PUBH6008: Capstone A: Applied Research Project in Public Health Sample
By the end of module 3, student must provide to their learning facilitator a brief review of the literature on their chosen topic. The literature review must contain key references/theorists/researchers for the public health topic chosen. The literature review assignment must be designed to address the following questions:
• Who are the key theorists/researchers in your public health topic?
• What are the key issues?
• What are the gaps in the existing body of knowledge?
The literature review should provide a basis for justifying a clear research question or hypothesis to be explored further.
You must also indicate the search strategy used for your literature review. For example, what were the key words you searched for, and which key databases or other sources did you use to conduct your literature review? (e.g. CINAHL, Proquest Public Health, Informit, Medline, Google Scholar).
• Critical and comprehensive review of the literature (70%) Clarity of research question/hypothesis (10%) General assessment criteria (20%):
• Provides a lucid introduction
• Shows a sophisticated understanding of the key issues
• Shows ability to interpret relevant information and literature in relation to chosen topic
• Demonstrates a capacity to explain and apply relevant concepts o Shows evidence of reading beyond the required readings
• Justifies any conclusions reached with well-formed arguments and not merely assertions
• Provides a conclusion or summary o Correctly uses academic writing, presentation and grammar:
• Complies with academic standards of legibility, referencing and bibliographical details (including reference list)
• Writes clearly, with accurate spelling and grammar as well as proper sentence and paragraph construction
• Uses appropriate APA style for citing and referencing research
Sexual abuse of minors has long been recognised as critical issue in India. As a result, the "Protection of Children against Sexual Offenses" law was passed, making CSA actions like rape, pornographic exploiting, abduction, and so on illegal. This study will provide a quick review of the reasons for the rise in child abuse cases in India. For Assignment help, There are 430 million toddlers in India as per the official calculations. Children are seen as an important pillar in the growth of a country. Since independence, India's legislation and judiciary have worked hard to ensure that children have fundamental rights from conception until the legal age of adulthood. According to a report, there are four stages of developmental psychology in which an individual not only undergoes physical or biological modifications, but also undergoes changes in psychological, mental, and emotional health, as well as diversity in morals, theories, and language skills.
Protecting these younger generations is thought to be important since it leads to a healthy life for a person and the development of the country as a whole (Atim 2017). A child's essential human rights must be secured from all forms of abuse, including emotional and physical assault, as well as unscrupulous and defenceless conditions. Childhood is the most vulnerable time of a person's life. Children are regarded as a nation's most valuable asset since they are the ones who will define the development and children are the ones who will determine the nation's well-being. In the nation, the child is thought to have personal rights and responsibilities.
The study's goal is to examine the state of child safety by emphasising on incidences of sexual abuse involving Indian children. The research will look into the Indian government's preventative strategies. The goal of the study is to determine what is needed to improve India's current child abuse problem. In this contrary, the research will describe the current situation of Indian society in child abuse cases. The proportion of child abuse cases in rural and urban areas are analysed gradually (IGI Global. 2018).
Several keywords regarding the child abuse in India are searched on various online platforms such as “Proquest”, “Google Scholar” and much more. Some methodologies are followed to conduct this study. In this regard, a research onion is selected to pick the most suitable methods for this study. The idea is to pick the most representative journals and articles in the field of child abuse within the Indian context. All selected journals are chosen from the 2017-2021 timeframe to avoid the chances of old journal inclusion. Reference and reviews of the selected journals are analysed before the inclusion of relevant data along with the monitored citation.
A "descriptive" study design has been followed to include a detailed explanation of the chosen topic. Selective study philosophy and approach are followed to take part in this study in detail. Special attention has been provided in including relevant data that can support reaching a concrete conclusion in this matter (Cockbain, & Bowers, 2019). All relevant information is included to strengthen the discussion to understand the current condition of Indian child abuse cases. Journals concentrating in prevention strategies of child sexual abuse in Indian framework are prioritised in the search strategy.
Harming, ill-treatment, cruelty, abandonment, or starvation of any kid is considered child abuse. Physical, emotional, sexual, and psychological abuse can all be perpetrated against a kid. According to the "National Crime Record Bureau", one hundred and nine minors were sexually molested every day in India in 2018, which shows a 22% increase in the statistics of child abuse cases from the previous year (Tiwari et al. 2018). According to a UNICEF study, Indian parents utilise 30 distinct types of physical and verbal abuse on children aged 0 to 6 years as part of their discipline measures. Unfortunately, the research shows that young kids are more likely to be exposed to conflict, violence, and mistreatment as their families try to adapt, which can have long-term consequences for them. Not everyone understands the impact of such cases on their child and that is why the effect is so vulnerable. The differences between several type of abuses and molestations are described in the below area.
