlining the architectural plans which would provide updates to every stakeholder of the project (Mesároš, Mandi?ák and Behúnová 2020). The use of technology- Virtual Reality (VR) - can help in visualizing the architecture and allow real-time changes in the designs. It increases the productivity of the workers as well because they get instant feedback for the work from stakeholders (Influenced by Shi 2019). Therefore, in this manner technology allows to increase the productivity of the workers and would assist in reducing the estimated duration of the architectural drawing task.

5. Description of the management technique

One of the primary techniques used by the leaders to increase the productivity of the employees is communication. Communication contributes significantly to the productivity of the team. Effective communication helps in mitigating the risk of failure of the project task. It is an important technique used by the project managers which assists the employees in understanding their job responsibilities (Influenced by Attaran, Attaran and Kirkland 2019). The use of information technology helps in effective communication, thus, effective communication helps the project managers in taking feedback and delivering information related to the project task.

Assessment of the employees is another technique used by the project managers. In this technique, project managers assess the strength and weaknesses of their employees. The assessment of the employees assists the managers in providing required training to the employees. The training program increases the overall productivity of the workplace and also increases the satisfaction level of the employees. Performance appraisal is a technique in the management process to evaluate the performance of the workers and recognize the skills of the employees (Islami, Mulolli and Mustafa 2018). Assessment of the skills of the employees helps the managers in assigning the job according to the employees' strengths. Teamwork is considered to be one of the most crucial aspects for the successful completion of the project. Khan and Mashikhi (2017) found that there is a significant impact of teamwork on the performance of the workers. Therefore, the project managers also utilize assessment techniques which creates an environment of teamwork. The technique of assessment and then letting the employees use their strengths helps in increasing workplace productivity. The strategy would help in the completion of architectural drawing tasks within the time frame.

The utilization of the project management software boosts the teamwork and productivity of the employees. In this technique, project managers employ the software which brings the entire stakeholders on a single platform. The stakeholders include team members, clients, and other officials of the organization. Proofhub is one of the software which assists the project managers in gathering all the stakeholders on a common platform and let productivity reach a new level (Chukwukelu and Ile 2019).

The project managers also use the technique of providing ownership to the employees. Provision of ownership to the employees means the managers provide liberty to employees for taking their own decisions (Influenced by Gubler, Larkin and Pierce 2019). It boosts the confidence level of the workers and thus their productivity. In this technique, project managers make the employee accountable for the job. This kind of method induces a sense of responsibility in the workers that let them work distinctively and impacts their performance. In the architectural drawings, this technique would help the employees to use their methods and bring the desired outcomes.

Project managers also provide incentives to the workers which induce them to perform effectively (Gosnell, List and Metcalfe 2020). It helps in motivating the employee to perform better, which ultimately increases the overall productivity level of the workforce. Therefore, incentives raise workers’ productivity and assist in the completion of the architectural drawing task before the assigned duration.

6. Conclusion

It can be concluded that from the above evaluation that discussed factors, and techniques of project management helps in increasing worker’s productivity. Therefore, the task of architectural drawing could be completed before the assigned duration of 8 weeks with the help of 16 workers.

7. References

Irfan, Muhammad, Sanam Zaib Khan, Nasruddin Hassan, Mazlan Hassan, Muhammad Habib, Salma Khan, and Hadi Hassan Khan. 2021. "Role of Project Planning and Project Manager Competencies on Public Sector Project Success." Sustainability 13, no. 3: 1421. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031421

Meng, Xianhai, and Paul Boyd. 2017. "The role of the project manager in relationship management." International Journal of Project Management 35, no. 5: 717-728. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2017.03.001

Liao, Longhui, Evelyn Ai Lin Teo, and Sui Pheng Low. 2017. "A project management framework for enhanced productivity performance using building information modelling." Construction Economics and Building 17, no. 3: 1-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.5130/AJCEB.v17i3.5389

Priya, Rajesh Shankar, and Vincent Aroulmoji. 2020. "A Review on Productivity and its Effect in Industrial Manufacturing." International Journal for Advanced Science and Engineering 6, no. 4: 1490-1499.

