Organisational Behaviour Assignment Sample
Issue date: Wk. 3 Monday 7th February 2022
Submission date: Wk. 7 Friday 7th March 2022 no later than 4.00pm
You are a management consultant and Richard Trafford has approached you on behalf of ABC Ltd for consultation and advice.
Attached is the ABC Ltd case study for assignment help. You are required to respond to the following.
1. Explain how the psychological contract can be integrated in ABC Ltd considering the significant amount of negative feedback from staff being faced by the organisation? (30 marks).
2. Describe and explain the types of communication mechanisms, theories and methods that can be adopted by Richard to help ensure better understanding and co-ordination not only with existing employees, but also with new employees? (30 marks).
3. Considering the events that happened in ABC Ltd, discuss the importance of conducting appraisals and rewarding employee performance on a regular basis, besides providing possible solutions for retaining employees using above processes?(40 marks).
Word count is 3000 words. In calculating the word count, we shall include everything written
From the first word after your title to the last full-stop in your conclusions. In-text References/citations in the body of the report are included in the word count, however the Reference List is not.
The content should reflect logical and analytical application of theories or concepts or models to the case. More details on this will be discussed by the lecturer in the class.
Issue date: Wk. 3 Monday 7th February 2022. An electronic file of the this assignment needs to be Submitted via the Turnitin link for this module before the deadline of Wk. 7 Friday 11thMarch 2022
ABC Ltd is a private sector organization which manufactures air-conditioning systems and sells them worldwide. Its head office is located in the north of England, although there are outposts of ABC in Spain, Norway, Australia and Japan.
ABC has always been run as if it were a small organisation even though its founder sold it to a big electronics concern some five years ago and it has grown from an original staff of twenty at the outset to employ 500 people at head office and something of the order of 3000 across all locations. It has never had a personnel department, therefore there are very few policies and procedures governing the organization. Decisions regarding employees (for example, hiring and firing) are usually taken on an ad hoc basis by the relevant manager(s), with the particular circumstances of the case being taken into account. Furthermore, management have always refused to recognise trade unions, believing that relations within the organization are good enough for employees to be able to air grievances without the need for formal representation.
Indeed, employee relations have never been seen to present a problem for ABC; the only area that management sees as cause for concern is the shop-floor, where the systems are actually manufactured. The unskilled and repetitive nature of the work in this department is recognised to make unrest more likely and indeed several attempts to unionise this staff group have been launched in the past. Other sections, by contrast, are considered not to be in any need of special monitoring – the service maintenance department, for example. The staff working in service maintenance jobs are highly skilled engineers who are employed to maintain and repair the systems that ABC sells. They are available between 6.00am and midnight should any of ABC’s customers require them. Everyone in this division has personal “pagers” and takes turns being
‘on call’ which, in the main, means attending to out-of-hours calls as the pager records them and telephoning the relevant client to give them advice. If the problem cannot be solved over the phone and it is urgent (for example, the air-conditioning system in a hospital has broken down), the engineer will have to go to the client.
Because of the breadth of ABC’s market, the job also involves a good deal of overseas travel. The service maintenance department is considered to be one of ABC’s selling points, as the cover provided by the team enables the company to promise all their customers a five-year warranty. Recently it has also been necessary to provide cover for the overseas branches of ABC – there has been a secondment to the Norwegian office for the last six months and Japan have also requested that a UK engineer go out there to work until they can recruit to their several vacancies. There are twenty engineers in the service maintenance department, as well
as the manager and his secretary. All but one is male.
It was only when Richard Trafford (the service maintenance manager) realised that he had Recruited no less than five engineers in the previous two years, three of whom had left after a Very short time and whom he was still trying to replace, that he began to perceive that all was not necessarily well among his team. When he thought back to those who had left he realised that all of them had gone to jobs elsewhere in the local area. In other words, his staff members we’re leaving because they were dissatisfied with the company, not because they were moving away, or retiring, or any of the other reasons why people leave employment.