Physical abuse: Physical abuse is defined as the intentional infliction of pain. When most people hear the word "child abuse," they immediately think of physical violence. Molestation manifests itself in injuries, bruises, fires, cracks, and muscle aches, but it can also manifest itself in brutal acts of discipline. Physical abuse is also indicated by damages that do not match the narrative and ignored medically needs.
Emotional abuse: Emotional abuse is defined as behaviour against a child that causes mental distress. Shouting at the child frequently, restricting love or affection, long periods of quietness, and cruel jokes at the child's benefit are all examples of mental neglect. Emotional abuse is defined as calling the child insults or uttering other degrading remarks to the child, which usually leads to low self-esteem. Emotionally abused children may experience depression or a yearning need for affection (Oyekola, & Agunbiade, 2018). Stigmatisation and postponed or incorrect psychological maturity are among the other signs.
Sexual abuse: Sexual abuse includes touching a kid in a sexual situation or having sexual contact with the child, as well as any action directed at the child for the purpose of sexual excitement. Touching, forced sexual actions, and obscene bodily exposure are all signs of this sort of abuse. Both sorts of sexual abuse of a kid are regarded sexual abuse of a child, whether the abuse happens as a one-time occurrence or as a pattern of behaviour that persists for years. Often, the attackers are the child's relatives or family members. These are mostly people that no one would expect to do such crimes (Parmley et al. 2019). Actions in a child may indicate sexual abuse include awareness or promotion of sexual conduct before the child's age, unexpected difficulties with toilet habits in a young child, genital pain or itchiness, injuries, or bleeding. Other signs include difficulty sitting or jogging, stains in their underwear, and other youngsters being sexually abused.
Abuse of any kind can result in long-term consequences. Child abuse has ramifications that go far beyond the physical scars left behind. Relationship troubles and trust concerns may arise in the child. Feelings of worthlessness or low self-esteem are prevalent, and the youngster may have trouble controlling his or her emotions. The study's main goal was to describe how sexual assault affects a child's mental and psychological well-being. Some preventative measures are also aimed towards elucidating.
The purpose of a literature review is to select a variety of publications related to child abuse cases in India. Human trafficking, rape, harassment, exploitation for pornography, and other forms of child abuse are common (Harder et al. 2020). By reading various journal and news articles, the study will expose the exact situation of child abuse in India. The Indian government appears to be working on legislation to stop abuse that is more sexual. Abusers of children are dealt with harshly by NGOs and government organisations, including the police. According to the preliminary findings, the court system is successful in averting societal evil. Several search engines are used to find suitable literary sources for this study.
Discussion of literature
Cases of Child Sexual Abuse in India
One of the most serious issues is that our culture has prioritised adult rape, but child sexual abuse is as important. The only difference is that most youngsters are either unaware that they have been sexually assaulted or are too afraid to tell their parents. Some people are afraid of privacy (Mashayo et al. 2017). Hundreds of millions of children are victims of abuse and exploitation. Kids are physically and emotionally fragile, and they could be permanently traumatised by emotional or psychological abuse. Child sexual abuse is a pervasive problem in our society, although it is rarely spoken. The national of formation of women and children manages this act and aims on removing sexual abuse of children, improving education about child molestation, ensure a stable space for children who are victims of aggression, and imposing harsh penalty on offenders.
It is the basis of a slew of health issues as well as a slew of other issues. Although there is no strong demonstration of a source, reported cases of child sexual abuse are decreasing. One out of every ten children is sexually molested before they reach the age of eighteen, according to statistics. Despite declining rates of registered sexual abuse, the public is unaware of the magnitude of the problem. In India, child sex exploitation has long been an issue, and incidents of horrible atrocities have been documented over the years, prompting a continuing effort to abolish such evil from society.
Effect of Child Sexual Abuse on Children
According to the evidence presented to the Inquiry, child sex exploitation can have far-reaching and serious repercussions (Jones et al. 2019). These impacts can last a lifetime for some victims and witnesses. Child sexual abuse can have a negative impact on a child's cognitive and emotional well-being. This affects their familial and intimate connections, faith, training, and job opportunities. People who have suffered are also two to substantially more likely to be sexual, physical, or mental abuse victims in the future. Victims and survivors blame themselves for changes in family relationships and relatives' well-being. Some victims’ child sexual abuse may become overly protective of their own children and grandkids. They are desperate to make their kids and grandkids feel sympathy for, and to ensure that their own abuse has no negative consequences for them.
