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PBHL20009 Assessment 2 Sample


Your essay must consist of your reflection on the evolving situation that has taken place during the course of term 2 2020 and term 1 2021. The focus of the essay is to show your deepening understanding of issues that may arise during a public health event, especially as they relate to cross-cultural communities like the one we live in, and yourself as a developing practitioner. Your essay should address the following points:
1) A very brief summary of the current pandemic and its effects in the place where you live
2) The actual effects on our cross-cultural community
3) The potential effects of this kind of situation on a cross-cultural community
4) What have you, as a developing public health practitioner learned from experiencing a real-life public health emergency.


In recent times COVID 19 pandemics caused by coronavirus which has spread from China and very new to the world and affected the world population drastically. The COVID 19 pandemic impacted on Australia and especially on the population of Sydney. I can see that the economic, social and political situations are very much affected by the virus spread as the contamination of the virus is uncontrollable and higher level of contamination developed a certain amount of panic among people as well. As a developing public health practitioner, I can also experience the psychological impacts among people due to the change in the social processes and rising unemployment issues along with an instable economic situation. I have seen that the COVID 19 pandemic developed several issues and the only way to reduce the impact of the virus was global lockdown and rapid vaccination to build immunity against the virus. However, the virus shown a characteristic of changing its functionality and structure and thus, there are different species have been found till now from the end of 2019 when the virus outbreak occurred from China. Considering all these factors, I have seen that the Australian government and local government of NSW developed the regulation of lockdown especially marking some hotspots where the rate of COVID cases is high (NSW Government, 2021). Sydney have several hotspots, though, due to 80 per cent of population of Sydney have been administered with first dose of vaccine till 20 th September 2021 and the curfew or strict lockdown of the 12 hotspots of Sydney has been lifted (The Guardian 2021). However, as per my knowledge, regulation developed by the government highlighted that if there is any single new case can be found among these areas the lockdown will again be put forward for at least 14 days (The Guardian 2021). As a developing public health practitioner, I think in this dire situation this is the only solution for the people to be safe and reduce the contamination of corona virus.

I can state that the situation of COVID 19 cannot be marked as positive even after almost one and half year of the pandemic impact on the world population. As a developing public health practitioner, I can state that the impact of the pandemic is still present and the regulation of NSW government is strict to improve the situation (NSW Government 2021). The regulations include travelling outside the local area without proper permission and identification of the contamination free situation for any individual which can be visible to me and others still now as in Sydney a truck driver found with the infection and a 31-year-old woman travelling outside the area has been confronted by the police as well (Abc.net.au 2021). Considering all these factors, I can highlight that the regulation of the lockdown and curfew are still implemented by the government for the safety of the local and national population. However, there are 628 cases including 3 deaths due to COVID 19 found in the area of Victoria and the government put forward the regulation regarding vaccination of education staffs till November to continue the educational works as well (Abc.net.au 2021). Hence, as a developing public health practitioner, I can reflect that the policies and regulations can be effective.

However, I think that the empowerment to the people will help them to understand the importance of the policies and regulations. Thus, as per my experience and knowledge I reflect that the empowerment programs for people should be considered with higher priority. However, the requirement of the hand washing, face mask and face shield usage related education to people cannot be neglected and I should try to educate andempower people regarding the use of these factors. I think that the vaccination can provide immunity though developing habit of healthy practices is necessary to reduce the risk of the COVID 19 pandemic. Considering this, I can highlight that hand washing is done through 7 steps as per regulation of WHO and these should be considered to improve the health education of people and also the proper face mask wearing processes should be considered as well for the empowerment process (Who.int, 2021). Moreover, the regular sanitisation is also required to be considered for the safety from the virus and I should also practice that and influence people to do so as well.

People from various cultural backgrounds are being influenced differently by the epidemic. SBS, a multi-ethnic and multilingual broadcaster, claimed that people were being misled by alleged therapies that had no proven impact, such as utilising salt water, garlic, vitamins, and whiskey as home cures. Others were said to be utilising traditional remedies, and certain religious groups were led to think that fervent religiosity would provide them with viral protection. They felt they could disregard government public health recommendations and legislation (SBS, 2020). SBS said that public education initiatives in languages other than English were minimal and ineffective. Better, culturally relevant information, for example, would enhance public messages on
hygiene and physical distance (SBS 2020). COVID-19 also resulted in a rise in racist complaints to the Human Rights Commission. Since the beginning of February, one-third of all complaints have been linked to the virus. These included reports of verbal and physical assault, as well as vandalism (Human Rights Commission 2020), with Chinese individuals being particularly targeted and, as a result, suffering from insecurity, fear, and mental illness (Fang and Yang 2020).

