7140SOH Health Policy in Organisations and Systems Assignment Sample
Module Learning Outcomes
There are four learning outcomes for the module and by the time you have completed it, it is envisaged that you will be able to:
1. Critically analyse the global stakeholders to determine the key policy actors and organisations and analyse the roles they play in the development and implementation of national, transnational, and global health policy
2. Critically analyse the policy drivers and the factors associated with the development and implementation of health policies in high-, middle- and low-income countries
3. Apply economic evaluation to critically analyse the impact of health policy in high-, middle- and low-income countries
4. Critically review the leadership challenges and skills in implementing policy changes at an international, national, and local level
Coursework 2 (2500 words)
Smoking tobacco is a significant risk factor in developing lung cancer. Policies to reduce the impact of smoking are designed to reduce lung cancer and other smoking related diseases. Critically analyse how the United Kingdom and South Africa have implemented anti-smoking policies and discuss their effectiveness. Discuss 2 or 3 policies in total.
You should include the following for assignment help
• Data demonstrating incidence and prevalence of smoking in each country
• Policy drivers in UK and South Africa and resource allocation
• An analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the policies to reduce tobacco use
• Whether there are any conflicts of interest in national government
• Leadership challenges and skills in implementing policy changes at an international, national, and local level
• Comparison of two countries and the effectiveness of the policies
• Headings to make your work clearer to the reader
It is important to you and the tutors that your project is written and presented in a professional manner. The following requirements must be adhered to in the format of assignments
1. Your limit does allow for +/- 10% words in length. The limit includes words used in tables, graphs, charts and diagrams, but excludes the front cover, the table of contents, references list and appendices. If you exceed the +/- 10% word limit you may receive a 10% penalty on your coursework mark
2. The front cover page - see appendix 1 for the template.
3. The type font should be Arial and the font size for the body of the text 12 point.
4. One and a half (1.5) line spacing must be used.
5. All pages should be numbered consecutively, in the footer on the right.
6. Your student number should be in the footer on the left.
7. References, citations and quotations should be in Coventry University APA 7th Edition only (https://libguides.coventry.ac.uk/apa)
8. Any diagrams, tables, photographic images etc. should be appropriately labelled and referenced.
All coursework must be submitted through the assignment links via the AULA page.
Coventry University have adopted the CU APA 7th edition Referencing System as the standard format for citations and references. There is a Centre for Academic Writing which can provide detailed support on the APA style of referencing. There is also a useful reference guide on the CU Harvard Style that I advise you to download and keep.
This can be found at:
Overview of smoking prevalence globally
As per the viewpoint of West (2017), there are about 1 billion tobacco smokers globally, which accounts for 7% of women and 30% of men. Although, the prevalence rate of smoking tobacco varies according to the determinant factors of different countries.
From the above-illustrated figure, it has been found that the overall prevalence of tobacco smoking is 23% globally, whereas it is approximately 32% for men and only 7% for women. Although, the prevalence of tobacco smoking has been decreasing considerably over the years due to anti-smoking advertisements and the implementation of anti-smoking policies.
Introduction to the UK, including the prevalence of smoking
The UK, the abbreviated form of the United Kingdom, is a sovereign nation within the northwest part of Europe, which is one of the most developing industrial countries across the entire world.
From the above-depicted figure, it has been understood that the prevalence or occurrence of smoking cigarettes amongst both women and men has declined substantially since 1974. In the year 2019, only 12.5% of all women and approximately 15.9% of all males smoked cigarettes, which is nearly one third compared to the rate, which was reported in 1974 (Statista, 2022).
Introduction to South Africa, including the prevalence of smoking
South Africa is the northernmost nation within the African continent, which is well-known for its cultural diversity, natural beauty and varied topography.