It can also cause feelings of loneliness by disrupting friendship groups and leading to bullying or being talked about by others. Some victims of abuse have had their family connections harmed because their parents, siblings, or other members were aware of the sexual abuse but did nothing to stop it. Parents of victims are seen to be affected as well. Parents' mental disorders can be harmed because they blame themselves for being helpless and are unable to safeguard their children (Reiner et al. 2019). Some victims fear that the sexual abuse they experienced as children will make them unfit parents, or that others will regard them as harm to their own children.
There is no single metric by which a child can assess sexual abuse he or she has experienced. As a child, a person is oblivious of some things that he/she learns as time passes, so when he is a sufferer of child sexual abuse, he/she conjures up a variety of images in his/her head while living in fear. The impact of child sexual abuse and neglect on physical, psychological, behavioural, and societal results is studied on a regular basis. Mental implications might be seen in physical effects. Mental health difficulties lead to risky behaviours. Depression and anxiety, for example, may compel a person to consume, abuse, drink, or utilise illegal medications. Some of the major effects are,
Fear: CSA is such a heinous deed that it shatters a youngster's mind, and as a result, a child lives in the shade of terror and never escapes it (Boittin 2018). Most kid maltreatment is unreported due to children's fear of being taken away from the family.
Self-harm: Sexual abuse frequently results in anger toward oneself, such as self-blame, self-harm, and suicide. Those who were sexually assaulted as children are more likely to attempt suicide than the general population.
Sexual health: Being physically manhandled as a child, especially when the abuse is not discovered, might lead to perplexing notions about links and sexual habits.
Emotional harm: Victims of sexual abuse face a variety of medical effects, including sexually transmitted infections and infertility. These physical effects compound the abuse's significant emotional and mental suffering. All of these victims had a variety of issues, including anxiety, anxiousness, disordered eating, and attempted suicide. "Panic disorder", "psychological symptoms", "hyperactivity disorder", "post-traumatic stress disorder", and "reactive attachment disorder" are some of the other side effects of CSA.
Arrival of shame and guilt: In most situations, the attacker is able to persuade the sufferer that it is his own fault (Xu et al. 2018). Some persistent abusers engage in the same abusive behaviour repeatedly. It causes scars on the victim's body and spirit, and he/she feels guilty and ashamed. The person finds e it hard to inform anyone about the abuse because of remorse and humiliation of person commits suicide because of the terrible experiences that he/she had because of the maltreatment.
Post-traumatic stress: CSA can have a significant physical, mental, and sexual impact on a child. It may have long-term consequences for the child's physique (Motsa, & Morojele, 2021). If a youngster suffers multiple traumas to his body and spirit because of this traumatic experience, and their parents and caretakers ignore him/her, the child may develop "post-traumatic stress disorder". They do not increase their ability to believe anyone after being rejected by their well-wishers. In addition, a lack of appropriate counselling pushes individuals to face this issue more.
Abusive behaviours: The victim's behaviour deteriorates into abuse. That person is unable to trust anyone, which has a negative affect both his/her present and future lives. Approximately one-third of abused youngsters will go on to victimise their own children.
Reasons Behind The Sexual Abuse and Torture
The primary cause of this social problem is a lack of knowledge. The Indian government must take firm measures in this regard. The Indian society is thought to be unconcerned about sex education. Child maltreatment is on the rise in India, particularly in rural regions, because of these similar conditions. Another explanation for this is poverty. Due to their poor financial situation, the majority of families send their children to work at a young age. India's overcrowding is another issue (Joseph, & Bance, 2019). Poverty makes it difficult for parents to feed their children, forcing them to stop going to school. This is why there is an increase in illiteracy and child maltreatment.
Because Indian culture has always been patriarchal and dominant, a child is always under their protection and care. Furthermore, they utilise physical force on youngsters to chastise them, believing that this is beneficial to their growth. Many studies show that not only are single causes not to blame for child sex abuse, but that a combination of factors is also to blame for this heinous crime. Some of the most common causes of childhood sex exploitation are discussed in depth.
Poverty: Poverty is a major contributor to child sexual abuse. The majority of incidences of sexual abuse occur in low-income homes. There is a growing trend of selling children to meet their necessities. Parents frequently believe that because they have given birth to a kid, they have the right to place the child in a bond. It is not true that all incidences of child sexual abuse occur in poor homes; some cases occur in middle-class and rich families as well (Rocha-Jimenez et al. 2018). Adult abusers pretended to help truly needy youngsters, but instead reaped the benefits of them.
Illiteracy: Education is crucial to a child's future success. If this is not the case, everyone will suffer greatly. Because they are outside the shielding reach of school and provide assistance agencies, illiterate children are more exposed to abuse.
