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MBA621 Healthcare Systems Assignment Sample

Assignment Brief

Length:2000 words (+/- 10% allowable range)
Weighting: 40%
Total Marks: 100
Submission: Online
Due Date: Week 13

Your Task

Develop a 2000-word report outlining findings and recommendations for further action, built upon an ongoing analysis of the health service you examined in Assessment 2.

Assessment Description.

The purpose of this individual assessment is to foster students’ capacity to utilize a systems-thinking approach further to develop an understanding of the Australian healthcare system and its ability to provide care and prevent illness. Students will use data to predict the role and influence of preventative strategies and technology on demand for healthcare in the future, focusing on vulnerable populations. They will debate the ethical issues that can arise in managing health care systems and actively consider ways for systems and management challenges to be resolved. In addition, they will create an inventory of resource requirements applicable to a variety of healthcare settings, focusing on vulnerable populations.

Assessment Instructions

For assignment help students requires to build on the analysis undertaken in Assessment 2, where a specialist health service’s preparedness to meet the needs of Australia’s ageing population was considered.

The analysis, to date, has used systems thinking approach and has been based on the WHO six building blocks of a health system framework.

1) Service Delivery.
2) Health Workforce.
3) Information.
4) Medical Products, Vaccines and Technologies.
5) Financing.
6) Leadership and Governance (Stewardship).

In this assessment, students should provide a concise overview of the service and the main findings from Assessment 2. Then, through their research and analysis (systems thinking), focus on identifying how quality services and responsiveness to the needs of an ageing Australian population are maintained and enhanced by the service and its service providers.

To achieve the assessment requirements, the report should be constructed accordingly:

1) Executive summary.

2) Concise overview of the service and the main findings from Assessment 1.

3) Examination of how quality service provision is maintained and enhanced by the service.

4) Examination of responsiveness to the needs of an ageing Australian population and how it may be enhanced by the service.

5) Examination of ethical issues and considerations related to service delivery decisions and vulnerable populations.

6) Recommendations for future action.

7) References - A minimum of 15 references, at least 8 of these should be academic journals. Harvard referencing method applies.

To explore the full breadth of maintaining and enhancing quality service provision, students should consider the interconnectedness between the health service and the broader system of the National Safety and Quality Health Service (NSQHS) Standards, the National Registration and Accreditation Scheme (NRAS) for health practitioners maintained by the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Authority (AHPRA) and other professionals who self-regulate under the banner of the National Alliance of Self Regulating Health Professions (NASRHP).

To provide a context for discussion, students should utilize appropriate standards to assist them in providing substantial examples of how quality services and responsiveness to the needs of an ageing Australian population are maintained and enhanced by the service and its service providers. For example, (this is not an exhaustive list):

• NSQHS: Clinical Governance Standard, Action 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.15.

• NSQHS: Partnering with Consumers Standard, Action 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6.

• AHPRA: Continuing Professional Development.

• AHPRA: Regency of Practice.

• SA Health: Allied Health Clinical Governance Framework.

Assessment Submission

This file must be submitted as a ‘Word’ document to avoid any technical issues that may occur from incorrect file format upload. Uploaded files with a virus will not be considered as a legitimate submission.

MyKBS will notify you if there is an issue with the submitted file. In this case, you must contact your MyKBS error message. You are also encouraged to submit your work well before the deadline to avoid any possible delay involving the Turnitin similarity report or any other technical difficulties.

Late assignment submission penalties

Penalties will be imposed on late assignment submissions in accordance with Kaplan Business School
“late assignment submission penalties” policy.



The Women's and Children's Hospital is established in north Adelaide region in South Australia. The cited hospital is considered as most popular hospitals in the South Australia as it provides services relating to inpatient and outpatient care along with emergency services. Moreover, special care services for the children in the state are also provided (Cronin, Hungerford and Wilson, 2021). It is largest maternity and obstetric service Centre in the state. Even secondary care health services are provided to the patients, further Breast screening service health department are also available in the hospital. The hospital complies with national digital health strategy which does have specified motives:

• To exchange health information in secured manner

• Better availability and access to prescriptions and health care services (Guoguang and Sawan 2021).

