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Environmentally Conscious Building Assignment Sample


Task: This assessment requires you critically analyses the system design process of a project using the theory and principles studied during the course. This assessment item relates to the course learning outcomes 1 to 5.

Details: You must provide a critical explanation of the conceptual design stage of a systems engineering project as part of this group Engineering assignment.

Designing a bridge, a dam, a green building, or a mechatronic system are some examples of projects. Even if you weren't personally involved in the project, having some connection to it would make the analysis more insightful. Because your group will have to analyses the project's preliminary design and detailed design phases for assignment 2, choose your project wisely. Consult your instructor if you are unsure whether the depth or level of information in the project you have chosen is appropriate. The lessons for the unit will give you the chance to work on the assignment as well. Each group must complete a unique project. Additionally, initiatives from prior years cannot be used again.

The following project phases must be analyzed:

• Needs definition
• Conceptual system design

When analyzing the project, you must consult pertinent sources like journals, books, or renowned trade publications in order to show that you have done your homework and understand the topic. Additionally, you must analyses the proposed conceptual design in light of the specified needs and requirements and present the case study in terms of the aforementioned two lifespan phases.


In order to effectively balance the employment of bioclimatic methods with extremely active systems, energy efficiency inside of buildings necessitates a comprehensive design approach. Buildings that are responsive to the environment and the climate are intended to mediate outside elements to lessen climate load and produce a comfortable and healthy internal environment. There are greater chances now for comfort-sensitive ways to use passive tactics, particularly for natural ventilation. The research that follows aims to advance our understanding of how to effectively apply bioclimatic structures to achieve the best energy performance in residential buildings and to build environmentally responsible buildings by utilising a number of parameters and currently available processing models. Madrid's residential districts follow a master plan created using sustainable practises. Buildings that are environmentally conscious have been designed using certain general guidelines. Building energy efficiency criteria have been rising over time, according to various new energy rules or regulations following the European Energy presentation directive. By analysing several dimensions, materials, and architectures, this study was able to pinpoint the initial design of Madrid residences. By creating better circumstances, this study will offer a useful architectural strategy.

Introduction: The concept outlined in this study intends to reduce energy usage and produce an environmentally friendly structure that uses less energy for cooling and heating. Both exterior spaces and structures can benefit from bioclimatic strategies and passive control methods. They consist of a strong solar radiation management system, thick heating and insulation, building orientation, and the organisation of interior spaces according to direction, as well as nighttime natural ventilation. Load-bearing brick walls and ventilated hardwood roofs make up the construction; the materials were chosen in accordance with the LCA. Domestic water will be heated using solar panels. A high efficiency condensing boiler and a low temperature radiant heated floor make up the heating system. Floor bright panels can be used for cooling thanks to the bioclimatic method, even if there isn't a true need for it. A large portion of energy use is caused by buildings. About half of the energy used in Spain is used by buildings, which also reflect cultural traits like the climatic and physical surroundings of Madrid. The goal of bioclimatic structures is to produce ecologically responsible building environments while achieving the functional goals of the climate and a healthy environment. Madrid's climate is known as the Mediterranean climate and is considered to be mild. The ocean's influence causes the coastal region to have a comfortable temperature, whereas the interior has a higher thermal amplitude. In June, Madrid typically experiences daytime highs of 26°C (80°F) and nightly lows of 22°C (69°F). As a result, it has been exposed to both hot and cold weather. Therefore, in order to achieve a green environment, the strategy for environmentally friendly residential structures should highlight the appropriate function of building levels and the physical construction of a building.

Fig 1: Exploded view of a linear house

Fig.2: Ground floor: distribution and use of spaces.

Fig 3: Bioclimatic Building Image Source: dezeen.com

Problem Definition: Prior to beginning the preliminary design process, it is important to identify and take into account the primary site requirements and characteristics, such as the climate, vegetation type, topography, and soil geography. With the use of basic hydrothermal systems, natural light, and insulation, bioclimatic buildings aim to reduce the energy requirements of buildings and contribute to the creation of a comfortable environment. In addition, it's important to prioritise the landscape and figure out how to include ecologically friendly building practises. One of the key elements that may contribute to the development of a bioclimatic design setting is natural ventilation. In this method, heated air is treated using vents that are located above the height of the shaded surface, which allows for the intake of cold air (Albatici and Passerini, 2011).