Nakamura, Koji, Sohei Kaihatsu, and Tomoyuki Yagi. 2018. “Productivity improvement and economic growth”. No. 18-E-10. Bank of Japan. https://doi.org/10.29294/IJASE.6.4.2020.1490-1499
Agrawal, Aman, and Srijeet Halder. 2020. "Identifying factors affecting construction labour productivity in India and measures to improve productivity." Asian Journal of Civil Engineering 21, no. 4: 569-579. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42107-019-00212-3

Barik, Smita, and Aastha Kochar. 2017. "Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement: A literature review." International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science 6, no. 4: 33-38. https://www.academia.edu/download/53002195/33-38.pdf
Osborne, Schrita, and Mohamad S. Hammoud. 2017. "Effective employee engagement in the workplace." International Journal of Applied Management and Technology 16, no. 1: 4. https://doi:10.5590/ijamt.2017.16.1.04

Massoudi, Aram Hanna, and Samir Salah Aldin Hamdi. 2017. "The Consequence of work environment on Employees Productivity." IOSR Journal of Business and Management 19, no. 01: 35-42. DOI: 10.9790/487X-1901033542

Aldoseri, Fatima Isa, and Qais Ahmed Almaamari. 2020. "Factors Influencing Employee Performance at the Banking Sector in the Kingdom of Bahrain: Literature Review." International Journal on Emerging Technologies 11(5): 304-309. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Qais-


Van Zyl, Gerhardus. 2020. "The impact of new production technology on employee productivity in the SouthAfrican workplace." Journal of Economic and Financial Sciences 13, no. 1: 8. https://jefjournal.org.za/index.php/jef/article/view/507/974

Mesároš, Peter, Tomáš Mandi?ák, and Annamária Behúnová. 2020. "Use of BIM technology and impact on productivity in construction project management." Wireless Networks: 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11276-020-02302-6

Shi, Yangming, Jing Du, Changbum R. Ahn, and Eric Ragan. 2019. "Impact assessment of reinforced learning methods on construction workers' fall risk behavior using virtual reality." Automation in Construction 104: 197-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2019.04.015

Khan, Sheeba, and L. S. Mashikhi. 2017. "Impact of teamwork on employees’ performance." International Journal of Education and Social Science 4, no. 11: 14-22. http://www.ijessnet.com/uploades/volumes/1598724863.pdf

Islami, Xhavit, Enis Mulolli, and Naim Mustafa. 2018. "Using Management by Objectives as a performance appraisal tool for employee satisfaction." Future Business Journal 4, no. 1: 94-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbj.2018.01.001

Attaran, Mohsen, Sharmin Attaran, and Diane Kirkland. 2019. "The need for the digital workplace: increasing workforce productivity in the information age." International Journal of Enterprise Information Systems (IJEIS) 15, no. 1: 1-23. https://doi: 10.4018/IJEIS.2019010101

Chukwukelu, Ebere Patience, and C. N. Ile. 2019. "Office Competencies Required of Business Education Graduates for Effective Performance in Modern Offices in Imo State." Nau Journal of Technology and Vocational Education 3, no. 1: 54-64. http://www.naujtved.com.ng/index.php/jtved/article/view/61

Gubler, Timothy, Ian Larkin, and Lamar Pierce. 2018. "Doing well by making well: The impact of corporate wellness programs on employee productivity." Management Science 64, no. 11: 4967-4987. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.2017.2883

Gosnell, Greer K., John A. List, and Robert D. Metcalfe. 2020. "The impact of management practices on employee productivity: A field experiment with airline captains." Journal of Political Economy 128, no. 4: 1195-1233. https://www.nber.org/system/files/working_papers/w25620/w25620.pdf


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