• Enhance model of care i.e. working digitally enabled models of care so that parameters of service could be increase i.e. accessibility, safety and efficiency.

• Thriving digital health industry to deliver world class innovation.

Health service relating to assessment of woman’s breasts for cancer prior to visibility of signs or symptoms of the disease is referred as Breast cancer screening services. It is necessary for all women to be informed by their health care provider in context with availability of best screening options for them. As far as I have assessed I have learned that incorporation of AI in health industry for breast screening would not only assist in early detection of diseases, appropriate treatment, decision making, diagnosis with the use of (AI)–based tool for two-dimensional mammography (Hambleton, 2018). I also assessed the significance of clinical decision support system which does assist in decision making at point of care. During assessment I learned that through data mining one could examine medical history appropriately and it can be assessed through demonstration of clinical investigation that through continuous use of same demonstrated that the concurrent use of this AI tool or technique it is possible to improve the diagnostic performance of radiologists in the recognition of breast cancer symptom or disease without prolonging their workflow.

Figure 1 Mind-map of Artificial Intelligence and technology role in Breast screening


The fact cannot be denied that pre-covid investment in sector was growing steadily but after covid, investment in sector declined with high pace and similar phase continued in short to medium term, thus financial obstacles are faced in respect with implementation of different projects relating to breast screening services (Hansen et al, 2019). It has been assessed that there does exist casual bond between patients of South Australia and breast screening service in secondary care. However, the main challenge which is being faced is that aboriginal people are not aware about availability of health services relating to breast screening as patient does not have knowledge relating to cited disease. In simple words obstacles relating to breast screening services are increased and boundaries and interconnectedness i.e. people are not getting education or knowledge required in context with availability of medical care relating to health care services. It is one of the main reason due to which patients does not trust on the services available in state (Alwashmi, 2020). Further, free health care services are provided by Women's and Children's Hospital relating to breast screening services for urban people who does have Medicare. It is bitter truth that hospital does provide services effectively but they do not succeed in maintaining coordination similarly. Thus, it is required to be improved. Even the information relating to disease and medical care services in respect to breast cancer are not provided required information in majority health care services providing Centre’s. In this aspect, Women's and Children's Hospital has to deal with variety of challenges which does includes significant capital resources which are constrained due to covid-19 (Lupton, 2017).

Complexity of Breast screening health service in another constraint of multinational nature of digital health service industry. In general elderly or ageing population does face issues in understanding access to Breast screening services. Further, ethical challenges are also faced by company which includes privacy, protection ad consent and ethical services relating to Breast screening. But as ageing population does not have adequate knowledge of Breast screening services, moreover, security and privacy concern are also needed to be addressed in order to regain trust of ageing population (Adjekum, Blasimme and Vayena, 2018).

Thus, in order to regain their trust, NRAS i.e. national registration and accreditation scheme maintained through the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Authority (AHPRA) as well as other experts who self-govern beneath the banner of National Alliance of Self Regulating Health Professions (NASRHP) should make initiative for rising awareness relating to Breast screening so that it could enjoy benefits too. The reason behind the same is that, it ensures that the health professionals are registered under the consistent, professional standards and high and would promote digital health services (Makeham, 2020). Lastly, Women's and Children's Hospital has acknowledged itself against National Quality and Safety Standard, which assure effective, high quality, and safety of patients. Moreover, it does highlights current and planned activities in order to ascertain role gaps and complies with standards provided in AHPRA and National Registration and Accreditation Scheme.


The fact cannot be denied that technology has evolved rapidly in health care and it has surely provided improved outcomes for patients (Ranpara, 2018). Women's and Children's Hospitalhave played significant role in empowering Breast screening services and system through emphasizing of evolvement of innovation and clinical quality and safety. The organization has made adequate efforts to indulge technology in health care sector through complying with below cited strategy efficiently. The National Digital Health Strategy followed by Australian Digital Health Agency emphasizes on following variants:

• Improving care coordination and fewer preventable hospitalization.

• enhancing quality of self-care

• mitigating duplication and operating cost (Schofield, Shaw and Pascoe, 2019)

• Working on future themes of digital health care.