Poor Health Issues: Children with a mental illness, a learning difficulty, or a physical impairment are more likely than others to disclose childhood sexual abuse.
Homelessness: Children who have been homeless are much more likely to have experienced sexual abuse. Some of them are children who have been sexually abused at a young age. Spousal abuse, physical molestation, and other forms of relationship violence are common among these homeless kids.
Increasing Unemployment: Unemployment is also a significant contributor to child sexual abuse. It can also lead to divorce, alcoholism, poverty, and a variety of other issues. To cope with the stress of unemployment, a person may resort to any form of abuse, including sexual abuse (Reiner et al. 2019). Joblessness has a greater influence on young children, according to heterogeneous effects as this gives birth of depression and mental sickness, which directs towards sexual abuse.
Acquaintances: Children have a strong belief in the person with whom they are connected. They find it difficult to oppose his or her behaviour, even if it is unsettling.
Current Condition of The Situation
With regard to the country's children, the vision of the country's constitution makers was to ensure their extensive development, protection, wider benefits from their deprived and retrograde conditions, preservation of children through a decrease in rate of death, and involvement of children in the nation's overall progression. Four out of five kids are the victims of sexual abuse at an early age. It is sad to mention that despite the digital transformation and social development, people are still so sick that they target kids to harm. These are nothing but mental sickness. Parents must not be too strict or too casual with their kids. Kids who grew up with troubled childhood happen to be molesters in the coming life. That is why child support and sex education are so important.
Increasing Cases in The Rural Areas
According to statistics, children in rural areas endure more sexual abuse at home than those in urban centres. While 41% of youngsters in the poll indicated they had been slapped, almost 58% children said they had been slapped (Uzochukwu et al. 2021). According to the study, 34% of children had their ears pulled by elders, while 66% of youngsters had their ears pulled. While 45% youngsters reported they were put in a room, nearly 57% indicated the same treatment is applied to them.
According to a survey conducted in rural Maharashtra to assess the amount of sexuality and AIDS consciousness in a school, the majority of the girls believe that sex education should be offered at an early age because the age of puberty varies for each of them. Early understanding of sex and menstruating cycles would help children better comprehend metabolic responses and be equipped for the circumstance without feeling ashamed or guilty. According to the findings of this study, the majority of educators believe that sex instruction can be part of doing something recreational but not part of the syllabus.
Most of the child abuse case takes place due to the lack of education. Indian government must include sex education mandatorily within the course curriculum from the early schooling days. Conservative parents often hesitate to talk about sex with their children, which make kids more curious about their sex life. Improper guidance and lack of support from the elders are the reasons behind the increasing cases of child abuse (Li et al. 2017). Sex education must start from home. Parents must educate their children with honesty and patience. The more educated they will become; the less amount of curiosity will rise. That is the only way to get rid of the increasing child abuse cases. Parents must be well aware of their own actions as well. Children's mental troubles arise from their parents' relationship difficulties. Parents must control their actions for the sake of their kids as this can provide a negative impact on them and may lead to dark intentions in the future. In case, parents feel that their child needs help in such cases, they must consult a psychiatrist or put their kids in a "support session" for the betterment of their health.
The literature has performed a great understanding of child sexual abuses in India. Most of the literary sections have been picked in the subject of the cause and effect of child sexual abuse. A little more attention can be provided on the prevention strategy of child sexual abuse in India. Prevention strategies are usual; however, child sexual abuse prevention strategies in the Indian context seem to be missing hugely in this study (Iheanacho, Stefanovics, & Ezeanolue, 2018). The topic is mostly covered. However, the differences between the child sexual abuses in the past and in recent times are not described. The area is useful to drag the importance of Indian rural areas in increasing rate of child abuse. However, the proportion of child sexual abuses in cities is not rare, which has received least importance in this area. Government of India's policies to prevent child abuse is not mentioned in this study as well.
Given the facts and the outcomes of many past studies, the study has many data to back up the findings and study topic. Child sexual abuse is a global issue, not just a problem in one society. Child sexual abuse can have both short and long-term implications, including underlying injustices, psychological disturbances, cognitive impairments, educational challenges, low self-esteem, and self-harm, as well as the possibility of suicide. The abuser who used the children had a negative impact on his life and damaged his future.
The majority of incidents are recorded in families, schools, communities, on the street, and at work. Many victims are too young or defenceless to speak up about abuse or protect themselves. Even with so many legal measures and child welfare groups in place, if this crime continues to rise, everyone will be forced to take action. Adequate child safety policies and preventive measures are urgently needed to safeguard children from all forms of abuse. Such policies offer a secure environment in which a child can be cared for and thrive.