The above-demonstrated figure shows that approximately 35% of all respondents, participated in the “Statista Global Consumer Survey” smoke cigarettes as one of the most popular tobacco products (Statista, 2021). On the other hand, other tobacco products are Hookah, cigars, pipe tobacco, e-cigarettes, chewing tobacco, oral nicotine pouches and others.
Policy drivers for the minimization of tobacco smoking in the UK
As per the report of GOV.UK (2018), the main policy drivers for the reduction or minimization of tobacco smoking in the UK are increasing cessation and decreasing consumption or uptake of tobacco products. Additionally, one of the main policy drivers for the minimization of tobacco is to increase awareness of the citizens of the UK regarding the side effects of consuming tobacco by giving examples of the number of deaths or cancer patients due to this.
Policy drivers for the minimization of tobacco smoking in South Africa
One of the key policy drivers, which play a major role in the minimization of tobacco smoking in South Africa, is to increase tax rates on purchasing tobacco (Lau et al., 2018). Another key policy driver is to increase the prices of cigarettes, as it has been helping to minimize the intensity of consuming tobacco amongst the poor of South Africa (Boachie & Ross, 2020). Although, the effects of increasing prices of tobacco products vary based on the gender, race and age groups of the individuals in South Africa.
Policy drivers in the UK, including resource allocation
The primary policy, which is involved with the minimization of tobacco smoking in the UK is the "Health Act (2006)”, which was implemented in the year 2007. The primary focus of this policy is to ban tobacco smoking in enclosed workplaces and public spaces for controlling the number of deaths causing due to passive smoking. In this context, this policy has become more effective while making England smoke-free by the implementation of the "Tobacco Control Plan for England” in 2017 (Hackshaw et al., 2010). In this context, the two most important policy drivers are increasing cessation and decreasing consumption of tobacco (Opie-Martin et al., 2020). Additionally, the two important resources while reducing tobacco smoking are initiation by increasing the tax rate and prices of cigarettes and cessation control by increasing the awareness of the citizens (Sun & Mendez, 2019).
Policy drivers in South Africa, including resource allocation
“Tobacco Products Control Act 83 of 1993” is the main policy, which drives the minimization of tobacco smoking in South Africa, whose key drivers are increasing cessation and decreasing consumption for restricting or prohibiting smoking within public spaces (South African Government, 2022).
The above-depicted figure demonstrated the phases of reducing tobacco smoking after the implementation of “Tobacco Products Control Act 83 of 1993” and other “Tobacco Products Control Amendment Acts” periodically (Reddy et al., 2013). The figure also shows that the number of purchasing cigarettes has been decreased after the execution of anti-smoking policies. The resource allocation for this policy is government initiatives, awareness programs, and strict government regulations against tobacco smoking.
Leadership challenges in the UK during policy implementation
While implementing the policy for reducing the consumption of tobacco, the economic impact is one of the most vital leadership challenges, which the government and other regulatory bodies of the UK have been facing. In this context, Ekpu & Brown (2015) stated that the economic effects of tobacco smoking are based on two leadership challenges, such as the expenses of minimizing the prevalence of smoking amongst smokers and expenses of tobacco utilization itself. On the other hand, the government of the UK has also faced challenges regarding the imposing of tax on tobacco purchasing by its citizens (Till, McKimm & Swanwick, 2020). Lastly, it can be said that the lack of penalties for the individuals who violate the laws, rules and regulations of anti-smoking is another significant leadership challenge, due to which the numbers of deaths caused by passive smoking have been increasing considerably.
Leadership challenges in South Africa during policy implementation
The report of the World Health Organization (2022) depicts that strengthening the execution of the agreement of tobacco control is one of the most vital leadership challenges within the African Regions, including South Africa. Due to this particular leadership challenge, the usage and consumption of tobacco by the citizens of South Africa and other African regions have been increasing rapidly (Tukuru et al., 2021). An increase in purchasing power of the consumers related to tobacco is one of the leading leadership challenges, due to which the markets of South Africa have been growing more accessibly. Increasing awareness of the citizens of South Africa is another most crucial challenge, which the government of the country has been facing while implementing the policy (Warner, Tam & Koltun, 2014). In this context, comprehensive monitoring is required to be followed for informing the civil society and government about the purchasing of tobacco products.
