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PSY30008 Psychology of Personality Assignment Sample

Assignment Details

Emotion-related impulsivity and risk taking among emerging adults at university

Impulsivity involves behaviour that is “poorly conceived, prematurely expressed, unduly risky, or inappropriate to the situation and that often result in undesirable consequences” (Daruna & Barnes, 1993; p. 23) and is associated with increased behavioural problems, including substance use, addiction, and mood difficulties in both adolescents and adults. One important aspect of impulsivity is emotion- related impulsivity, referred to as the tendency to engage in impulsive behaviour in the presence of both positive emotions (positive urgency) and negative emotions (negative urgency). Both positive and negative urgency are associated with increased risk-taking behaviour, especially among emerging adults (i.e., adults aged 18-25 years), including illicit drug use, aggression, excessive alcohol consumption, and risky sexual behaviour.

Emerging adulthood coincides with a period of significant life transitions, including enrolling at university for the first time for many young people. The combination of emerging adulthood, profound psychosocial changes, and greater range of opportunities afforded at university can result in increased risk-taking behaviour among this age group, often with adverse consequences for mental and physical health.

In this study we are investigating the role that traits of positive and negative urgency play in risk-taking behaviour among emerging adults at university.

For your assignment, you will write a lab report that addresses the following research questions:

1. Are there differences between male and female emerging adults attending university in negative urgency, positive urgency, and risk-taking behaviour*?

2. Is there an association between both negative and positive urgency and risk-taking behaviour* among emerging adults attending university?

3. Do positive and negative urgency differ in the direction and strength of their prediction of risk- taking behaviour* among emerging adults attending university?

The Assignment

Note: The maximum number of words is the absolute maximum and markers will stop reading at the word limit. The word count includes everything except the title page, Method section, tables/figures, and the reference list.

You must present the assignment in the form of a lab report containing the following sections:

Title page (required)

o Come up with an informative title for the study.

o Include your details (see HD example for correct title page format)


o 200 words (approx.); contributes 10% to your overall mark for the assignment


o 1000 words (approx.); contributes 30% to your overall mark
o You must include four research questions/hypotheses

- One research question/hypothesis must address differences between male and female emerging adults in your selected risk-taking behaviours.

- One research question/hypothesis must address differences between male and female emerging adults in positive and negative urgency.

- One research question/hypothesis must address the association between your selected risk-taking behaviours and both positive and negative urgency.

- One research question/hypothesis must address whether positive and negative urgency differ in the direction and strength of their prediction of your selected risk-taking behaviours.

o When presenting directional hypotheses make sure they are clearly linked to theory and the studies reviewed in your Introduction. Ensure that the hypotheses and research questions can be tested using the given data.


o Must be included in your assignment but there are no marks allocated to this section.
o You can copy and paste the Method section information provided on this handout into your assignment.


o 400 words (approx.); contributes 20% to your overall mark

o Includes descriptive statistics (M, SD) for the variables used in your analyses, t-tests, a correlations table, and a regression table.

o Present results according to APA 7th standards.


o 1200 words (approx.); contributes 30% to your overall mark

o Were the hypotheses supported? Why/Why not?

o What were the outcomes of the research question(s)?

o How do the results of this study compare with previous studies?

o What are the implications of the findings for the management of emotion-related impulsivity and your selected risk-taking among behaviours emerging adults attending university?

o What are the methodological limitations of the study and how could they have affected the findings? Any future directions?

o Present a coherent conclusion.
Reference list

o Along with the quality of grammar/expression in the report, adherence to APA 7th referencing style contributes 10% to your overall mark




This study aims to explore emotional impulsivity and the associated risk-taking behaviours among adults. The relations among the personality, self-control and creativity have been investigated. However, creative performance are not related to affected or personality by directing the self-control to future research. In particular, the identification of weaknesses factors which attract negative agency across society including aggression, illegal behaviours and high consumption of alcohol. The emergency period has a significant role including the well-being of many young people and their combination of adulthood and childhood and their psychological changes and the opportunity to reactivate the desired goals path of action. This study explored the link between risk-taking behaviours and positive and negative urgency in a sample of 107 first year university students.


The World Health Organisation (WHO) produce reports relating to risk-taking behaviours such as marijuana use, excessive consumption of alcohol, bringe drinking or sexual intercourse that influence psychological and physical health. Many countries have their own report provided by the WHO by collaborating with the national authority and further this study is related to the rigs taking behaviours in and potential level of achieving the development process of adulthood and preventing the risk in the near future (Lazuras et al. 2019). Their main goal is to identify risk-taking behaviours to minimise adverse effects related to them (Lazuras et al. 2019).
Research demonstrates that there is increasing negativity across young adults and that risk taking-behaviour is highly prevalent (Hwang et al. 2020). High consumption of alcohol is shown to lead to aggression and alcohol consumption from a young age also leads to chronic diseases. It can influence the blood pressure, stroke, , heart disease, liver disease, cancer mouth cancer, rest cancer rectum and colon as well as the high chances of weakness in the body and poor performance of the environmental development process.

