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CSM80017 Managing Quality and Safety in Construction Site Operations Report 2 Sample

General Instructions for CSM80017 Assignment 2

• The assignment 2 of CSM80017 Managing Quality and Safety in Construction Site Operations unit in 2023 Semester 1 (SUT-Hawthorn) is for 30% weighting.

• The deadline for submission of CSM80017 Assignment 2 is: 5th May 2022 (11:59 PM).

• The questions of Assignment 2 are from Component 2 of this unit on Safety Management in Construction Site Operations covered during Week 5 to Week of this unit delivered in current Semester.

• Please ensure that your response demonstrates a thorough knowledge of the materials covered from Week 5 to Week 8 of Semester 1. You need to address the requirements in a coherent report format with typical headings supporting the report’s beginning, body, and conclusion.

• The list of questions and break-up details of marks are in the following page.

• Upload your assignment submissions in designated submission portal under assignments 2 section in CSM80017 unit canvas.

• Use Microsoft WORD or Adobe PDF document file format.

• Use Harvard referencing style.

• Tentative, maximum page limit (excluding coversheet and list of references) for this assignment 1 is 10-12 A4 pages.

CSM80017 Assignment 2


Assume that you are having a key responsibility for occupational safety of construction site operations in a major hospital complex expansion project in Victoria. A large accident happened recently in your project in which one fatality of a site personnel and some serious injuries for two construction workers of your organization and another one from your subcontractor have been noted. Also, there were some property damages have been recorded from this incident. Your staff records revealed that the age of that deceased person was 44 years. Age of other two workers from your organization got seriously injured in the same accident are 58 and 24 while the injured subcontractor staff was 36 years old. All three injured remain in critical condition after having admitted at the same hospital. Given this brief case-study background, you are required to develop a concise description of the accident scenario (around 250 words) that is relevant to this accident case-study. In developing the scenario, you may consider consulting one or more of the following sources: published case studies of similar accidents, suitable articles, accident records, or personal observations/experience.

Assignment Questions

Once the scenario is established, you are required to produce a case analysis of the accident in the form of a professional report addressing the following:

Question 1 of CSM80017 Assignment 2

a) Description of the accident process - the sequence of relevant events prior to, during, and immediately after the accident.

b) Your analysis highlighting both findings and justification (evidence that substantiates your findings) of:

1. Main root cause(s) of the accident (up to 3); and

2. Safety arrangements/ protocols that

i. should have minimised hazards

ii. might have prevented and/ or eliminated serious harms/ injuries and fatalities.

Question 2 of CSM80017 Assignment 2

Discuss regarding the following:

a) Strategies and arrangements for preventing similar accidents in the forthcoming construction site operations of this project and future projects.

b) Suggestions regarding safety management system improvements in your current project (e.g. revise and improve the programs, plans, policies, processes, and proceduresthat indirectly caused/allowed the hazardous conditions or unsafe behaviours, etc.)

Question 3 of CSM80017 Assignment 2

Provide your:

a) Recommendations to enhance safety leadership and promote safety culture in your organisation’s projects.

b) Recommendations to ensure occupational health and safety of manual handling works in your remaining construction site operations for this project.



Workplace safety on a construction site is crucial to ensuring the health and safety of employees and avoiding incidents that could lead to death or serious injury. A fatality and three serious injuries were reported in this case study of an accident that occurred during the expansion of a hospital complex in Victoria. For Assignment Help, The accident's chain of events was dissected in the case study, with the underlying reasons, preventative safety measures, and recommendations for bolstering the company's safety management and culture in projects being highlighted. The report also included recommendations for improving the safety and health of workers performing manual labor during the project's remaining construction phases.

Scenario Description

The given scenario is about the casualty taking place at the expansion project of a major hospital complex in Victoria. This accident results in one fatality and three serious injuries to the workers along with property damage. A worker 44 years old was deceased and the other two workers 58 and 24 years old were seriously injured. Also, a subcontractor of a 36-year-old and other three workers remain in critical condition as they are admitted to the hospital. This incident took place with the digging of the trench without any solid support. Due to this, the wall collapsed and the injury took place to the workers under it. Then the emergency service was called and the rescue operation take place. According to the investigation, the primary course of this accident includes insufficient risk assessment, ineffective communication, and the failure of safety procedures. A similar incident took place in 2021, when a worker fell 3.3 meters from the second floor to the first floor and suffered from facial and rib injuries (Health, 2021).  