• Enhancing models of care

The people who are availing breast screening services in the Women's and Children's Hospital are also provided free medical products in case Medicare provided in context with aged women. Even facility of free medicines is provided to patient which does avail normal check-up services. Further, services relating free vaccines specific category selected category ageing population is available with assistance of government and health care department in case it is being done through the hospital. Even latest technologies are available in hospital for providing advance services to patients. The services are based on old system as well new system; so that best quality could be provided by hospital and innovated techniques could be promoted. Even organization has made adequate pioneering activities between consumers, government, researches for assessing evidence based digital empowerment of key health priorities and collecting technical obstacles which include supporting Health Care Home trials and integrated management of chronic (Bennett et al, 2021). Even it emphasizes on improvement in digital services for advance care planning. From above assessment it can be analysed that company is responsive towards the requirement of incorporation of artificial intelligence in health care, however it requirement to make adequate initiatives for incorporating key drivers in technology transforming health care i.e. affordable technology, social media, acceptance of sharing data and connecting technology for meeting demands of consumer


Ethics can be referred as code of moral values and principles which govern the behaviour of persons or groups with respect to access what is right and what is wrong. In context with health ethics, one has to ensure ethical conduct of health research, ethical implication of genetic cloning technology and critically assessing discrepancies in health status between population and ethical obligation which ensure that equitable access in health services as well as ethical implication of genetic cloning technology (McBride et al, 2019). The main ethical issues which are relating to acceptance of breast screening in context with clinical decision support is as follows:

Ethical implication relating to autonomy and complexity in application of e-services: Autonomy can be specified as right of individual to retaining control over his body. As even though the patient does not take best decision it does have right to make his or her decision in best interest. As a valid procedure does require voluntariness, disclosure, understanding and capacity (Butler et al, 2020). However, artificial intelligence cannot be incorporated adequately until same is accepted by the patients for diagnosis of Breast screening. For instance, as design research approaches does require participants engaging with specific artefact which can be applied for challenging standard way of thinking and provoking new ideas. Even assessing the extent to which clinicians do have responsibility for educating patients around complexities of Artificial Intelligence is another challenge as informed consent is required for deploying clinical artificial intelligence space.

Egoism and Utilitarianism issues in respect of ageing population as they are not happy or satisfied with available practices: Egoism equates morality with self-interest and utilitarianism suggest that decision is believed to be morally correct in case it eventually result in happens in comparison to unhappiness for those who are related to the decision. As in order to gain advantage of breast screen services it is necessary that people should be aware about negative implication of disease and availability of medical services in respect of same to attain its full advantage. Incorporation of artificial intelligence and technology does require variety of data input as well as machine learning techniques which are difficult for clinicians for understanding (Tapia et al, 2017). Further another issue attached with same is that clinical is not able to interpret the diagnosis completely and due to which ageing population fears due to and it result in alert emergency dispatchers or cardiac arrest than same does result in different issues. It is the main ethical issues which does restrict health care providers to provide acceptance to involvement of artificial intelligence in respect of breast screening services unless they are aware about same in detail manner.

Adequateness of non-maleficence theory or approach: It relates to expectation that health care provides will implicate actions which would inflict least harm possible for attainment of beneficial outcome (Youlden et al, 2020). It can be connected with Hippocratic oath. It is also connected with non-consequential theories which emphasis on moral obligation and duties rather than consequences. In case of implementation of AI for breast screening services in health care, ethical issues are to be deal relating to threat of privacy and confidentiality, informed consent and patient autonomy in order to attain acceptance or approval in clinical decision. For instance, in case of Australian Digital Health Agency for adopting new AI tool and software, ethics issue relating to of privatization in context with implementation of new artificial intelligence application or technique would eventually have to face privatization ethical issues before attainment of final approval (Ghanouni et al, 2020).


The main goals of Women and Children Hospital is to be more personal, preventive, predictive and participatory, and artificial intelligence can make major contributions for attaining same. The application of artificial intelligence could use corresponding robotic system for improving existing breast screen services. An overview of smart home function and tools does offer appropriate solution to people with loss of autonomy with assistance of intelligent solution based models would be beneficial for breast screening services as a variety of advantages can be gained with indulgent of technology in health care service.

