BIS2005 Enterprise Architecture Assignment Sample
Due date: Week 12
Word count / Time provided: 3600 words
Unit Learning Outcomes: ULO-3, ULO-4, ULO-5
This assessment is designed to assess develop your skills in Enterprise Architecture (EA). You are required to develop knowledge on EA methodology, EA Framework, data model and emerging EA. In completing this assessment successfully, you will be able to know major widely accepted Enterprise Architecture (EA) domains, layers, frameworks and governance, which will help in achieving ULO-3, ULO-4, and ULO-5.
Report: Part-I (Case Study) for Assignment Help
Coco-Oil is a mid-size Oil and Gas company. A couple of years ago Coco-Oil decided to establish a full- fledged EA practice to accommodate with the growing problems around non-transparency of its IT investments and poor business and IT alignment in general. To boost its EA initiative, the company decided to purchase a specialized software tool for enterprise architecture. For this purpose, its IT leaders studied the available offerings on the EA tool market, contacted most promising vendors, organized meetings with vendor representatives and listened to their presentations. As a result, Coco- Oil had selected and acquired a rather powerful and expensive tool for enterprise architecture from a well-known vendor. Then, the company had installed and configured the tool, established a central repository for storing architectural information and sent its architecture team to a special training supplied by the tool vendor. After the training, architects had documented most areas of theorganizational IT landscape and associated business processes in the EA repository and started to update this information to keep it current. Architects were also impressed with the modeling, visualization and analytical capabilities offered by their new EA tool.
However, Coco-Oil’s CIO is sceptical towards the chosen EA tool. He believes that the company is only wasting money on the tool as it is essentially nothing more than a sophisticated repository of current- state information. Furthermore, the tool is used by only 4-5 people in the entire organization (all architects), does not facilitate informed decision-making among business stakeholders in any sense and does not contribute to achieving the original objectives of the EA initiative to improve business and IT alignment. As a newly employed manager at Coco-Oil; Coco-Oil’s CIO has asked you to provide a report that addresses the following:
1. Discuss 5 reasons why the implementation of the EA tools at Coco-Oil would make Coco-Oil have competitive advantage over its competitors.
2. Recommend one cloud-based EA software that would be used in Coco-oil and discuss 5 major role that the specialized software would play in Coco-Oil EA practice.
3. Based on your lecture notes, discuss standard as an architect and the roles implementation of standard will play in EA practice at Coco-Oil.
TechCon is a diversified, multi-profile company. Essentially, it is a conglomerate company consisting of three diverse strategic units acting as independent businesses under separate brands in different industry sectors: Unit Foodtech, Unit Foodtech and Unit Hoteltech. TechCon is governed from the central head office, which oversights the three subsidiary business units and their financial performance indicators, though without any operational interventions. Each strategic business unit has its own managing director with full discretion and responsibility over its competitive strategy, investment priorities, budget allocation and ensuing yearly profits. Unit Foodtech is in the food manufacturing business. The unit produces and distributes a variety of goods including, but not limited to, vegetables, groceries, meat and dairy products. Each of these product lines requires unique production processes, storage arrangements, transportation approaches and underlying equipment and is organizationally implemented by a separate specialized product department. However, these products are delivered largely to the same circle of customers, including both major retailers and local food shops. All product lines are also served by a number of common unit-wide functions, e.g. HR, finance, accounting, logistics, legal, marketing and sales support.
Unit Restaurtech competes in the restaurant business with 94 IT staff. Specifically, the unit controls a chain of small fast-food restaurants occupying the low-cost market niche. In total, the chain includes more than 159 restaurants located in different geographies and more restaurants are planned to be opened in the foreseeable future. All restaurants offer same interiors, menus, prices, meals and services to their customers and imply standardized policies, working procedures and supporting equipment. However, each restaurant is run separately by a chief manager responsible for its overall financial well-being and all necessary business processes, e.g. recruiting, training, procurement, cooking, servicing, cleaning and complaints management. With the exception of Unit F Restaurtech’s lean central office, where chain-wide branding, marketing and other strategic decisions are made, the restaurants operate independently from each other and even have their own profit and loss statements. Finally, Unit Hoteltech runs a chain of resort hotels. These hotels gravitate towards the high-end price segment and offer premium-quality services to their customers. Unit Hoteltech’s competitive strategy implies improving its brand recognition and achieving consistent customer experience. For this purpose, the unit’s leadership plans to standardize all customer-facing and, to a lesser extent, back- office processes across all hotels of the chain as well as all its suppliers and service providers. Moreover, Unit Hoteltech also intends to become “closer” to its customers and build lifelong customer relationships. This strategy requires collecting more information about customers, their individual preferences and transaction histories, aggregating this information globally and leveraging it for providing customized services, launching loyalty programs, developing special offers and promoting personalized discounts.