The positive and negative urgency between the male and female considering the indication of positive and negative urgency creates a high rate of impulsive behaviour. The urgency in and positive factors but the emotion between the male and female about the depression and the synonym of aggression and anxiety can take a major role on the negative point of view. Positive agency for the both of sex stance with the linked factors of mini phytopathogen situation depending on the highly effective mechanism from various segment of impulsivity (Hwang et al. 2020). The negative emergency is closer enough with the substance problems, tied up with the alcohol, suicidality, disorder symptoms, and high depression areas covered and consider negative impossibility measured by the environmental factors for assignment help.

The two types of behaviour by focusing on the investigation period such as aggressive and illegal behaviours and heavy drinking are considered highly risky factors and the negative influencing factors growth of the nation.

Research Hypothesis

Hypothesis 1: There will be significant differences between male and female emerging adults in the selected risk-taking behaviours

The aggression and illegal behaviours stand with the history of abuse and discovered the violence across the nation and the aggressiveness creates a major drawback for the (Patrick et al. 2019). Due to the fact that illegal behaviours are also called and high activity of criminal activities on the other hand, detailed plans for committing violence also a sign of negative influence reading capacity across the environment related issues development process.

Hypothesis 2: There is an association between selected risk-taking behaviours and both positive and negative urgency.

The risk-taking behaviours and the positive and negative emergency between the both of male and female discussion about the two types of addressing manner high consumption of alcohol and the other addressing factors that related to the aggression and illegal behaviour approach. The survey related to addressing disrespect and high agrition comes from the highly effective behaviour on the childhood of the people. In simple words, most of the aggression and criminal activities position stands that the past experience of people overcome with the criminal activities are highly influencing factors in the future (Larson et al. 2020). The negativity surrounding the many ways of doing things in society and the environmental educated factors of production which means poor schooling and uneducated areas can develop high negative effects across the young age. The positive urgency of achieving the goal and the psychological factors related to good behaviour and the best quality of working environment can create the path of development for young people as well as the growth of the nation.

Hypothesis 4: It is hypothesized that whether positive and negative urgency differ in the direction and strength of their prediction of your selected risk-taking behaviours.

The strength and the weaknesses from the proper schooling and well-educated environment with the symptom of good working and healthy facility enlargement create the positive agency of achieving the goal of the young age psychologically. The prevention of risk taking behaviours and the conduction of campaigns mainly for the uneducated areas by the health organisation of the nation as well as the institution of well being environmental factors can create a strong environment for the growth of the nation (Kenney et al. 2018). The concept related to the development process of education can create the helping hand for minimising the criminal activities and proper uses of complex situations across the young age. The importance of a proper education system can create a helping hand for the young to maintain the proper and healthy path in order to achieve the desired goal.



Participants were the students who were studying in their first year at Swinburne University of Technology. Participation was restricted with their age between 18-25 years, with the modal age of the sample being 18 years (N = 36). There were no compensation to be offered for the participation. Students who did not complete enough of the online survey to permit meaningful analysis (N = 14) were excluded from the final sample of N= 107. Eighty-six of the participants in the final sample were women and 21 were men.


Gender (Male, Female, Other) and Age (in years) information was collected for sample characterisation and demographic purposes.

Risk-taking Behaviours

The “Past Frequency” subscale of the Cognitive Appraisal of Risk Events (CARE; Fromme et al., 1997) questionnaire was used to collect data on risk-taking behaviour. Respondents were asked to report how many times in the last 6 months they had participated in 30 risk-taking activities – e.g., “Tried/used drugs other than alcohol or marijuana”, “Had sex without protection against sexually transmitted disease”, “Rock or mountain climbed”. Higher frequency scores indicate higher levels of involvement in a range of risky behaviours. In psychometric testing by Fromme et al. The Past Frequency subscale demonstrated good convergent and criterion-related validity.

Positive and Negative Urgency

The Positive Urgency and Negative Urgency subscales of the Short UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior scale (S-UPPS-P; Cyders et al., 2014) were used to measure the traits of Positive Urgency and Negative Urgency, respectively. Each subscale consists of four items – e.g., “I tend to lose control when I am in a great mood” (Positive Urgency), “When I am upset I often act without thinking” (Negative Urgency). Respondents indicate their level of agreement with each item on a 4-point scale ranging from Agree strongly (1) to Disagree strongly (4). All items on both subscales are reverse scored so that higher scores indicate higher levels of each trait. Internal consistency was good in psychometric testing for both the Positive and Negative Urgency subscales (Cronbach’s alpha = .85 and .78, respectively).


Students completed a survey consisting of the CARE and S-UPPS-P scales online using Qualtrics. Other scales not related to the aims of the current study were also included in the survey and are not reported here. The survey was accessed via a link embedded in the Canvas site for students’ classes. Participation time was approximately 30 minutes. Students’ consent to participate was implied by their choosing to continue the study after reading the Participant Information Statement. The Statement informed them of their rights not to participate in the study, but that once they began the study they could not withdraw their data due to the anonymous nature of survey responses. They could, however, cease their participation at any time by closing the internet browser window.


