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HBD106 Human Biology and Disease Assignment Sample

Individual/Group - Individual

Length - 500 words (+/- 10%)

Learning Outcomes

The Subject Learning Outcomes demonstrated by the successful completion of the task below include:

b) Discuss the role of immunological responses related to inflammation, infection, hypersensitivity, autoimmunity and immunisation.

c) Explain the body’s response to injury and disease at both the cellular and tissue levels.

d) Compare and contrast microorganism types and discuss in the context of immunity, infection control and public health.

e) Identify and describe the pathophysiology, aetiology and clinical manifestations of the common health disorders studied.

f) Explain the underlying pathological and physiological principles as they relate to degeneration and aging.

g) Identify and explore the role social and environmental factors may have in the prevention or pathogenesis of common health disorders.

Task Instructions for Biology Assignment :

To complete this assessment task, your plan must follow these steps:

1) Choose any communicable or non-communicable disease that has been discussed in this course.

2) Research this condition and the bodily systems that it impacts.

3) Outline a plan for your information sheet.

• Your plan for the information sheet should include information about:

(a) Burden of disease e.g., the impact of living with the condition, Disability-Adjusted Life years, Quality-Adjusted Life years, the impact on the medical system and the economy

(b) Clinical manifestations,

(c) Information on investigations and treatments based on the latest scientific evidence.

(i) You can also include any screening tests and links to other helpfulresources.

4) Describe the aetiology and pathophysiological process

5) Identify and utilise medical terminologies/ definitions throughout (remember that your audience is educated medical professionals).

Please also note that

• You are required to present your own original work using multiple academic referencesfrom academic books (at least one), journals (at least 2, published in the last 10 years) and other credible sources. Please see rubric for minimum number of references required for each grade.

• You should present your work as double-spaced text. Dot point entries can be used. Pictures and tables can be useful, however ensure you use correct titles/legends and refer to these in your text.

• Academic references are to be included on a separate page using APA guidelines.



Asthma islong-lasting inflammatory disease, affects the routes of ait in the lungs. Its crucialfeatures include adjustable and repeated indications, reversible flow of airobstacle, and easily activated bronchospasms (Kuruvilla et al., 2019).


Burden of disease

The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) studied aillustrative sample of 938,687 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 14 in 239 locations in 99 countries between 2020 and 2022 (Dharmage et al., 2019). The most striking finding was the degree to which recent wheeze incidence varied across countries and between areas within those countries. The highest incidence (30%) is often originate in the countries of Australasia, Europe, and parts of Latin America along with North America (Kuruvilla et al., 2019). The bottommostcommonness (7%) was originate in the Indian subcontinent, Eastern Mediterranean, Asia-Pacific, and Northern as well as Eastern Europe (Lambrecht et al., 2019).

Figure: Asthma (Cleveland Clinic, 2022)

Clinical manifestation of asthma

Some of the clinical signs and symptoms of asthma include recurrent wheezing fits, tightness in the chest, coughing, and shortness of breath (Levy et al., 2006). The symptoms frequently seem harsher at night or immediately after an individual wakes up. They frequently disappear on their own or following an inhaled pain reliever (Boonpiyathad et al., 2019). In spite of the fact that adult asthma deaths are uncommon and mortality rates are falling throughout the majority of European countries, certain really severe episodes can be deadly (Choi et al., 2021).

Figure: Asthma (Respiratory Health, 2022)

Aetiology and pathophysiology of disease

Although it is common for people to have asthma in their families, neither it is necessary nor sufficient for someone to get asthma (Stern et al., 2020). Anindividual's reaction to ecologicalinductions may also change during the sequence of their lifespan, and the relevant jeopardy factors may change (Menzies-Gow et al., 2021).Asthma attacks the lungs and creates constriction in the airways thus inducing breathlessness among the patient. It has bronchial hyperresponsiveness and variable airway blockage (Hammad & Lambrecht, 2021).

Figure 1: Pathogenesis of Asthma
(Source: Barcik et al., 2020)

Screening test and treatment

For the purpose of determining how much the bronchial tubes have constricted, a test called spirometry evaluates how rapidly and how greatly air one can exhale after taking a deep breath.Deterrence and longstandingorganization of asthma are critical for stopping asthma occurrences from ever happening (Boonpiyathad et al., 2019). Learning to recognize triggers, taking care to avoid triggers, and monitoring breathing to make sure the medications are managing symptoms are the usual steps in therapy. It could be necessary to use a quick-relief inhaler during an asthma attack (McGregor et al., 2019).


From the overheadargument it can be decided that asthma is one of the greatest prevalent diseases in the western countries. It is triggered by different factors like allergens. It can be chronic as well and might be genetic in most of the cases, and in other cases, they might get worse over timehours, minutes, or even secondsresulting in a more significant obstruction of the airway and an attackor worsening of the asthmathat can only be addressed with more medication. 


Barcik, W., Boutin, R.C., Sokolowska, M. and Finlay, B.B., 2020. The role of lung and gut microbiota in the pathology of asthma. Immunity, 52(2), pp.241-255. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1074761320300340

Boonpiyathad, T., Sözener, Z. C., Satitsuksanoa, P., &Akdis, C. A. (2019, December). Immunologic mechanisms in asthma. In Seminars in immunology (Vol. 46, p. 101333). Academic Press. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1044532319300557

Choi, Y. J., Park, J. Y., Lee, H. S., Suh, J., Song, J. Y., Byun, M. K., ... & Park, H. J. (2021). Effect of asthma and asthma medication on the prognosis of patients with COVID-19. European Respiratory Journal, 57(3). https://erj.ersjournals.com/content/57/3/2002226.short

Cleveland Clinic (2022) Asthma: Types, causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment, Cleveland Clinic. Available at: https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/6424-asthma (Accessed: October 16, 2022).

Dharmage, S. C., Perret, J. L., & Custovic, A. (2019). Epidemiology of asthma in children and adults. Frontiers in pediatrics, 7, 246. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fped.2019.00246/full

Hammad, H., & Lambrecht, B. N. (2021). The basic immunology of asthma. Cell, 184(6), 1469-1485. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867421001665

Kuruvilla, M. E., Lee, F., & Lee, G. B. (2019). Understanding asthma phenotypes, endotypes, and mechanisms of disease. Clinical reviews in allergy & immunology, 56(2), 219-233. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12016-018-8712-1

Lambrecht, B. N., Hammad, H., & Fahy, J. V. (2019). The cytokines of asthma. Immunity, 50(4), 975-991. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1074761319301359

Levy, M. L., Weller, T., & Hilton, S. (2006). Asthma (4th ed. /, Ser. At your fingertips). Class Pub. Retrieved October 14, 2022, from asthma | Search | Torrens University Library (worldcat.org)

McGregor, M. C., Krings, J. G., Nair, P., & Castro, M. (2019). Role of biologics in asthma. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 199(4), 433-445. https://www.atsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1164/rccm.201810-1944CI

Respiratory Health (2022) Respiratory health, Asthma. Available at: https://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/MPH-Modules/PH/RespiratoryHealth/RespiratoryHealth6.html (Accessed: October 16, 2022).

Stern, J., Pier, J., &Litonjua, A. A. (2020, February). Asthma epidemiology and risk factors. In Seminars in immunopathology (Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 5-15). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00281-020-00785-1

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