As an EA manager at TechCon, you are required to write a report that discusses the following:
1. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the operating model used in each unit in Techcom organization.
2. Discuss four reasons why outsourcing of EA practice is NOT a good option for TechCon
3. Discuss four type of goverance committees that TechCon would implement and; discuss why it is important to implement decision escalation path.
4. Discuss 5 reasons why implementation of Architecture Debt is very important in TechCon
5. Based on IT staff ratio model and degree of decentralization as a factor, name and discuss architects positions that would be required in Unit Foodtech.
Note: The answers must be based on the information provided in lecture notes and recommended text books.
SmartFin is a large financial and stockbroker company. 8 years ago SmartFin decided to establish a full-fledged EA practice to accommodate with the growing problems around non-transparency of its IT investments and poor business and IT alignment in general. The establishment of EA practice was successful, and it was completed last 1 year. Due to recent advancement in technologies, SmartFin wants to implement Cloud Computing technologies that would empower their staff and customers for example, implementation of analytical Cloud Computing Technologies that would enable SmartFin staff to approve credit card application within 30 minutes of the submission of the application.
However, SmartFin’s CEO is sceptical towards the implementation of cloud computing technologies. He believes that the company is only wasting money on the cloud computing technologies as it is essentially nothing more than a sophisticated collection of data.
As a newly promoted IT manager at SmartFin, you are required to write a report that discusses the following:
1. 5 (five) major differences between Big Data and EA.
2. Five (5) challenges that SmartFin may have with implementation of Cloud Computing Technologies and how the challenges should be resolved.
3. Five (5) major business benefits of cloud computing architecture that SmartFin may have over its competitors if they implement cloud computing.
4. Discuss five (5) stages of ITIL framework that may be implemented in Smartfin
Part-I (Coco-oil case study)
Reasons for implementing EA tools
In order to enhance the complete process of business developments and operations, the enterprise architecture is an essential concept that has been implemented by the Coco-oil. It will give some competitive advantage to the company and based on the available sources and tools, Coco-oil will be able to make change into their existing business process. In the below points, reasons over the implementation of EA tools have been introduced for the Coco-oil:
• In order to get an overview on the different entities and their relationship into the Coco-oil, EA tools have played a vital role. The communication and understanding between the entities have been improves by using EA tools (Anthony Jnr, 2021, p23(3)).
• Risk identification and mitigation in any area of business has also been achieved by using EA tool. In terms of IT infrastructure or business operations, all the major issues have been identified and mitigated with the help of EA tools.
• Both the information system’s cost and complexity has been reduced with the implementation of EA tools. Projects costs and activities are monitored by the management and based on the project requirements, unnecessary steps or activities will be removed from the system (Saint-Louis and Lapalme, 2018, p10(3)).
• The stability and quality of the business architecture have been enhanced with the implementation of enterprise architecture tools and techniques. On the other hand, the overall capability and business process have also been improved with the help of EA tools.
• In order to implement the new technologies and smart tools into the business process, it is important to make a brief analysis on the current operations. Therefore, the innovative tools and techniques could be included into the Coco-oil company with the help of EA tools.
• Building strong business strategy or changing existing business strategy have been achieved by the company management with the help of EA tools (Paredes-Gualtor, Moscoso-Zea and Luján-Mora, 2018, p28(3)). On the other hand, all the possible changes into the existing business strategy has also been introduced by the users.
The above points illustrates the five major reasons for which the Coco-oil company had implemented the EA tools into their business functions.
Cloud-based EA software
With the implementation of the cloud based enterprise architecture tools, companies will be able to make introduce new features and tools into the company business process. There are several benefits and advantages of the cloud based EA tool that could be achieved by the Coco-oil company. The existing business operation of the company could be improved by the management if all the necessary aspects of the company have been considered during the implementation of cloud based EA tools. Sparx System Enterprise Architect is one of the most effective solution for the Coco-oil company which could be efficiently use the identified tool into their business operations (Carr and Else, 2018, p25(3)). Sparx system gives different features and functionalities to the company. Based on the company requirement, all the necessary features could be enabled by the managers if Sparx has been implemented into the company EA system properly. The below points have been illustrated that shown the five major role of the cloud based EA software:
• The entire process of business process improvement could be done with increased speed and efficiency. All the necessary components of the business process are included into the software which make the system implementation more easier.