I can also necessarily highlight that the supplies of medication and other products are also delayed due to the lockdown and the imbalanced international situation. Hence, I can reflect that the change in the situation is not possible at this moment properly as the global pandemic situation is not normalised yet. Moreover, as a developing public health practitioner, I can see that the social and psychological situation of people is also not in a proper shape. Hence, I should consider empowerment and educational programs for the people to reduce the impact of the pandemic situation and promoting wellbeing for them. However, the unemployment and the social distancing affected on the economic and psychosocial aspects of people in a drastic manner. Considering all these factors, I can highlight that the importance of the normalisation of the situation through proper strategic implementation should be considered by the government. Though, the impact of the international economic situation and the employment situation are not positive. Hence, based on all these situational contexts of the local area of Sydney and also the national and international context, it is evident that the health care is hampered due to the social determinants of health are impacted drastically.

Moreover, the overwhelming cases of COVID 19 lead to the imbalance in the work force and work load. Other than all these, the lockdown regulations impacted negatively on the supply of medical products as well (van Barneveld et al. 2020).I can state that the impact of COVID 19 on health care department is very much prominent due to the sudden change in the care regulations and demands as well. However, I think that the social and political along with the economic factors that have been adversely affected due to the pandemic developed the negative situation in a more prominent manner. I also realise that the lockdown regulation led to a gap in the social interactions and also impacted on the psychological aspects of people (van Barneveld et al. 2020). Hence, the health care department should be focused on the planning for the effective care delivery to these people as well and I should take part in the proper care delivery planning. Moreover, the technological use of the social media based or the telephonic care delivery processes should be prioritised for the improvement of the situation and also the cost and time reduction for care delivery. The COVID pandemic is going to be tougher in few months as well as the 3 rd wave or the Delta strain of COVID 19 will infect as per the health scientists. Thus, I think it is necessary to state that the consideration of the change in the health care work force or processes should be prioritised for the improved care delivery to the COVID patients as well as the people affected with other comorbidities to maintain the quality of care. The regulations should be strictly followed and it can provide a better situation to cope with the adverse impact of the disease. The prospect of almost 2 years of prolonged impact of a virus on human health in a drastic manner is very much rare situation for health care department (Bateson et al. 2020). Hence, I think that in this sudden and drastic issue the health care department is trying to cope and it can be stated that the international situation impacts more adversely and delays the improvement against the disease or virus.

It is evident to me that with proper infrastructure and work force the health care department can reduce the impact of the disease in a positive manner. The general impacts in the Sydney and Australian contexts are also impacted with the issues of the cross-cultural communities and also the people from other minority groups. It has been seen that the cross-cultural group of people and also the minority people have barriers of language and also cultural differences (Spennemann 2021). As a developing public health practitioner, I think that the linguistic barrier develops gap in the care access and also reduce the chances of proper interaction with the health care professionals or the majority of the population (OECD 2020). Hence, I can reflect that there is a social gap develops which is prominent and negatively impact on the health outcome of these people. Based on this context, I can necessarily highlight that the language-based issues should be reduced through the implementation of the positive communication strategies. The nurses and other health care workers should show empathy and use the non-verbal communication strategies to communicate with these people. I think that as a developing public health practitioner, and other health care professionals along with the people can access the health care appropriately.

The cross-cultural people and also the minority people showed different cultural beliefs and actions in different situations. I can also reflect that the impact of these activities lead to different issues in several situations. Thus, it is necessary to provide proper care and empowerment to these people to follow the regulations of COVID 19 and reduce the impact of the disease on them. In this manner, the situation will be improved and the reduction of the negative consequences can be achieved. The factor of the change also depends on the attitude of the health care workers (OECD 2020). It has been seen that the cross-cultural people are neglected and discriminated by the White population in several cases and it also develops unnecessary communication
gaps and impacts on the health care process. Thus, the consideration of the change in the situation through the empowerment of the health care workers should also be considered for the improvement in the care process (Cui et al. 2021). Thus, as a developing public health practitioner, I can necessarily highlight that the self- actualisation of people is very much important considering the national, local and also international situations of COVID 19. Though, the health care workers should reduce the attitude of discrimination and provide culturally safe and collaborative care to each and every patient needing health related support.