‘Well, it can’t be the money,’ he thought. ‘Those guys get a good whack out of this place plus a company car. Other places don’t pay so well or offer cars. It must be something else. I’ll have to have a chat with them, see what’s going on’. At this point, Richard was interrupted in his reverie by his secretary reminding him of his 10.00 a.m. meeting with the company directors. He made a note to himself to look into the matter before gathering up his files and leaving the office.
In fact, Richard didn’t need reminding of the problem he had been considering that morning. He returned from the meeting in the early afternoon to be told that a local customer had called, furious because they had had to wait three hours for an engineer to repair their system. The client’s offices had grown so hot in the meantime that they had to let their staff go home and by the time the system was fixed it wasn’t worth calling everyone back in. So they had ended up losing a day’s work and were blaming it on ABC.
‘But I don’t understand!’ he protested to Carl Peters, who had the unfortunate task of breaking the news to him. ‘We’ve got enough people in, haven’t we? Why were they kept waiting?’ ‘Well, we’ve got four people sick, Richard, and there are about five others abroad. We need five people to stay here and cover the phones, so that only leaves three to go out to calls. And it’s been manic these last couple of days ‘cos the weather’s so hot. Martin had to drive from here to Glasgow and then on to Manchester yesterday to answer urgent calls. The call from Barnes Brothers just got shoved to the back of the queue. It’s not our ...’
Richard broke into Carl’s explanation: ‘Four people sick! Have they called in? I haven’t been told about this otherwise I would have tried to arrange cover.’ ‘I don’t know if they called in or not, Richard, but I know we’ve been down on staff constantly recently. There’s always someone off, and it’s usually two or three.’ ‘Right, OK Carl, I’ll ring the customer and eat humble pie. But I want a meeting with the lads tomorrow, 9.00 am sharp, and we’re going to get to the bottom of this. Can you let them know for me?’
At 9.00 am the following morning, the service maintenance staff began to gather in Richard’s office. Richard opened the meeting by telling them that he was concerned about morale in the department and would appreciate any comments they had regarding their own job satisfaction. At first they were reluctant to say anything but Paul Feather, one of the longest-serving members of staff, eventually go the ball rolling: ‘Well, what I hate is never knowing what we’re up to, Richard. I’m getting sick of being called out to places, then having to work really late ‘cos the client’s left it till the last minute to call. The times I’ve driven back from London at 2.00 am in the morning – and I’ve got a sick wife, as you well know’.
‘Yeah, and we never know how far ahead we can plan our social lives and stuff’, broke in Carl.
‘The only way to ensure not being called away is to book holiday time.
I remember when I was due to go and see my parents and you wanted me to fly off somewhere – I’d had the trip arranged for months and suddenly find out the day before that I’m supposed to be going to Switzerland. Then when I wouldn’t go, you got really mad with me’. ‘Speaking of being called out, I got a page the other night at 3.30 a.m. I didn’t turn my pager off ‘cos I was on again at 6.00 a.m. and one of the customers thought he’d chance his arm. So I got woken up in the middle of the night. It’s not on – they know when they can get hold of us and to leave a message if it’s an emergency. This wasn’t even urgent – he was just working late and got a bit warm. It could have easily waited till the morning,’ added Paul.
‘Plus, the salespeople always make rash promises to the customer – they say they can get the system installed in such and such a time. They never consult us – they just come back and dump the order sheet on us’. This came from George Browne, who went on: ‘And what’s more, the job’s actually quite dull, you know. I know it’s good money and everything, and we get a car, but we always go to the same companies, here and abroad. Also there’s very little opportunity to train on any system that you don’t already know. So you end up doing the same work, the same installations and the same repairs, week in, week out. The only training that
seems to go on here is for people who come in from outside! Another thing – if we were trained in other systems we could fill in for people more easily’.
At this point Robert Fields was heard to mutter, ‘Yeah and the car thing ... that director who bought the flash new company car for herself, fifty grand or whatever it was, when we just got told we had ten grand to spend on our cars, take it or leave it. She doesn’t have to do thirty thousand miles a year for the company, it’s just for posing’. Everyone murmured in agreement.
