EBP107 Evidence-Based Practice Assignment Sample
Students are required to conduct an evaluation of one journal article in an essay format. The article may be the selected one used in Assessment 2 Article Summary task. Alternatively, you may choose to select an article of your choice from the range of research articles supplied for the previous Assessment 2 assignment.
This task requires using one of the critical appraisal tools supplied from a link below. Choose an appraisal tool that fits the chosen article to evaluation.
• CASP. (n.d.). CASP Checklists. Retrieved from https://casp-uk.net/casp-tools-checklists/
• Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM). (2014). Critical Appraisal Tools. Retrieved from
• Equator Network.(n.d.). Reporting guidelines for main study types. Retrievedfrom
• Joanna Briggs Institute (n.d). Critical appraisal tools. Retrieved from
The article evaluation must be presented in an essay format, with an introduction, body and conclusion.
The introduction must introduce the article, including proper referencing of the article, and a discussion about why you chose that article to evaluate.
In the body of your essay you must:
1. Use the critical appraisal tool you have chosen to evaluate all the sections of the research study, including the title, abstract and declarations.
2. Throughout the body of your essay you are to refer to the chosen critical appraisal tool and use additional references to support your evaluation. Subheadings may be used.
3.. Provide a referenced definition of Evidence Based Practice (EBP), and a recommendation as to how well the findings from this study may be incorporated into EBP. Give reasons and offer evidence to support your evaluation.
A brief discussion of the overall quality of the study with reference to the strengths and weaknesses as outlined in the body of the essay.
Referencing: It is essential that you use appropriate APA style for citing and referencing research. Please see more information on referencing here: https://library.torrens.edu.au/academicskills/apa/tool
Word count: Please include the word count - excluding in-text citations and reference list at the end of the assessment. Please adhere to the word count, if you exceed 1,500 words (+10%), the excess may not be graded.
Appendix: Include a copy of the completed critical appraisal tool as an appendix.
This study aims to conduct a critical evaluation of a journal through the assimilation of the CASP tool. Long et al., (2021) in this comment that CASP is a potent tool that is employed predominantly to assess the limitations and soundness of qualitative research methodologies. In this particular context, a journal is integrated that identified whether the consumption of eggs and cholesterol impacts the cardiovascular health of an individual. This particular article has been chosen here to know whether the consumption of egg is dangerous for the people having cardiovascular disease. The essay aims to bifurcate the legitimacy and transparency of the study and its applied method critically for best assignment help.
Employment of critical appraisal tool
To evaluate the essay critically CASP checklist has been incorporated as it embodies some prompt questions to assist the research study effectively. After going through the journal systematically, it can be said that the study from the very beginning made it absolutely clear whether the consumption of eggs and intake of cholesterol plays a vital role in the cardiovascular health of an individual. Additionally, the aims of the study clearly state that it aims to associate the study with cholesterol intake and morality rate from CVD in the US population.
In this particular study, the cohort is recruited in a coherent manner. The NIH-AARP study was a vehement perspective cohort that was integrated between October1995-may1996 when a questionnaire was forwarded to around 3.5 million AARP (Zhuang et al., 2021). The final analytic cohort consisted of around 500,000 participants and this particular study is assimilated as per the strengthening of the conducting of observational inculcation in epidemiology statement. Additionally, through answers to study-oriented mailing, the “US postal service national of address database”, and direct conversation with cohort members, all the participants were scrutinized for the changes in their address.
The researchers integrated data of 521,120 participants from the NIH AARP diet and health study while integrating a median follow-up of over 15 years to examine the impact of egg and cholesterol intake with specific morality. However, since it is a "randomized controlled trial with random modeling," the approximation cannot be considered to be entirely accurate.
The result demonstrated around 129,328 deaths including 38,747 deaths during the integration of median follow-up of over 15 years. It demonstrated that both whole egg and cholesterol intake were positively associates with all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality. Additionally, a multivariable adjustment model was integrated to minimize the bias to a comprehensive extent.
It was found that the additional half of a whole egg daily was around 1.07 for cancer, 1.07 for CVD, and 1.07 for all-cause mortality (Zhuang et al., 2021). Mathematically speaking if an individual consumes 300 mg of dietary cholesterol maximized around 19 percent, 16 percent, and 24 percent mortality rate associated with all-cause, CVD, and cancer.