• Data security and integrity is another major role that are played by the cloud based EA software. All the organizational data and information are stored into the system which gives data security and integrity.
• The cloud based EA tool is scalable and the existing business process could be expanded with the integration of the EA software (Setiyowati, Zemmy and Agung, 2021, p15(3)). All the upcoming events and future data trend can be controlled and monitored with the help of cloud based EA tool.
• Unlimited data storage is another benefit for the Coco-oil company as the client base and generated information is continuously growing into the organization. All the data and information could be stored into the cloud in a structured manner.
• Data backup and restoring could be done by the managers easily as the cloud based tool Sparx gives the opportunity to restore data efficiently.
Based on the company requirement, the above benefits could be achieved by the Coco-oil of the Sparx tool is implemented into the business process of the company.
In order to successfully implement the EA tools and techniques, it is important to consider different aspects of the enterprise architecture. Standard and role of implementation are the two major aspects that must be considered by the organization. In this context, there are several standard that must be followed by the managers to implement the enterprise architecture. All the necessary aspects of the EA standard need to be considered that includes the below points:
• Security standard: In this standard all the security policies including password, guideline, authentication or authorization are identified by the system developers. All the essential data and information security comes under this standard (Gorkhali and Xu, 2019, p30(4)). However, the information classification could also be done by the company management if the security standards have followed properly.
• Legal standard: General data protection regulation (GDPR) is one of the major standard that need to be followed by the system developers. On the other hand, the country specific crypto is another form of legal standard that need to be considered by the developers during the system implementation.
• Development standard: In order to successfully develop the system and its components design patterns, technological resources, UI guidelines need to be followed by the developers (Razi, 2021, p35(4)). On the other hand, all the possible changes into the existing system could be introduced by the architect if all the standards have been followed.
In order to successfully implement the EA into the Coco-oil all the components need to be implemented into the system based on the role of the entities and business operations. Depending on the enterprise architecture of the company, all the necessary components of the company could be implemented based on the role of the users and staff of the company. Therefore, the standards and their role implementation plays a vital role during the enterprise architecture tool implementation.
Part-II (TechCon case study)
Advantages and disadvantages of the operating model
TechCon is a diversified company that manage three type of business including food, hotel and restaurant business. The company is operation all the business with the help of different units and their managers. The three units are operated with different models in order to make the business process successful. The advantages and disadvantages of the operating model used in the different units have been discussed in the below points:
• The operating model in the food industry is gives the complete overview form the product production to the delivery. All the steps can be monitored with the help of operating model.
• Cost of the production in food industry can also be introduced with the reduced time.
• In the hotel business, all the booking and their services delivery could be monitored with the help of operation model (Dagoumas and Koltsaklis, 2019, p3(2)). However, the business operation could be improved in this process.
• The technologies and IT resources could be efficiently implemented by the company staff if the operating model is proper implemented.
• In the restaurant business, the chain of the small fast food centres could be managed properly and based on the customer demand and need, the food quality or service delivery into the specific restaurant could be improved.
• With the help of operating model, an integrated restaurant operating model could be implemented by the company management. All the necessary aspects of the ongoing business process could be improved with the help of operating model.
• The operating model will not consider the health and safety measure of the food industry which is a major disadvantage of the operating model into the organization.
• With the help of operating model, the profitability or financial transactions could not be calculated by the managers (Wang et al. 2019, p20(3)). In this context, a separated analytical framework need to be deployed by the organizations.
• In the hotel business, the maintenance of the hotels and resources is a major challenge that is not included in the operating model. For this purpose a separate body need to made.
• No administrative work could be done with the help of existing operating model. For this purpose, TechCon should make the a separate administration to monitor all the operations and process (Galli, 2018, p21(2)).
• In the restaurant business, operating cost and staff management could not be performed by the operating model.
• The complete management of the restaurant could not be managed by using a single operating model.
Outsourcing of EA practice
If the EA is implemented by the TechCon itself, it will give a number of benefits to the organization. Based on the organizational needs, the enterprise architecture will be implemented by the company management. However, the EA outsourcing is another major aspect which need to be considered by the management as it give several disadvantages to the company. In the below points, four reasons for which the EA should not be outsourced are given:
• The control over the system and operating model is reduced if the EA is outsourced. All the operations and functionalities are controlled by the third party organization.
• Communication issue is a major drawback as all the components of the company are controlled by the third party organization. If all the data and information are not transferred from one source to another properly, then the communication gap arises (Jain, 2021, p18(3)).
• All the data and information of the company is handled by the third party organization that refers to the security threats for the organization. Data or information breach could impact some major damage to the organization.