Weaknesses and strengths of the policy in the UK
One of the most vital strengths of tobacco smoking control policies in the UK is its execution of a smoking cessation campaign named "No Smoking Day” in the mid-1990s (Owen & Youdan, 2006). The strength of this policy or campaign is its effectiveness in lowering the prevalence of smoking within the country. Due to this policy, the rate of tobacco smoking decreased to 25% amongst adults in 2003 from 33% since its implementation. On the other hand, the most vital weakness of the anti-smoking policy in the UK is the inability of the government to successfully comply and enforce “Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act 2002” effectively (CPI, 2019). Another weakness is the incapability of the government to invest additional money in this policy.
Weaknesses and strengths of the policy in South Africa
One of the most vital strengths of “Tobacco Products Control Act 83 of 1993” is its strict implementation in South Africa for considering tobacco smoking as the second considerable health concern after AIDS/ HIV (Plagerson, et al., 2019). Strength of this policy in South Africa is to become the first country to ban the smoking of cigarettes within enclosed workplaces and public spaces. Another important strength of this policy is to increase the minimum age of the citizens of South Africa to legally access tobacco (Bonnie, Stratton & Kwan, 2015). One of the most vital weaknesses of this policy is the incapability of the South African Government to impose this policy while selling and advertising tobacco products compared to the advertising of anti-smoking products in the country.
Impact of the UK’s economic condition on the implementation and development of the policy
According to the data of the World Bank (2022), the UK is a high-income country whose average income is $12,696 and above. The economy of this country has an impact on the implementation and development of tobacco control policies under the "Health Act (2006)”. In this context, Ekpu & Brown (2015) stated that the government of high-income economies like the UK acquire a huge amount of tax revenues from the consumption and production of tobacco. Additionally, more employment opportunities within the tobacco industry create. The economic condition of the UK helps the government to invest in anti-smoking policies and procedures more effectively so that tobacco smoking amongst adult smokers can be controlled effectively. Sometimes, the government does not focus on the strict rules and regulations of this policy for its own economic gain or interest.
Impact of South Africa’s economic condition on the implementation and development of the policy
As per the data of the World Bank (2022), South Africa is an upper-middle-income country according to its economic condition. Although its economic condition is lower than that of the UK, it is the first upper-middle-income country, which imposed continuous increases in terms of excise tax for reducing the consumption and production of tobacco smoking. In this context, the government of South Africa has been shedding light on the improvement of the health conditions of its citizens by increasing the prices of cigarettes. Additionally, the average price of cigarettes within the retail sector of South Africa has been hiked by 110%, due to which its poor citizens are incapable of purchasing cigarettes due to which, consumption of tobacco smoking has been lowered considerably (Chelwa, van Walbeek & Blecher, 2017).
Conflicts of interest within national government in the UK
For controlling the consumption of tobacco, the government of the UK has been making efforts in terms of conflicts of interest amongst the policymakers. In the year 2017, the government of the UK has recently launched the “Tobacco Control Plan for England” so that awareness of the citizens regarding the side effects of tobacco smoking can be increased effectively. The government has been focusing on the strict implementation of its public health policies under the "Health Act (2006)” so that the health conditions of the citizens can be protected and secured significantly. No economic profits should be considered while imposing the strict regulations of tobacco control policies in the UK.
Conflicts of interest within national government in South Africa
While describing conflicts of interests within national government in South Africa, the role of interest groups can be illustrated as they are the associations within the political system of the nation, which influence public policy based on any social issue (Asare, 2009). Here, tobacco smoking is one of the greatest social issues, due to which the number of deaths has been increasing. In this context, the government has totally banned the advertising of tobacco products along with the increasing advertising of anti-smoking products.