The methodology has effectively integrated multivariable models and meditation models to individually examine the impact of cholesterol and egg simultaneously. In both cases, the statistical analysis puts forward a positive correlation of morality rate with consumption of eggs and dietary cholesterol. However, the approximation cannot be regarded as being truly accurate nevertheless, as it is a "randomized controlled trial with random modeling". Here, the confidence intervals give a "range of values" rather than a "single value" for the forecast, allowing one to assess the degree to which the conclusions of the study may be believed.
The follow-up has been maneuvered for more than 15 years (Zhuang et al., 2021). It enables the researchers enough time to establish the proficiency of their findings.
The result states that the intake of eggs and dietary cholesterol are closely intertwined with CVD, all-cause, and cancer mortality. Hence, all individuals must limit their cholesterol intake while incorporating egg white instead of whole eggs to lead a healthy life. In terms of the result, the table of Baseline Characteristics and All-cause Mortality has been mentioned properly. Additionally, the abbreviations and table headings were noted to retrieve accurate outcomes. The research examined and analyzed the relationship between the “consumption of eggs and cholesterol”, particularly in terms of morality from various causes among 521,120 participants with a “mean follow-up” of 16 years. The results are quite precise as the study utilized “cause-specific hazard models” for considering competing risks to calculate hazard ratios as well as 95% confidence intervals of “all-cause” and “cause-specific” mortality based on different categories of consuming egg and cholesterol. However, as it is a “randomized controlled trial with random modeling”, the approximation cannot be considered genuinely accurate. A “range of values” is provided here by the confidence intervals instead of a “single value” for the forecast, hence allowing to determine how much the research findings can be trusted.
The results of this study are identified to fit with other accessible evidence. It is so as the ultimate outcomes have demonstrated consistency with joint research of “6 prospective US cohorts”. The study has finally reported that consumption of an additional half egg/day is closely associated with an 8%, 6%, and 8% higher risk of CVD mortality, incident CVD, and all-cause mortality. Meanwhile, a similar pattern has been reported by the study for the association between consuming non-fried and fried eggs while observing an inverse alliance between consuming “egg-white substitute” with mortality. Therefore, underscoring the negative impact of “egg yolk” and “cholesterol” in premature deaths. The research has explained the clinical relevance well and it has been observed that the study would not exceed a statistical significance. Additionally, the “internal validity” of this research was high as it identified and presented the entire structure in an appropriate manner. The protocols were analyzed and approved despite the actuality that all the collected data have a significant value. However, the research is not limited to any particular population and can be applied to the local population. Additionally, the study is that its external validity failed to meet the standard level, though it has an enormous impact on the health and longevity of human beings. Therefore, it can be used for acknowledging and reducing risks associated with diet and lifestyle.
Critical evaluation of the appropriateness of the chosen cohort study
In this study, 521,120 participants were involved from all across the United States. The study has finally reported that consumption of an additional half egg/day can cause a higher risk of CVD mortality, cancer, and all-cause mortality. As stated by Zhuang et al., (2021), it is important to limit “cholesterol intake” and replace whole eggs with egg whites or other alternative sources of protein to facilitate “cardiovascular health” and “long-term survival”. On the other hand, Zhong et al., (2019) have included and analyzed 29 615 participants to shed light on the associations of egg consumption and dietary cholesterol with the “incident cardiovascular disease” and “mortality”. However, the result showed that a higher consumption rate of “dietary cholesterol” can increase the risk of incident CVD as well as all-cause mortality among US adults, particularly in a dose-response manner. Additionally, Panizza et al., (2018) have created “The Healthy Eating Index-2015” for assessing the accordance of dietary intake with the “Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) 2015–2020”. The result showed that there is an inverse association between high “HEI-2015 scores” and “risk of mortality” from CVD, cancer, and all-cause for both men and women. Moreover, Mazidi et al., (2019) have identified that there is no direct link between total as well as CHD mortality with egg intake in men and women. The study has also resulted that egg intake has a “reverse association” with stroke mortality among men, though it is not significant among women.
EBP is a procedure employed to review, examine and transcribe the latest scientific research. The key goal of this particular process is to integrate the best possible research into medical and clinical practices. It enables medical professionals to integrate informed decisions (do Vale et al., 2021).