• Lower quality in product or service delivery could also be faced by the company. The third party organization will not be aware of the product or service quality and it will caused into the damage in reputation of the organization.
For the above reasons, TechCon should not outsource the EA for their organizational activities and operations.
Four type of governance committees
There are several types of governance committees that could be implemented by the TechCon to enhance their business process and functionalities. Based on the business operations and organizational requirements, four types of governance committee could be implemented by the organization that are given below:
• Advisory committee: Advisory committee will be responsible to adopt new changes and features into the system. However, any kind of issues or threats faced by the company will be identified by this committee.
• Co-operative committee: In each stage co-operative committee will help to take decisions by the management (Baraibar-Diez and D Odriozola, 2019, p8(2)). On the other hand, all the aspects of the company business operations could be considered by the co-operative committee to implement it successfully.
• Team management committee: The team management committee will help to develop a proper team work between the team members. A proper collaboration between the team members will be achieved by the company management if the team management committee govern the entire system properly.
• Policy making committee: Based on the organization requirements and issues faced by the TechCon, further decisions and policies could be made by the management with the co-operation of policy making committee (Caluwe and De Haes, 2019, p6(3)).
The above four governance committee will help the TechCon to improve the business operation of the company. On the other hand, decision escalation path could also be introduced by the TechCon to resolve the issues and challenges quickly. In the below points, the benefits of the decision escalation path have been shown:
• The time management in product or service delivery could be done effectively by the organization.
• The decision making process will become accountable which will help to enhance the profitability of the company.
• Time and energy of the company management could be saved by the organization if the decision escalation matrix is implemented into the business process properly.
Implementation of Architecture Debt
With the implementation of the architecture debt, the TechCon will be able to enhance the system performance matrix with new innovations and features. Based on the organizational requirements, all the necessary aspects could be business process could be enhanced with the implementation of the architecture debt. In the below points, five major reasons for which TechCon should implement the architecture debt into the operational process are discussed in the below points:
• Advanced analysis: With the implementation of architecture debt, all the company analysis will be made in more advanced manner (Sharma, 2019, p4(2)). Based on the analysis performed by the experts, weak entities could be identified.
• Technology upgradation: All the existing technologies and IT infrastructure of the company could be improved and updated with the latest technology and advanced features.
• Design simplify: Based on the complexity and functionality of the system, the design simplification could be done by the company management. This is the major reason of using architecture debt.
• Improve in strategy making: Based on the technical debt, the decision making or strategy development process could be improved (Ernst, Kazman and Delange, 2021, p12(3)). This will make the operational process improvement with all the three types of business area of TechCon.
• Result based decision: Based on the result of the analysis, results will be analysed by the system managers. On the other hand, a proper data and information management architecture could be introduced by the TechCon.
In the above points, five reason for implementing architecture debt have been introduce by the company.
IT staff ratio model and degree of decentralization
The degree of decentralisation denotes the degree to which an organization wishes to decentralise. Company management must examine eleven elements while assessing the Degree of Decentralization. Managers cannot be for or against decentralisation of authority on a regular basis. There are several architect position that could be required in TechCon to improve the business operation of the company. On the other hand, few architect positions need to be considered by the organization to make the necessary changes into the system that are illustrated below:
• The more expensive the operation to be determined, the more likely it is that the decision needs to be made at the top levels of administration. The fact that the price of a failure influences decentralisation does not necessarily imply that senior managers make less mistakes than their workers (Shon and Cho, 2020, p13(3)).
• Some other aspect that favours decentralization of responsibility is the desire for an unified policy. Some who place a premium on consistency are almost always in favour of centralised power because it is the quickest way to achieve it.
• Because of the company's unique challenges, policy problems may need to be forwarded higher up the chain and debated with a large number of professionals at each stage, as longitudinal acceptance may be just as important as vertical approval (Bojanic, 2018, p18(1)).
• Other situations, senior executives retain responsibility not out of a desire for status or dominance, but rather because individuals absolutely never give up the interests and powers they had before they rose to the top or the company developed from a shareholder shop.
• Because teamwork of planning involves the presence of educated managers, a serious shortage of management staff would improve the level of decentralisation of authority. One issue is that a company that incorporates its power may not be ready to practice management to take over the responsibilities of top management, necessitating the need of external sources to provide replacements.
In the above points, all the extents to make the company decentralization have been described.