Comparison between the UK and South Africa regarding the effectiveness of smoking reduction
While comparing between the UK and South Africa about the effectiveness of smoking reduction, it has been observed that South Africa is most effective in reducing tobacco smoking compared to the UK as the government of the UK acquire economic gain and advantages of tobacco consumption and production (Nation Master, 2022). While imposing the policy, the government of the UK face challenges regarding economic loss as the tobacco sector of the country contributes a large amount of money to the economy. For dealing with this challenge, the government of the UK started to increase awareness of the public through “No Smoking Day” besides ceasing the production of tobacco. On the other hand, the government of South Africa faced a challenge while imposing an increased tax on tobacco products. Although, the government executed many tobacco control policies for securing the health conditions of its citizens.
Theoretical interventions regarding control of tobacco smoking
While supporting the above-described evidence regarding tobacco control, it has been observed that the theories or models of behavior change are relevant. In this context, some theoretical interventions related to tobacco cessation or control are “Transtheoretical model”, “Health Belief Model”, and “Social Cognitive/Learning theory” (Roberts, Kerr & Smith, 2013). The core aim of these theoretical interventions is to cease the consumption of tobacco by helping the smokers to change their behaviours towards tobacco smoking. In this context, the government of the UK has launched “No Smoking Day” for encouraging the smokers not to smoke to that particular day so that their behaviour can be changed for at least one day. Additionally, the government of South Africa has shed light on the health concerns of its citizens through the application of “Health Belief Model” so that the awareness of the individuals regarding the side effects of tobacco smoking can be understood.
In the above discussion, an overview regarding smoking prevalence has been provided by considering the statistics from across the globe. The research has showcased Africa is having the highest prevalence of smokers in which 7% of smokers can be accounted as female and 30% are male individuals. The above analysis has also provided some statistical information from different sources. From the analysis, it can be noted that the rate of smoking among the citizens of the United Kingdom is being declined since the year 1974. However, during the last few years, the statics have mentioned that more than one-third of the rates identified in 1974 have been recognised in the nation. Following the statistics showcased in the discussion majority of the individuals have responded that they do not smoke or consume any tobacco items, whereas, 35% of individuals in the nation smokes cigarettes daily. In the above discussion, a statistical overview has been presented from the results of “Statista's global survey” where cigarettes have been recognised as one of the highly accepted and consumed tobacco materials in South Africa.
It can be also be concluded that, in the United Kingdom, the government have taken several measures and policies for reducing the tobacco and cigarettes consumptions rates by establishing several healthcare protocols and regulations. One of the major and most effective policy drivers that are used by the UK government is transcending a major awareness regarding the negative impacts of smoking among the citizens of the nation. The government and other healthcare communities are trying to showcase the negative effects of smoking and consuming tobacco by giving examples of an increasing number of deaths and an emerging number of cancer patients as well. On the other hand, the South African Government have also intended to take several actions, such as; increasing the tax rates on tobacco products or taking actions against the uncontrollable supply chain of the substances. Here, the primary motive of the government is to minimise the intensity of smoking among the youth population of the country and increase a major awareness regarding healthy lifestyles as well.
In the above discussion graphical representations have been used for showing the changes in tobacco consumption rates in South Africa from the year 1690 to 2009. The research has also provided the references of several acts, such as; the “Tobacco Products Control Act 83 and 93” along with the “Tobacco products control amendments acts”. At the same time, it is evident that over the decades due to the leadership issues within the nation several challenges have been faced by the UK government for setting the amendments and rephrasing the regulatory systems within the nation. The same account has also been presented in terms of South African governance procedures. It seems that the changes in leadership options and style mainly harmed the civil society and their lifestyle. Also at some point unlike the UK due to the slow speed of development at some parts of South Africa dealing with the consumption rate of tobacco seems to stay less effective even after the establishment of government protocols.
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