‘I’m with George on the stuff about the training – I’ve not been here long and I’m bored of the same round of places. There’s something else too’, said Sarah Jones. ‘It’s true about the money being all right but if you look at other departments, they’re getting more money than we are, even if you take the car into account. Look at pre-sales – they’re all on at least five grand more than we are. The only way to get a rise around here is to threaten to leave, like Carl did that time’.
‘Now that’s not fair’, Richard burst out. ‘What about appraisals? You get an automatic increment after your appraisal, if it’s been OK’.
‘I can’t remember the last appraisal I had – and anyway, when I did have it you’d forgotten to fill out the form, so it wasn’t much of a discussion. You just sat there and told me I was doing OK and not to worry, you’d do the form soon. Anyway, those increments are only in line with inflation, so we’d kind of expect them anyway – they’re not really because you’re working hard or whatever. We haven’t had a proper performance-related rise in three years’, Sarah replied.
‘I never even got my increment after my last appraisal – you sent me a letter saying I hadn’t been awarded one, but you never said why! You said at my appraisal that my work was good and you were pleased with me, so I was expecting one’, chipped in Colin Sanderson, who hadn’t spoken up until then.
‘And you said that I had to improve, and then I got an increment anyway – which I thought was kind of daft. Then you sent me to America to do that really big job, booked me away for a week and totally ignored me when I said I’d never get it done in that time. You had to send John Carter out to help me’, Carl commented.
There was a brief silence as Richard took all this information in, and the group wondered if They’d gone too far. When he didn’t say anything for some minutes, George leapt in to fill the gap: ‘Can I just say something else? It’s too bloody hot in here most days in the summer ‘cos of the great big glass windows – they let all the heat in and then when you open them, papers go everywhere. For an air-conditioning company, we’ve got rubbish ventilation up here. I had to go home early last week because it was so warm – you just can’t concentrate’.
Finally Richard spoke: ‘OK, OK, I get the gist. There’s quite a lot here needs dealing with, it seems. Can we just summarise what the grievances are and I’ll make a point of trying to deal with them as soon as I can’. Richard was starting to feel somewhat beleaguered. He had had no idea that things had got this bad. He made a resolution to act as fast as he could – it seemed that he would have no staff left at all if he did not!
ABC Ltd is a private organization that deals worldwide. Their core business is selling air-conditioning systems. They distribute in different countries such as Norway, Australia, and Japan. They have already shown a considerable growth rate in the last few years. However, they did not have a proper policy structure for the employees and other functions. In that case, they also refuse to accept trade unions. Overall, the employees get neglected regarding general rights and the psychological contract. They face different issues, according to the case study.
Richard Trafford, the service maintenance manager of ABC Ltd, is currently in charge. He suddenly realized that some employees were leaving the company for no significant reason. He organized a conference with the employees and other stakeholders. All of them got the chance to express their opinion and difficulties. He took all the opinions for further evaluation and planning. In this whole report, these factors and some theories are discussed critically. This report can show better planning for further improvement in the company (Rehman et al., 2020). As an organizational leader and service maintenance manager, Richard needs proper communication skills and judgment. It needs proper personality analysis and some leadership factors. After a specific time, some steps must be taken to resolve the issues of existing employees. The ultimate objective is to make a sustainable employee system of hiring. It requires proper planning and systems to engage employees in a positive environment in the company (Maltseva, 2020). Here the last question takes place. The awarding system and other engaging events engage all of the stakeholders.
Overall, the report depends on employee management and an employee sustainable system evaluation. Different theories and concepts are placed for better understanding and analysis.
1. Psychological Contract Integration
Psychological Contact is an unspoken agreement between the employer company and the employees. It does not include a salary package or other workplace details. Instead, it presents loyalty and other psychological or personality-based agreements (Dajani et al., 2015). For example, an employee offers loyalty to the company for a decent salary package and work environment. It is a cumulative personality trait representing decent output and legitimate behaviors to each other. This joint agreement usually presents the understanding label of commitment and expectations between the employer and the employee. Overall, this plays a massive role in employee satisfaction and sustainability.