Question 1


The fatal accident that occurred on the Victoria, Australia, building site of a major hospital complex expansion project left one worker dead and three others seriously injured. The accident process can be thought of as the chain of events leading up to and including the incident itself. There had been a great deal of renovation work going on at the construction site before the tragedy, including excavation, demolition, and the building of new structures. To keep everyone on the job site safe and reduce the likelihood of an accident, strict safety procedures and standards had to be implemented. The risk has been generated from the hazards which result in harm to the system elements and led to accidents.

On the day of the incident, the crew was working on the building's upper floor, installing electrical wiring. There was a tremendous boom, and then a massive object fell from the top of the structure, according to the people who were eyewitnesses, however, what caused this remains unclear. Several employees were injured as the object crashed through the floor below them.

There was one fatality and three major injuries as a result of the falling object, which severely damaged the building and many pieces of equipment. The injured workers were taken to the hospital quickly, where they were treated by doctors and later listed in critical condition.

The area was sealed off and the injured workers were taken to the hospital immediately after the tragedy. To guarantee the workers' safety and secure the site, the emergency response team responded quickly and investigated the situation. Authorities were alerted, and a probe into the incident's origins was initiated.
According to the results of the investigation, the incident occurred because standard safety measures weren't followed. The construction company had not performed a thorough safety inspection before beginning work, and workers lacked essential protective equipment including safety harnesses. Not only were workers not properly supervised, but they also lacked the proper education and training to do their jobs safely.

Tragically, seven construction workers were killed and many more were seriously injured in an accident at the Victoria, British Columbia, site of a project to expand the city's hospital complex. The incident occurred because standard safety measures weren't followed, highlighting the significance of making safety a top priority on building sites. This incident underlines the importance of construction firms providing their employees with proper safety training, education, and equipment to avoid similar incidents in the future.


1. Multiple factors contributed to the accident that occurred on the Victoria Hospital complex expansion project's construction site. Among these are:

- The construction company's insufficient safety culture contributed to a lack of safety consciousness on the part of both employees and upper management. The utmost priority is given to safety and employees are trained and encouraged to follow safety measures only if there is a strong safety culture.

- The building firm did not conduct a thorough enough risk assessment or hazard identification, which led to a lack of precautionary measures being used. To guarantee that possible dangers are uncovered and the right steps are taken to remove or minimize them, hazard identification and risk assessment are crucial (Houcks, 2019).

- Inadequate communication between management and employees prevented safety issues from being identified and resolved. The safety of the workforce depends on the open exchange of knowledge about potential dangers and the means to avoid them.
The basic risks related to constriction are burns, breathing issues, eye injuries, fractures, tripping, falling, spillages, electric shock, explosions, dirty water, and falling from height. According to the investigation, the construction firm in question had a low-level safety culture in which worker protection was not a top priority. There was a breakdown in communication between management and workers, as well as a failure to properly identify and analyze hazards, according to the assessment.

2. Safety measures and processes have eliminated or greatly reduced the likelihood of harm. The building firm should have applied the following safety practices to reduce risks and eliminate or reduce major injuries:

- The construction firm ought to have implanted a robust safety culture by giving safety training to employees and management and rewarding them for following these guidelines.

- Before beginning construction, the organization should have carefully identified potential dangers and assessed the associated risks. This method would have let the organization spot possible dangers and take preventative action (SafetyCulture, 2023).

- The construction firm should have facilitated open communication between supervisors and employees by setting up proper lines of communication. Workers should be informed of potential dangers and given the tools they need to avoid accidents through regular safety meetings and updates as part of this line of communication. This will also eliminate the confusion and waste of resources.

- Safety policies should be implemented that comply with the Work Health and Safety framework defined by the Australian Government like the WHS Act, Regulations, and Codes of Practices.