Part-III (SmartFin case study)
Differences between Big Data and EA
SmartFin is a major financial institute that is introducing the cloud based analytical framework that will help to make the credit approval process more fast. This is mainly the adoption of big data and analytics. With the implementation of cloud technologies, several benefits could be achieved by the SmartFin. However, the Big data and EA both are different in concepts and framework. The major differences between the two technology has been given below:
• Big data is mainly deployed to make high level analysis of huge amount of data in a more advanced technique. Different algorithms could be implemented on the organization data to predict the credit risk (Le, Fu and Moore, 2020, p20(3)). On the other hand, EA is implemented to improve the entire business process of the company.
• During the execution of big data, only the data and information aspect of the company are considered. While the EA considers all the possible area of the business operations and functions. One gives the visual insights on the available data, while the other is responsible for the development of business operations.
• Security features into the EA tools and software is higher that the big data applications. On the other hand, all the possible changes into the analytical process could be introduced by the EA and it requires a higher level of security.
• Big data applications are easily usable and manageable, while the EA tools requires an expertise in the similar filed.
• Only the analytical visualizations could be introduced with the big data tools. But, the EA applications offers a wide range of applications and features to the users (Yetton et al. 2018, p15(3)).
In the above points, all the major differences between the big data and EA have been illustrated.
Challenges with Cloud Computing Technology
SmartFin will be able to implement the cloud computing technology successfully if all the major concerns have been considered by the developers. Here, different challenges faced by the SmartFin company during the cloud technology deployment have been illustrated. Based on the organizational architecture, all the challenges could also be mitigated by the company management. In the below points, five challenges and their solutions have been discussed:
• Data breach and theft: With the adoption of the cloud technologies, the data theft or breaching risk will be enhanced. A proper security infrastructure need to be deployed along with the cloud platform.
• Misconfiguration: The configuration of the cloud platform is a major challenge that could create issues for the organization (Rath, 2018, p11(3)). All the necessary configuration should be made with the help of cloud experts.
• Insider threat: Insider threats could also breach or damage the cloud infrastructure which causes into the system failure and hijacking. In order to mitigate this issue, all the authentication and authorization process must be introduced by the company.
• Virus attack: Virus attack can damage the entire cloud platform and this would cause into data leakage or system hacking by the hackers. The entire IT infrastructure of the company will be effected by the virus attack. Anti-malware programs and firewalls must be installed into the company IT infrastructure.
• Data confidentiality: All the data and information will be stored into the third party platform that refers to the reduced data confidentiality (Tadapaneni, 2018, p9(4)). For this issue, SmartFin need to check all the legal standards and paper works.
SmartFin company will be able to implement the cloud based technologies into the company IT infrastructure if all the challenges and issue are considered and mitigated by the developers.
Business benefits of cloud computing architecture
With the successful implementation of the cloud technologies, SmartFin will be able to achieved several business benefits. All the required applications or activities could be executed into the cloud platform. Five major benefits of the cloud computing technology have been illustrated in the below points:
• High speed and quick deployment of business operation is the major aspect that could be achieved by the SmartFin. Time and cost saving approach could be introduced by if all the aspects of the cloud computing have been introduced (Somula et al. 2018, p7(1)).
• All the technological resources could be updated and integrated automatically if the cloud based platforms have been implemented by the company.
• Efficiency of the business operations could be increased by the company. On the other hand, cost of running all the activities could be made reduced by the company management.
• Data security and integrity could be achieved as a huge amount of data will be stored into the cloud platform.
• SmartFin will be able to make their information system more scalable as it will offer different branches and expansion of existing network architecture (Mohammad, 2019, p17(3)). All the possible changes into the information system could be easily made by the company is the cloud technology is successfully implemented into the organization.
Stages of ITIL framework
The below pints have been discussed to illustrate the ITIL framework into the SmartFin company.
• Service strategy: Service strategy could be introduced by the company to take decisions on the upcoming business operations and process.
• Service design: In order to design the service strategy, the design framework need to be introduced by the company. The productivity and creativity of the business operation could be improved with the service design (Sadegh et al. 2018, p10(2)).
• Service transition: Services and procedures established in the System Design phase are moved to a testing environment in the Operation Transitionary period. This stage entails preparing services and processes for use in the real world.
• Service operation: Customers' terms and conditions are considered by the at this point. As a result, the support team must ensure that the team abides by the contract.
• Continual service improvement: The existing business process could be enhanced and improved by the organization, if the continual service improvement process is introduced by the company (Hermanto and Kusnanto, 2019, p16(3)). This stage is the essential aspect of the company.
Based on the above ITIL stages, SmartFin will be able to improve their enterprise architecture and business process. All the necessary changes into the system could be made by the company if all the stages have successfully implemented.
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