Further the hospital requires to incorporate standard and framework such as NSQHS (Clinical Governance Standard), (Partnering with consumer standard), AHPRA, National Registration and Accreditation Scheme should also incorporate the subject of Artificial Intelligence acceptance for health services to enhanced extent. Further, the National Digital Health Strategy to be delivered in 2022 of Australian Digital Health Agency is emphasizing on better availability and access to health services along with enhancement of models of care which drive improved accessibility, safety and efficiency. Thus it should incorporate research on artificial intelligence techniques for health services and promotion of breast screening services by complying with standards of AHPRA, National Registration and Accreditation Scheme, NSQHS etc. so that positive decision could be taken for its acceptance or adoption.


Adjekum, A, Blasimme, A & Vayena, E, 2018. Elements of trust in digital health systems: scoping review. Journal of medical Internet research, 20(12), p. e11254. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166497220300912

Alwashmi, M F, 2020. The use of digital health in the detection and management of COVID-19. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(8), p.2906. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2405844021007428

Bennett, I, Tourani, S, Cockburn, L, Reasbeck, J, Grobbelaar, N, Dann, S, Patrikios, P and Brazier, J., 2021. Breast cancer screening in women at high risk of hereditary breast cancer: An Australian experience. ANZ Journal of Surgery, 91(4), pp.685-690. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/16320

Butler, T L, Anderson, K, Condon, J R., Garvey, G, Brotherton, JM., Cunningham, J, Tong A, Moore S P, Maher C M, Mein, JK and Warren E F, 2020. Indigenous Australian women's experiences of participation in cervical screening. PloS one, 15(6), p. e0234536. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234536

Cronin C, Hungerford C & Wilson R L, 2021. Using Digital Healh Technologies to Manage the Psychosocial Symptoms of Menopause in the Workplace: A Narrative Literature Review. Issues in mental health nursing, 42(6), pp.541-548.

Ghanouni, A, Sanderson, SC, Pashayan, N Renzi, C, Von Wagner, C and Waller J, 2020. Attitudes towards risk-stratified breast cancer screening among women in England: A cross-sectional survey. Journal of medical screening, 27(3), pp.138-145. https://www.mdpi.com/2075-4426/11/2/95

Guoguang R., & Sawan M., 2021. (Online). Available through <https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2095809919301535>. [Accessed on 13th October 2021]
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Hansen D P, Dinger M E, Hofmann O, Thorne N & Boughtwood T F 2019. Preparing Australia for genomic medicine: data, computing and digital health. Medical Journal of Australia, 210, pp.S30-S32. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929719302289

Lupton, D, 2017. Digital health: Critical and cross-disciplinary perspectives. Routledge.

Makeham, M., 2020. Role of digital technology in delivering ‘healthy futures’ and ‘healthy cities’. Internal Medicine Journal, 50(11), pp.1408-1409. https://researchers.mq.edu.au/en/publications/role-of-digital-technology-in-delivering-healthy-futures-and-heal

McBride K A, Fleming C A, George E S, Steiner G Z & MacMillan F, 2019. Double Discourse: Qualitative Perspectives on Breast Screening Participation among Obese Women and Their Health Care Providers. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(4), p.534. https://researchers.mq.edu.au/en/publications/role-of-digital-technology-in-delivering-healthy-futures-and-heal

Ranpara, M 2018. Books: Look it up! What Patients, Doctors, Nurses, and Pharmacists Need to Know About the Internet and Primary Health Care: Navigating Technology for Health. The British Journal of General Practice, 68(674), p.434. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6104871/

Schofield, Shaw N & Pascoe M., 2019. Toward comprehensive patient-centric care by integrating digital health technology with direct clinical contact in Australia. Journal of medical Internet research, 21(6), p.e12382. https://www.jmir.org/2019/6/e12382/

Tapia K.A, Garvey G, Mc Entee M., Rickard M & Brennan P, 2017. Breast cancer in Australian Indigenous women: incidence, mortality, and risk factors. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP, 18(4), p.873. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28545182/

Youlden D R, Baade, P D, Walker, R, Pyke, C M, Roder, D M & Aitken, J F, 2020. Breast cancer incidence and survival among young females in Queensland, Australia. Journal of adolescent and young adult oncology, 9(3), pp.402-409. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31765264/

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