- The construction firm should have given its employees ongoing safety training so that they would be prepared for any potential dangers on the job site (Karthick, Kermanshachi, and Ramaji, 2022).

- The identification of the hazards is a very crucial process that can be done by site analysis and finding things that can affect workplace safety. Training of the workers about site safety is required. Analyze the risks and unsafe hazards and inspect the equipment regularly.

- These precautionary measures have been established because they are consistent with established best practices and industry standards. According to NIOSH, preventing accidents in the construction sector requires a strong safety culture, the identification, and assessment of hazards, efficient communication, and regular safety training.

Last year, in Australia, 18% of casualties belonged to the construction industry. Inadequate safety culture, inadequate hazard identification, and risk assessment, and a lack of communication all contributed to the accident that occurred on the construction site of the Victoria Hospital complex expansion project.

Question 2


It will be necessary to put into place appropriate plans and measures to prevent such accidents in the future operations of the construction site for this project and future projects. Among these plans and measures are:

- The culture of safety at the construction company should be one of the highest priorities at all times. All employees should be educated on the significance of following safety procedures, and the company culture should emphasize this value from the top down. In addition to providing regular safety updates, the employer should incentivize safe work practices (Nicholas, 2020).

- The construction company should perform a comprehensive hazard identification and risk assessment before beginning any work. The first step in this procedure should be to catalog the many risks that could arise. The results of this analysis will inform the development of safety protocols designed to either eradicate or significantly reduce the identified threats.

- The construction firm should give its employees ongoing safety training to keep them apprised of potential dangers and how they can be avoided. There should be a focus on issues like hazard recognition, risk evaluation, PPE, and emergency procedures in this training.

- A consistent means of communication is the basic requirement for every construction firm. This can guarantee that clear and concise information has been conveyed to all staff members and supervisors. This will also help workers to inform about the vulnerable dangers and get knowledge on how to mitigate them onsite.

- The building firm should think about implementing technological measures to boost security on the job site. Drones may be used for inspections, wearable devices can track employee well-being, and simulated environments can be used to teach employees proper safety protocols.

Safety requirements that must be followed by building firms include the primary and applicable safety regulations and standards. This involves making certain that all employees have the necessary certifications, that all safety equipment is regularly serviced and inspected, and that all safety protocols are strictly adhered to. The construction firm should examine and enhance its safety protocols regularly to guarantee that they are efficient in preventing accidents. Accident and near-accident records, as well as employee comments on safety practices, should all be part of this examination (Scanlan, 2023). The performance indicators – leading and lagging can be used to identify whether the current policies of safety are effective and appropriate for the workplace.

Figure 1 Safety measures at the construction site

The construction firm is responsible for the supervision of its subcontractors and the training of its workers in safety procedures. The organization should also perform safety checks on its subcontractors regularly to see if they are following the rules. Best practices and industry standards back up these plans and procedures. OSHA, or the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, places a premium on a company-wide commitment to safety, as well as the discovery and evaluation of potential dangers, the provision of ongoing safety education and instruction, the maintenance of open lines of communication, and the observance of legal requirements. Construction companies are increasingly adopting the use of technology to boost site security.

The execution of effective plans and procedures is necessary to prevent similar mishaps in the future operations of the construction site for this project and future projects. To name a few examples, there is the need to ensure effective communication, review and update safety procedures, use technology, comply with safety regulations, identify and assess hazards, train employees regularly, and manage contractors and outside workers with care. Construction firms may do their part to protect their employees and reduce the likelihood of accidents by adopting these policies and procedures.

Several options exist for enhancing the current project's safety management system. Programs, plans, policies, processes, and procedures that contributed to or enabled risky situations or actions are among those suggested for revision and improvement.

Figure 2 Use of safety equipment

Specific recommendations include:

These recommendations were developed using safety management system best practices and industry requirements (Wei and Gang, 2018). A full safety management system will include enhancements to hazard identification and risk assessment, safety training, communication, policy and procedure revision, increased supervision and oversight, enhanced reporting and investigation, and enhanced subcontractor management. Moral obligations, regulations, and cost-effectiveness are the reason for the requirement of an effective SMS. It includes examining the hazards, risk management procedures, continuous monitoring, and improvement. It has three phases – planning, performance, and assessment. If the building company follows these recommendations, it can reduce the likelihood of future incidents and boost site safety. To ensure that safety management systems are efficient and in line with current best practices, they should be reviewed and updated regularly.