Mission Definition: This study aims to design environmentally friendly or energy-efficient structures that fit into Madrid's environment, surveying their relationship to the climate, achieving thermal comfort levels, and maximising interior comfort environments with the aid of bioclimatic structures or design elements. Its goal is to integrate bioclimatic architectural design to conceptual building design in order to choose efficient pre-design strategies to harness natural energy from certain climates and environments and produce energy-efficient and locally produced buildings. By gathering data on important metrics that will indicate the success of passive thermal behaviour and its performance, it will be possible to identify the tools and needs that will aid in developing the first approach to building design (Alcázar and Chávez, 2014).

Performance and Physical Parameters: Natural cross-ventilation is a feature of Madrid homes, which helps to keep rooms at a consistent temperature. The house's glass exterior faces south, allowing for consistent natural lighting and solar radiation capture. The house's back, which faces north, is closed off and has a door and a little window. It is necessary to insulate the north and place the vents in the southwest, typically near the shadow plants. The naturally suited interior area as well as the enclosure's quality should be used to reduce the need for greater mechanical ventilation. A multi-level atrium that radiates heat in the winter should be used to combine additional solar energy with shading equipment that is facing east. The environment-friendly building's exterior must be prepared while taking into account the movement of the sun, the surrounding area, and the direction of the wind. Openings, a variety of shaded facades, varied floor layouts, and sloping surfaces can all help achieve this, which encourages the use of more photovoltaic panels (Ayyad and Gabr, 2013).

Utilization Requirement: In accordance with the tenets of bioclimatology, homes are regarded as open structures that freely interact with the climate, offer the most benefits, and offer protection from adverse elements: the direction and shape of important architectural components are influenced by the sun-air interaction. As a result, the interior layout will be based on a three-zone plan, with the main space (the living room, kitchen, and bedroom) facing south and linking channels running vertically and horizontally through the middle, and auxiliary spaces (such garages and storage rooms) facing north. This design is great for maximising health and energy performance (Bajcinovci and Jerliu, 2016). To maximise free heat gain during the heating season while maximising summertime sun protection, a variety of strategies should be used. These include transparent surfaces and overhangs, balconies and roof projections, solar views, 3D models, and solar views. The design as a whole is defined by a single ventilated roof that slopes north, reducing the area of the north wall and increasing the area of the south facade; for a related reason, the size difference also impacts the windows.

Environmental Factors: Prioritize eco-friendly materials, assess through life-cycle assessments (LCA), and, as with the entire project, the best answer is through pre-analysis, in this case, using dynamic and multi-zone thermal simulation tools (Bourrelle, Andresen, and Gustavsen, 2013). Appropriate economic activities and good environmental practises are frequently closely intertwined. In addition to helping Madrid's environment by conserving resources and lowering emissions, actions to reduce energy or water usage will also result in significant cost savings over the course of the environmentally friendly building's lifespan. Similar to this, the environment is anticipated to be full of enduring private and public structures that may restrict both building area and material supply. The technical designing team must perform a thorough research to maintain the environmental aspects to ensure that the chosen design fits the available area without the requirement for additional walkways to enter the bridge from both ends.
Conceptual design

Location of the Bioclimatic Architecture of Environmentally Conscious Buildings

The chosen site is Madrid, a Spanish metropolis. Three different townhouses make up the residential structure (Cho, Soster and Burton, 2017). The structure has a door pillar architecture with unbreakable concrete columns, beams, and plates. A slab floor with a bottom plate no thicker than 4 cm and a cover plate no thicker than 10 cm is put in an air chamber that is entirely vented. A building's exterior is made of masonry that is about 20 cm thick and covered in a polystyrene system that is about 8 cm thick (Dryvit). The building's inertia and sound are increased by the solid, separated walls. The building's opening has a lower level of structural sunshade and an upper layer of an outer canvas awning, and the windows are double-glazed with a wooden frame and interior blinds to offer shade and improve the building's shadows in the summer (Danilovic-Hristic, 2012).

System Requirements: In order to maintain environmental health and address thermal comfort, it is important to take into account solar geometry, natural ventilation, the position of the sun, and localised identification of the predominant winds. requisites for the bioclimatic design system

The Madrid example study indicates that the southerly direction is the best area for capturing solar radiation in the winter.

Keeping exposed external walls to a minimum protects them from cold winds (Desogus, Felice Cannas, and Sanna, 2016).