Descriptive Statistics

Table 1.

Descriptive table

The descriptive statistics illustrate the central tendency of the variables and their dispersion. The above table is measuring the data and helps to detect the typos and outliers that will allow to identify the link between the variables.

Table 2.

Statistics table showing Gender information

Group Statistics

a. t cannot be computed because at least one of the groups is empty.


Table 2: t-test
(Source: SPSS)

For interpreting the results of the T test it is important to find the output which is the P value of the test. In order to do the hypothesis test at a particular significance level it is significant to compare the P-value with the output of the chosen level of Alpha.

A correlation analysis revealed that gender and age were significantly correlated.

Table 4.

Standard Regression Summary Table


This study aimed to assess the psychological personality. The results revealed that the hypothesis that was supported.

The outcomes of this research paper have multiple implications. For instance, this study contributed to the definition of impulsiveness (Carver & Johnson, 2018). The present research has focused increasingly on assessing and defining the narrow band measures for "impulsivity-like traits. Based on the findings the changes in mean level in terms of cross-sectional data implies that risk taking behaviour are the hypothesised and distinct traits that are strongly influenced through the process of neurodevelopmental aspects in adults. Some of the research suggests that risk taking behaviours are the distinct patterns for the changes in the mean level across the time and are the changes for every individual which are not related to each other (Schreiber et al. 2012). However, the present findings suggest the substantial overlapping of the changes in positive and negative urgency between men and women during their adultery such that every individual exhibits their pronounced reduction in different traits.

Emotion regulation is illustrated as the mechanism through which the individuals modified their emotions for achieving their desired goals. Many students have indicated that maladaptive regulation strategies of emotion place an important role for maintaining and developing the psychopathology which is possibly through the conflict of self regulation goals during the time of emotional distress. This conflict might result in transforming their attention far away from the long term goal of their self regulation by shifting their attention or becoming healthier for reducing their emotional dishes through an immediate relief and pleasure suggest acting impulsively or smoking (Littlefield et al. 2016). The relationship among the motion state and impulsive behaviour is supported by many neuroscience research that found a major role in terms of emotion regulation and risk taking, impulsive behaviour and decision making. This today has examined the relationship between the impulsivity and the motion regulation within the sample of the adults. Moreover the paper has been hypothesised that those of the adults with more difficulties during their emotion regulation would have high levels of impulsive behaviour and use excessive amounts of drinks, demonstrating their impaired functioning on the measures of "neurocognitive impulsive decision making".

The impulsiveness concept in this study has been a part of the psychological landscape for a long time. The methodological limitation of the study has both contributed to the psychopathology and personality property. However, this is considered as a deceptive concept which is difficult to point out. The variations in the definition are being widely used as it seems to leave all the things out such as it does not fit into the instances where the research hypotheses are unlikely to have the negative consequences (Steele et al. 2021). However, another controversy is whether it is important to think about the impulsiveness as a phenomenon class or single construct with various dynamics and origins that must be considered apart from one another. Reasons how to define impulsivity as best remaining as controversial. There are other concerns that relate to investigating the impulsivity concept and extension of other concepts. This paper illustrates the few words regarding letting commitment to the given viewpoint related to positive and negative urgency which is different to the direction and strength of the prediction of the selected risk taking behaviours.

The overlap among positive and negative urgency is consistent with the work that suggests the two facets of the higher order trait. There are various limitations existing in these findings. Firstly the measure of emotion regulation has been administered. The future study might desire to use the objectives such as subjective and physiological measures of emotions to determine various aspects and the relation with the impulsivity full stop secondly the state of emotion have pain observed with an impact of cognitive processing and further investigations have been done by outlining the current state of emotion through the impact of required impulsivity and emotion regulation. Thirdly the sample was between the age of 18 to 25 and predominantly male. Impulsivity and emotional stability has been observed to improve and minimise with age and is different based on their gender (Falco et al. 2021). Therefore this study results might not be generalised to the individuals external to the adult and also might not be accurate that illustrate the relationship among the impulsivity and emotion regulation in females. Longitudinally determining impulsivity and emotions in the sample balanced gender might help to introduce the limitations. Further, these measures may not be used accurately to capture the differences among the groups of impulsive behaviour. Besides these limitations the results are clinically important to examine the emotion regulation that will effectively help to identify the emotion dysfunction.


The proper data collection process in the guidelines of the nation by complying with the World health organisation report can create the good result from the negative urgency to the positivity and the growth of development process of the environment as well as the growth of the nation. The minimising the rate of aggression and criminal activities strengthens the schooling, which always finds help from the inflation rate of negative issues. The irony and the focus as well as the consistency of campaigns in the good quality of reporting factors help for the psychological changes between the 18 to 25 young age people. That is taking behaviours to attract one person to another. They have to break the chain in order to despite an effective solution through the guideline of WHO by considering the National health organisation. Additionally the effective solution in the prediction of direction as well as a strengthening by understanding the limitations of attendance and the research depends on the outcomes correlated with the result and issues. The prevention of high risk factors of production helps for the sustainable growth of the negativity issues.


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