Question 3


The following suggestions can be used to improve safety leadership and spread a culture of safety throughout the organization’s initiatives:

Generate a safety vision and purpose statement. This safety vision includes the work health and safety policy that provides information about the goals, obligations, scope, responsibilities, application, monitoring and review, laws that abide by the policy, and communication of this policy. This will aid in conveying the organization's dedication to safety and serve as a foundation for safety management and culture. Hire a safety manager to ensure that safety policies and procedures are followed, that employees receive enough safety training, and that all applicable laws and requirements are met. Staff members should be encouraged to take part in safety committees, offer suggestions on how to improve workplace safety, and contribute to the formulation and implementation of safety policies and procedures (Fang et al., 2020). Produce a reward program for those staff who followed safety procedures regularly and for promoting safety at the workplace. Consistently, safety audits should take place to examine any risks that compromise the safety guidelines. An effective method for reporting should be deployed which will work as the alarm in case any mishappening takes place. Based on research on effective safety leadership and culture, these guidelines have been developed. Moreover, establishing a reporting and investigation system, conducting regular safety audits, providing ongoing safety training, and establishing a safety vision and mission statement are all essential components of fostering a strong safety culture (Zhang, Shi and Yang, 2020). WHA site management plan can be used to plan before starting work on the project which will help the companies to meet the safety standards and health and safety requirements of the site.


In the construction business, the risk of injury is high due to the prevalence of manual handling activities. The following suggestions can be applied to improve the occupational health and safety of manual handling works in the remaining construction site operations for this project:

- Risk assessments should be performed before beginning any manual handling work to identify potential hazards and establish control methods for mitigating such risks. Employees should also receive instructions on proper manual handling techniques.

- The risk assessment at the construction site can be done by analyzing what are the prominent hazards, and risks, their impact and seriousness, and the action plan used to mitigate them.

- The use of cranes, forklifts, and conveyor belts can help reduce the amount of manual labor required, hence they should be made available whenever possible.

- The Safe work method statements can be used to define the set of instructions at the job for every person which will eliminate the chances of confusion and clear communication can establish.

- Workers can lower their risk of harm when performing manual handling jobs by donning protective gear such as gloves, safety goggles, and shoes.

- Workers who conduct manual handling duties regularly should get regular checkups to detect any musculoskeletal diseases or injuries early on (Ajith, Sivapragasam, and Arumugaprabhu, 2020).

- Encourage workers to take breaks frequently while performing manual handling jobs to prevent weariness and injuries.

- Workers should be educated and trained on safe manual handling practices regularly. This includes instruction in good lifting techniques, the appropriate use of mechanical aid, and the value of rest periods.

- Set up a system for reports and probes: Encourage employees to report any incidents or near-misses involving manual handling, implement an investigation mechanism to determine the reason for the occurrence, and create preventative measures.

These suggestions will help the company guarantee the health and safety of its employees performing manual handling tasks during the project's final stages of construction. Musculoskeletal disorders and injuries can be avoided by conducting regular risk assessments, employing mechanical assistance, using appropriate PPE, monitoring workers' health, encouraging rest breaks, providing training and education, and instituting a reporting and investigation system. 


The case study stresses the significance of safety management systems and processes in preventing accidents on construction sites. Inadequate risk assessment, poor communication, and disregard for established safety procedures were some of the primary factors pinpointed by the accident sequence analysis. Plans and procedures for safety that might have prevented more serious incidents or perhaps deaths were also considered. Accidents of a similar nature can be avoided in the future if the organization implements the suggested changes to its safety management systems, leadership, and culture. The study concluded with suggestions for improving the safety of physical labor on the construction site as a whole. By adhering to these guidelines, businesses will be able to provide their employees with a healthy and risk-free workplace.



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