As a health care worker, the COVID 19 pandemic is one of the crucial issues I have faced in my entire career and maintaining the safety of the co-workers, patients and myself should be considered by me at the first place. The aspect of the care delivery and also considering the priorities and needs of the patients are very much important for me. However, in terms of the experience in Sydney as a nursing care professional I understood my duties and the impacts of life threats as well. The COVID 19 pandemic developed a panic among the health care workers as well as among the patients (Bateson et al. 2020). I should also state that I have found that the impact of the cultural differences of people should not affect the care delivery process or health outcome of the patients. Hence, I should promote cultural safety and provide equal care to all the patients. Moreover, I should focus on empowering people regarding the DOs and DON’Ts to avoid the risk of the COVID 19 or other comorbidities of the disease. However, the recent data of the Sydney and other areas of NSW developed a concern and I should focus on helping people to improve their own situation regarding the health outcomes along with the community people as well. The cultural safety should be considered with priority by me as well.


Abc.net.au, 2021, ‘Truck driver 'presumed' to have Delta was in WA for two days — as it
happened’, viewed 29 September 2021 <https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-09-22/covid-updates-sydney-melbourne-cases-restrictions-border/100481082>

Bateson, D, Lohr, P, Norman, W, Moreau, C, Gemzell-Danielsson, K, Blumenthal, P, Hoggart, L, Li, H, Aiken, A & Black, K, 2020, ‘The impact of COVID-19 on contraception and abortion care policy and practice: experiences from selected countries’, BMJ Sexual & Reproductive Health, vol. 46, no. 4, pp.241-243, viewed 26 September < https://srh.bmj.com/content/familyplanning/46/4/241.full.pdf>

Cui, J., Mao, L., Newman, C., Kwan, C. and Lancaster, K., 2020. ‘Managing Risk in the Pro-Empowerment Era of Mental Health Care: A Cross-Cultural Study of Social Work Perspectives in Hong Kong and Sydney’. The British Journal of Social Work, 51(3), pp.831-848, viewed 29 September 2021 < https://academic.oup.com/bjsw/article-abstract/51/3/831/6044335>

Fang, J., Yang, S. (2020). ‘Chinese-Australian family targeted over coronavirus receives outpouring of support, ABC’, viewed 29 September 2021 <https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-04-23/chinese-australian-family-racist-coronavirus-racist-attack-speak/12178884>

Health.gov.au, 2021. ‘COVID-19 Vaccine Roll-out Jurisdictions Breakdowns.’, viewed 29 September 2021 <https://www.health.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/2021/09/covid-19-vaccine-rollout-update jurisdictional-breakdown-29-september-2021.pdf>

Human Rights Commission. (2020). ‘Where’s all the data on COVID-19 racism?’,
viewed 29 September 2021 < https://humanrights.gov.au/about/news/opinions/wheres-all-data-covid-19-racism>

NSW Government, 2021. ‘Greater Sydney restrictions.’, NSW Government, viewed 29 September 2021 <https://www.nsw.gov.au/covid-19/rules/greater-sydney>

OECD, 2020. ‘Culture shock: COVID-19 and the cultural and creative sectors.’, OECD. viewed 29 September 2021 <https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/culture-shock-covid-19-and-the-cultural-and-creative-sectors-08da9e0e/>

SBS Australia. (2020). ‘Harmful coronavirus myths are being spread in Australia’s multicultural communities.’, viewed 29 September 2021 <https://www.sbs.com.au/news/harmful-coronavirus-myths-are-being-spread-in-

Spennemann, D., 2021. ‘No Entry into New South Wales: COVID-19 and the Historic and Contemporary Trajectories of the Effects of Border Closures on an Australian Cross-Border Community.’, Land, 10(6), p.610, viewed 29 September 2021 & lt;https://www.mdpi.com/2073-445X/10/6/610/pdf>

The Guardian, 2021. ‘New NSW Covid lockdown restrictions: update to Sydney, regional NSW and Canberra, ACT coronavirus rules explained.’, viewed 29 September 2021 <https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2021/sep/22/new-nsw-covid-lockdown-restrictions-update-to-sydney-regional-nsw-and-canberra-act-coronavirus-rules-explained>

van Barneveld, K., Quinlan, M., Kriesler, P., Junor, A., Baum, F., Chowdhury, A.,Junankar, P., Clibborn, S., Flanagan, F., Wright, C., Friel, S., Halevi, J. and Rainnie, A.,2020. ‘The COVID-19 pandemic: Lessons on building more equal and sustainable societies.’, The Economic and Labour Relations Review, 31(2), pp.133-157, viewed 29 September 2021 <https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1035304620927107>

Who.int, 2021. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Masks. [online] Who.int., viewed 7 October 2021 https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/question-and-answers-hub/q-a-detail/coronavirus-disease-covid-19-masks Who.int, 2021. Hand Hygiene: Why, How & When?. [online] Who.int., viewed 7 October

Who.int, 2021. World Hand Hygiene Day 2021: Seconds save lives - clean your hands!.[online] Who.int., viewed 7 October 2021 https://www.who.int/campaigns/world-hand-hygiene-day/2021

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