This psychological contract must be maintained in every situation. In this way, the organizational structure becomes compact and sustainable. It requires continuous efforts and maintenance from both sides. Understanding the individuals while keeping commitments regularly is the fundamental criteria of maintaining a psychological contract (Moore, 2014). Moreover, clarifying each other's expectations and attention will improve personal integration and engagement. In this case, different employees have already established their issues in terms of psychological contract violation. That means the company is not available to fulfill all the expectations. Some external factors are also responsible for influencing psychological contracts. It includes demographics and swings in employment. These things affect the employee profile and his relation with the company in terms of loyalty. Moreover, continuous change in value trends also influences this factor significantly. Overall, these external factors must be considered for better results and influential work culture. This section critically discusses the integration of psychological contracts in the company. It is essential to resolve all the negative feedback from different employees and stakeholders.
Psychological concepts are unspoken agreements between the employers and employees of the company. In that case, it is not possible to document or list specific requirements. The whole integration procedure also includes personality and behavioral changes. Proper balancing theory will be practical according to the case study. This balancing process includes caring, communicating, listening, and annoying ability of the individuals.
In the first part of caring, the individuals must show genuine concern for work efficiency and personal life. This will also improve personal engagement, which will help in better teamwork. In communicating with each other, they must be optimistic about the company and themselves. The relationships and teams will be maintained in this way that will lead to better project management. Listening is the third ability to acquire far better psychological contract maintenance. This is also a part of better communication. Overall, the person needs to value all the opinions and aspects of a specific topic or issue (Lee et al., 2020). In this way, proper balance will be maintained through psychological contracts.
This whole integration procedure also requires a better understanding of individual expectations. The essential requirement is a safe and healthy workplace with appropriate equipment. Good workplace policies and decent culture make the work officiate and effective. Moreover, the training and development with Job variety opportunities are also essential. It improves employee satisfaction and effectiveness in work. Recognition and status can be maintained through different events and rewarding systems. This eventually leads to better engagement and loyalty from the employees. Finally, the work-life balance takes place. It includes a decent amount of work that does not affect an individual's personal life. In that case, the whole work will be stress-free and more efficient (Imperatori, 2017). On the other hand, destinations from the organizations are different. The first requirement is self-care and well-being. In that case, their employees should also be concerned about the company's well-being and self-care. Employees are also required to interact with the professional community and other organizational leaders. It is essential for their training and development. This will also improve their skills and practical work results. Finally, they require financial benefits and autonomy or control of outputs. In that case, they will choose their work based on their ability and interaction. This will be more effective in nature for the organization as it will develop better growth in the organization.
Overall, these factors can make the whole psychological contract more significant and influential in nature. The organization and stakeholders need to follow these aspects to improve the workplace environment (Byrne, 2014). This will mostly be beneficial for the employees. Proper implementation of the psychological contract will eventually bring more growth and improvement to the business.
2. Communication Mechanisms
Communication is one of the most required skills in any development project or organisation. In the case of ABC Ltd, the primary problem depends on communication. The poor communication skills of Richard lead to a poor understanding of employees’ requirements (Ge et al., 2017). In that case, the employees are unable to satisfy themselves with the job and workflow. This communication skill is dependent on different factors and personality measurements. Overall, it can build one’s personality, influencing and convincing than before.
The first thing to consider in communication is the perception of an individual. Perception means the way of observation of an individual. It varies due to the different thoughts and tastes of different people. This perception is of four types, majorly as stereotyping, selective perception, halo effect and self-serving bias. In the case of stereotyping, a group of people or a whole gender perceive one general conception (Deng et al., 2015). They are not so flexible to change that concept for some continuous events or reason. In the case of selective perception, the viewer is already conditioned to a particular choice or point of you. In the case of the halo effect, the person can pick up on a particular, usually positive, attribute that will determine the overall perception or concept. Finally, the self-serving bias presents the internal thinking ability or personal thoughts of a person. It usually expresses itself when a situation or problem comes around.