The study integrates a positive correlation between mortality from all-cause, CVD, and cancer, and increased in-take cholesterol. However, they completely discarded the fact of the difference between good cholesterol and bad cholesterol. It integrated a hypothesis and considered cholesterol derived from the egg as LDL. On the other hand, the study also completely discarded that the majority of the cholesterol in our body is made by the liver itself. Hence, a series of discrepancies is prevalent in the present study. Numerous reports suggest that the cholesterol derived from eggs is not LDL. On the other hand, the liver is being stimulated to formulate cholesterol by saturated and Trans fat in our diet which acts as a prerequisite for the body (Li et al., 2020). Additionally, the nutrients present in Eggs such as Lutein, zeaxanthin, choline, and others work wonders for the eye and brain. However, it cannot be denied that the fried egg puts forward a positive correlation with bladder cancer. The risk is mitigated automatically when it is consumed or boiled (Chen et al., 2021). Therefore, one egg a day can be a belling in disguise to meet the prerequisites of protein, vitamins, and good cholesterol. However, people suffering from cardiovascular disease must take expert opinion and consumes it in modulation. It is also recommended that the egg must be consumed boiled rather than fried to mitigate the chances of cancer.
In this particular situation, a journal has been included that determined whether egg and cholesterol consumption affect a person's cardiovascular health. Since it is a "randomized controlled trial with random modeling," the approximation cannot be considered to be entirely accurate. However, the researchers integrated data of 521,120 participants who have been followed up of over 15 years to examine the impact of egg and cholesterol intake with specific morality, hence, the result of the study clearly shows a strong temporal succession between the research cohort and the result which shows the reliability of the research outcomes. However, since it is a "randomized controlled trial with random modeling," the approximation cannot be considered to be entirely accurate.
The confidence intervals in this case provide a "range of values" rather than a "single value" for the forecast, enabling one to judge how much the study's findings may be trusted. Hence, the recommendation has been modified after the identification of the gap in the study.
Chen, G. C., Chen, L. H., Mossavar-Rahmani, Y., Kamensky, V., Shadyab, A. H., Haring, B., ... & Qi, Q. (2021). Dietary cholesterol and egg intake in relation to incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in postmenopausal women. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 113(4), 948-959. Retrieved from: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-abstract/113/4/948/6040577[Retrieved on: 8/5/22]
do Vale, M. L., Buckner, L., Mitrofan, C. G., Tramontt, C. R., Kargbo, S. K., Khalid, A., ... & Ray, S. (2021). A synthesis of pathways linking diet, metabolic risk and cardiovascular disease: a framework to guide further research and approaches to evidence-based practice. Nutrition Research Reviews, 1-72.Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954422421000378[Retrieved on: 7/5/22]
Li, M. Y., Chen, J. H., Chen, C., & Kang, Y. N. (2020). Association between egg consumption and cholesterol concentration: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutrients, 12(7), 1995. Retrieved from: https://www.mdpi.com/760970[Retrieved on: 7/5/22]
Long, H. A., French, D. P., & Brooks, J. M. (2020). Optimising the value of the critical appraisal skills programme (CASP) tool for quality appraisal in qualitative evidence synthesis. Research Methods in Medicine & Health Sciences, 1(1), 31-42. Retrieved from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/2632084320947559[Retrieved on: 7/5/22]
Mazidi, M., Katsiki, N., Mikhailidis, D. P., Pencina, M. J., & Banach, M. (2019). Egg consumption and risk of total and cause-specific mortality: an individual-based cohort study and pooling prospective studies on Behalf of the Lipid and Blood Pressure Meta-analysis Collaboration (LBPMC) Group. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 38(6), 552-563. Retrieved from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/07315724.2018.1534620[Retrieved on: 8/5/22]
Panizza, C. E., Shvetsov, Y. B., Harmon, B. E., Wilkens, L. R., Le Marchand, L., Haiman, C., ... & Boushey, C. J. (2018). Testing the predictive validity of the Healthy Eating Index-2015 in the multiethnic cohort: is the score associated with a reduced risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality?.Nutrients, 10(4), 452. Retrieved from: https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/10/4/452/pdf[Retrieved on: 7/5/22]
Zhong, V. W., Van Horn, L., Cornelis, M. C., Wilkins, J. T., Ning, H., Carnethon, M. R., ... & Allen, N. B. (2019). Associations of dietary cholesterol or egg consumption with incident cardiovascular disease and mortality. Jama, 321(11), 1081-1095. Retrieved from: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/articlepdf/2728487/jama_zhong_2019_oi_190019.pdf[Retrieved on: 8/5/22]
Zhuang, P., Wu, F., Mao, L., Zhu, F., Zhang, Y., Chen, X., ... & Zhang, Y. (2021). Egg and cholesterol consumption and mortality from cardiovascular and different causes in the United States: A population-based cohort study. PLoS medicine, 18(2), e1003508. Retrieved from: https://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1003508[Retrieved on: 8/5/22].