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BUACC5931 Research and Statistical Methods for Business Assignment Sample

Topic : Associations between quantitative, qualitative job insecurity and well-being

Marking Criteria

Depending on the breath, in depth, relevance and correctness of the answer. Within four academic English sources, at least three peer reviewed, in correct APA. Well structured, with few or no errors in spelling and grammar.


Job security is a sense of belief that a job is secure and the concerned person will keep it for long. Yet this is just a mere probability. It’s a sense of being informed that an individual’s job is secure. It builds a sense of protection against materialistic things and other responsibilities in life both economic as well as social. A person when steps into his professional life, desires a very basic requirement or is concerned about just one simple thing, i.e., a job for life. If things do not go as planned, job insecurity could become one of the major reasons for stress and anxiety. This is the reason why this topic has attracted researchers globally to research and write on such topics. Since the beginning of the 21st century, there have been major threats to job security. They are globalization, outsourcing of resources, downsizing of the firms, economic recession, and the involvement of advancement and new technologies in the work culture of the organizations worldwide. The new technologies lead to a reduction in manpower and an innumerable decrease in the cost of production for various organizations. 

Job insecurity is divided into two categories i.e., qualitative and quantitative job insecurity. Quantitative job insecurity deals with the situation where a person is concerned about the availability or existence of his current job in the future. Whereas qualitative job insecurity is the situation when employees are concerned about the unfavourable changes that take place while working in an organization that may impact their current position of responsibility (Witte et al., 2010). This mostly happens because of deterioration in the working conditions and a decrease in the structure of salary which results in a lack of career options.Both these categories of job insecurity led to outcomes that negatively impact the well-being of an individual.

Qualitative job insecurity is a situation where an individual is stuck between being employed or unemployed since the existence of his current job is highly threatened (Niesen et al., 2018). The employee lives in a dilemma wherein he is unsure of the uncertainty that is going to happen. This leaves a detrimental impact on the individual’s behaviour and attitude, which ultimately result in psychological distress and the urge to quit or reduce his/her commitment to work. The individual in order to compensate for the impact of stress then starts on to distance themselves from the organization (Niesen et al., 2018). The energy that should have been utilized in improving their performance is now diverted to regulating their emotions. Hence this outcome of qualitative job insecurity will lead negatively impact the individual’s ability to work on new ideas and develop creativity.

Moreover, qualitative job insecurity might not seem very concerning to all the individuals but this too leaves a great impact on the well-being of an individual. The threat of being at a constant level in a job with no advancement in the position of responsibility, being at a salary that isn’t increasing yearly instead starts to depreciate, might also be considered threatening to employees (Cuyper etal., 2010). The current way how organizations work is very unpredictable. The forms of qualitative job insecurity result in more or less the same outcome to the individual’s well-being as in quantitative insecurity. Qualitative job insecurities have been more prevalent these days, considering the aspects of liberalization, globalization, and privatization. The constant restructuring of economies around the world, and the transfer of powers affect the organizations as well which leads to the evolvement of uncertainties in the work-life of an individual (Cuyper et al., 2010).

Despite such great impacts on the well-being of an individual, qualitative job insecurity has always been an ignorant part. This form of job insecurity most commonly result in copying the responses of other individual working in the organisation instead of giving much attention to their mental health or desires themselves. They engage in coping with their own emotions and forget to search and work on ways to improve the performance of the organization.Both persistent types of job insecurity, the subject of quantitative insecurity, and esteemed elements of the job that are the subject of qualitative insecurity can be considered assets that an individual means to keep up with and secure. However, they address separate types of assets, which suggests that strain and precarity might include when they are compromised. Such circumstance requires considerably more work to adapt to and passes on less space to depend on other accessible assets to keep things in balance. For example, on account of qualitative work insecurity, one might in any case put resources into the fate of one's work, yet this is impractical if the two types of uncertainty are available. Hence, we need a superior comprehension of how the two parts of occupation instability might consolidate into an interesting individual encounter and what suggestions it bears for precarity and prosperity in the work-life balance.

Taking all these aspects into consideration, it can be stated that both these categories of job insecurity negatively impact the well-being of an individual and which lead to uncertain behaviour of the employees (Niesen et al., 2018). This ultimately is a loss for the organization as well. It can be stated that both these types of insecurities are unfavourable to the well-being of an individual in an equal manner. Yet, the quantitative job insecurity is a disaster as there is a possibility of losing the job itself which will lead to being in a state of unemployment. Nothing can be more disastrous for an individual than being in a state where they are unable to support their needs of themselves or in some cases their dependents as well.

The relationship between qualitative job insecurity, quantitative job insecurity, and well-being is fairly strong. Well-being can act as an order to control the sociodemographic effects of negativity and job characteristics within an individual (Griep et al., 2021). The sociodemographic of an individual also has a great impact on his well-being. It has been seen that they can cope with negativity more efficiently when a person has strong sociodemographic background i.e., a supportive family and stable socio-economic conditions.Whenaffected negatively, an individual starts negatively seeing every aspect and thus affects the wellbeing of both themselves as well as their dependents.

In the fierce universe of work, uncertainty in working conditions has turned into a significant stressor with indisputable proof of its extensive impending consequences well-being, and prosperity of the worker (Witte et al., 2010). A rising number of concentrates along these lines expect to comprehend the manners by which work frailty shows. In doing as such, it is important to represent the multi-faceted nature of the development as its various aspects might happen all the while and the commonness and possibly differential impacts of such designs remain understudied to a great extent.

Thus, it can be stated that cognitive appraisals in quantitative job insecurity hardly make any impact on the well-being association. Therefore, when an individual stresses his job insecurity, it becomes a hindrance to his career progression and gives birth to negative responses. In like manner, qualitative job insecurity also acts as a work stressor and has a great impact onthe psychological and behavioural attitudes of the individual. Mostly in the case of qualitative job insecurity individuals when losing their perks and benefits of jobs get affected more psychologically, than displaying a behavioural change. The psychological outcomes come with respect to job dissatisfaction or being exhausted emotionally.


Witte, H. D., Cuyper, N. D., Handaja, Y., Sverke, M., Naswall, K., &Hellgren, J. (2010, April). Associations Between Quantitative and Qualitative Job Insecurity and Well-Being: A Test in Belgian Banks. ResearchGate. Retrieved April 16, 2022, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/247887030_Associations_Between_Quantitative_and_Qualitative_Job_Insecurity_and_Well-Being_A_Test_in_Belgian_Banks

Cuyper, N. D., Witte, H. D., Kinnunen, U., &Natti, J. (2010, April). The Relationship Between Job Insecurity and Employability and Well-Being Among Finnish Temporary and Permanent Employees. ResearchGate. Retrieved April 16, 2022, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/247886954_The_Relationship_Between_Job_Insecurity_and_Employability_and_Well-Being_Among_Finnish_Temporary_and_Permanent_Employees

Niesen, W., Hootegem, A. V., Witte, H. D., Battistelli, A., &Handaja, Y. (2018, March 26). Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. SJWOP. Retrieved April 16, 2022, from https://www.sjwop.com/articles/10.16993/sjwop.36/

Griep, Y., Lukic, A., &Kraak, J. (2021, March). The chicken or the egg: The reciprocal relationship between job insecurity and mental health complaints. ScienceDirect. Retrieved April 16, 2022, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0148296320308742 

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