Social Identity Theory
Social identity theory is based on the concept of categorizing people in terms of social standard or occupation. The social positioning of a person or a lifestyle can be defined by his living area, occupation, lifestyle, the standard of living, etc. Overall, this social identity theory can categorise people into different segments with different benefits and functions. This is also another mode of communication or communication theory. This can present the regional or categorised communication between different groups of people in the same society. (Module: Communication)
Mechanism of Communication
The cold mechanism of communication depends on three steps. First, the sender sends the message in any particular communicating language. It goes through a particular channel to the receiver, who needs to decode the encoded information specifically. Personal interaction and understanding will determine the percentage of information to be communicated. In this whole procedure, some noise or interruption can come as external factors. It depends on the communication skill or connection between the sender and receiver and how well they can avoid those external factors (Su et al., 2019). By following this whole mechanism of communication properly, Richard can easily maintain the communication between the stakeholders and other employees.
Importance of Work Culture
Work culture plays a significant role in terms of communicating with employees and other stakeholders. Culture and communication are dependent on each other in several factors. A well-defined and maintained work culture where all the employees are satisfied with their work roles and responsibilities are always efficient enough. In that case, personal interaction and engagement will also be maintained for further understanding and better communication. Different organisational leaders such as Richard first needs to develop a decent relationship with all the stakeholders and employees (Idowu, 2017). Psychological contracts and other structures will be built first. After that, the maintenance of decent work culture with an ethical point of view lead the communication to a better understanding level.
This also has two types of context in terms of cultures. The first one is high context cultures that are majorly seen in China, Korea, Japan and Vietnam. The people there are more interested in the position or business card of an individual. Written or spoken communication systems are also a part of the communication system there, but they are considered secondary communication methods. On the other hand, low context cultures are majorly seen in America, Switzerland and Germany (Li et al., 2016). In this case, people pay attention to secondary or non-verbal messages the most. Written legal documents or free size paper works are mostly accepted and appreciated in those areas. Overall, both these high context and low context cultures have severe significance in current society or communication systems.
Non-verbal communication is another communication system or procedure. It basically depends on body language, facial expression, posture and other external activities rather than words (Febriantini et al., 2021). In this way, the emotional intelligence of an individual is implemented in a significant way. Emotional intelligence means the ability to judge others emotions or a way of acceptance or conversation (Mehrabian, 2017). Better understanding improves non-verbal communication and the connection between two individuals. In this case, six bodily senses such as sight, hearing, touch, smell, taste, et cetera will help. Different activities like group discussions or seminars improve these skills of non-verbal communication.
Finally, effective communication will be measured in every case or scenario. Richard must develop the required skills of Babul and non-verbal communication between the stakeholders or employees. In that case, his communication must be effective as well. It includes proper listening and passive thinking ability. He must be aware of personal body language to connect with the person on a personal level. On the other hand, he must be clear about his objectives or conversational outcomes (Hirsch et al., 2018). Overall, this will build a proper connection between them which will lead to better communication and further implementation into the organisation. In this way, effective communication can be achieved on a regular basis. Eventually, they will be able to maintain or sustain the existing employees in the organisation. In this way, the overall authority or expertise of the company will be improved with time. New employees will also feel satisfied and compatible with the work roles and responsibilities. Overall the whole company will face a huge benefit which will significantly improve the company’s current situation or growth rate.
3. Importance of Appraisals and Rewards
Appraisals and rewards are prepared for different stakeholders or employees who have achieved specific goals or milestones in the organisation. It can be in the development, management, and other segments. Overall, all the employees are evaluated in one single financial year and then the reward list is prepared. In the case of ABC Ltd, this appraisal or reverting method can be beneficial. The fundamental problem is to sustain existing employees in the organisation. It requires proper employee engagement and satisfaction. Giving appraisals or rewards is an innovative approach to motivate all the employees towards the work ethics and culture (Remland, 2016). It will also motivate them to improve themselves in terms of skill and communication. This way, the company will experience more skilled technicians and better results. The employees will try to compete with each other, which will develop their communication skills and personal interaction (Swanepoel et al., 2014). The revert giving strategy will also motivate them to work more in one financial year. Their achievements will determine their reward value.