Fig 4: Natural ventilation Image source: neatafan.co

The sum of all direct, ambient, diffused, and reflected radiation is known as solar radiation. The amount and intensity of radiation on the building is also influenced by the position of the sun. The total intensity of the sun's rays is the same in both summer and winter, though. The height and shape of the building must also be taken into account. For architectural design that encompasses the south-west axis, the rectangular shape is adequate. Buildings chosen for Madrid that are environmentally sensitive are rectangular and have proportions of 30 m x 12 m for bioclimatic architecture (Gaitani, Mihalakakou, and Santamouris, 2007).

Operational Requirements

User Behaviour: In order to guarantee the proper operation of the bioclimatic residential building interior design, user behaviour must be taken into consideration as a crucial aspect. The primary elements impacting thermal comfort are planning, total volume, heat load, or window size (Guimaraes, 2012).

Internal space positioning within the building envelope: The building's functional design is programmed. So correct programming based on energy consumption and direction placement capabilities can help bioclimatic buildings use less energy.

The best construction tools for the building include automatic doors and elevators. using the most recent breakthroughs and technologies, such as the door to assist create and supply energy (Khambadkone and Jain, 2017).

Project feasibility: The architectural layout, orientation, total size, thermal isolation, and component quality are taken into account when estimating the conceptual design's viability. Additionally, it entails locating variables crucial to the building's thermal performance.

Design Alternatives

Strategic design option 2: Solar windows, which have high structural performance because they let in more sunlight in the winter and assist concrete floors retain heat. To prevent overheating in the summer, they can be switched off. Open blinds can be used in conjunction with solar walls to assist warm up and maintain the flow of chilly air outside. The outer wall's surface cools at night, warming the building. Warm air cools as it enters the gap in the upper wall.

Strategic design option 1: This technique offers a great deal of flexibility in terms of energy savings from underused space. However, due to the intricate departure and input systems, it is exceedingly challenging to change the ventilation rate in this kind of space. Additionally, if a portion of the system is turned off, it will also affect how quickly adjacent regions are ventilated. However, because heat recovery is not included in this strategy, its energy efficiency is constrained. Additionally, the building's design is insufficient for incorporating the idea of natural ventilation, and the atrium's orientation and placement are not conducive to energy conservation. Due to the entrance and exit openings, the natural ventilation planning during construction has a significant impact on the facade (Marques and Baptista, 2013).

Strategic option 3: Passive systems are frequently used to maximise energy savings, which decreases the demand for active systems and lowers the cost of the building. For instance, using air conditioners has become exceedingly difficult due to bioclimatic tactics including solar control, thermal mass, and nighttime ventilation. This result was predicted by dynamic thermal simulations, and it has recently been confirmed by locals (Poerschke and Gampfer, 2013). The building's outside shell, when linked with an appropriate plant system, generates an effective damp heat response to climate change year-round and offers significant health and energy efficiency benefits. This is in addition to sensible solar air impact management (Naveen Kishore and Rekha, 2018).

Fig 6: Sun air impact summer control

Daytime roof ventilation, heat storage, and solar radiation protection; nighttime radiative cooling and natural ventilation to reduce thermal mass.


The Madrid project is an example of a well-balanced compromise between the drive for continued development and the interplay between the market and rules. In the author's opinion, it reflects a very successful experience in which sustainable and ecologically sensitive building concepts have been applied to the common Private initiative. It is the highest quality level that is now possible at the site and period in question. Therefore, this demonstrates that the battle against pollution and the protection of natural resources cannot only be solved by spectacular solutions; rather, the biggest opportunity to succeed in this problem is the ability to implement straightforward yet logical solutions in daily practise.


The use of a bearing brick structure that offers insulation and inertia as well as adequate ventilation has been decided to be the most effective way, which is also acknowledged in the regional architectural tradition. The walls are different depending on the direction: to the south, a large wall with diffusing insulation uses and controls solar radiation; in contrast, the north wall building package also includes a completely insulating layer since it is preferable to limit heat loss (Zhang and Lian, 2015). They show that the quality of the walls and floors contributes to a more consistent climate and continues to lower energy needs during the winter, but most importantly during the summer, especially when combined with all other passive cooling technologies, like night ventilation, at temperatures where it is advantageous to cool the stored heat down (Figure 5). Residential distribution is thought to make it simple to cross-ventilate, which is more effective than just one side. To prevent heat loss in the winter and overheating in the summer, the roof structure has low heat transmission and is properly ventilated.


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