This will be effective in this case of ABC Ltd as well. They are already facing dissatisfaction from the employees. In that case, Richard must maintain the engagement between them and motivate them to work efficiently. In that case, this merit list or performance metrics will help them to determine the person who is working more than others. It requires extreme precision and organising ability to conduct the whole system, including appraisal and rewarding program.
The organisational structure, communication, work culture, all of these factors are essential in conducting these events. When the stakeholders or employees are not even connected with each other, then the event will be an extreme failure. To maintain the competition and work environment in the workplace, all of the people must be connected and engaged with each other in different projects. On the other hand, organisational leaders such as Richard must be well prepared in terms of communication skills (Watson, 2017). He must conduct the whole program along with the higher authorities and the employees as well. In that case, he needs to understand all of the requirements on a personal level. It also becomes critical to judge different people in terms of their merit and personal skills on a regular basis. Sometimes it can be dependent on some severe factors or mine and behavioural changes as well (Pithouse, 2019). Richard is responsible for evaluating all of them and determining the reward providing list accordingly. Overall the organisational structure will also play a significant role in this case. When the organisation follows decent teamwork culture and other beneficial organisational aspects, the whole event will be conducted efficiently.
This procedure already maintains the sustainability of existing employees in the organisation on a regular basis. It also helps in acquiring new employees into the organisation with time. Every new employee looks for a better opportunity with the scope of growth into his job profile. In this case, regular appraisal and easy words will maintain that competition and scope of improvement into the organisation (Douglas et al., 2014). The ranked people can easily expect to be promoted in service times. They will also be influenced to work hard for further growth and development in their career or personal job position. This whole sustainability model will last longer when the communication skill is manageable for Richard.
This whole report concludes the responsibility of Richard into the organisation to engage existing employees and to acquire new ones in an efficient way. Primarily it includes a psychological contract that leads to better communication and interaction. In this case, some agreements are made between the employer and the employee without verbal communication. It means all of those agreements are not documented anywhere. They come from the personal experience and emotional intelligence of an individual. After that, the mechanism of communication is discussed from different organisational aspects and scenarios. It includes both types of communication systems, such as verbal and non-verbal communication. Both of them have their own functionality and features that can be implemented in different ways. This also includes work culture significance into employee satisfaction. Finally, the importance of work culture or work environment is also discussed in the report. It shows its significance and effectiveness in real life. This will basically improve the overall project results and engagement. It is also the responsibility of Richard to conduct all of these things properly. On the other hand, the report consists of the idea of different events such as appraisal and dividing events. In that case, Richard will sort all the employees who have shown great results in the last financial year. After that, they will be rewarded accordingly in terms of their skills and effectiveness in the company. This will not only help in sustaining existing employees but also will acquire new employees who will be effective in father development. Overall, this whole report can lead Richard to a better solution after the mentioned case. He can develop new skills and plan for further improvement of employee satisfaction and sustainability.
It also shows that the whole system must go through different changes, which will take a longer time frame to be conducted. It includes the change of the whole work environment and culture. This may also require some policy changes in the company system. Overall the whole thing will be conducted under the supervision of Richard and other higher authorities.
Richard is the service maintenance manager of ABC Ltd. In that case, it is his responsibility to maintain and manage all the stakeholders, including the employees. After the detailed evaluation of the whole report, it is clear that he must develop proper communication skills. This will not only help him to engage and interact with the employees but also will help to understand their exact requirements for the organisation. Eventually, he will be able to improve their satisfaction and other company procedures to fulfil their demands. He must also go through a proper understanding of different job profiles and an individual employee. In this way, his personal interaction or connection will be improved. He will be able to connect with them on a personal level to understand their requirement precisely. Overall, he needs to develop new skills and has to consider every single organisational aspect for the employees as well. This whole procedure can lead to better growth and sustainability for the organisation.
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