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HAS108 Health Assessment Sample

Individual/Group Individual
Length 2000 words (+/- 10%)

Learning Outcomes

The Subject Learning Outcomes demonstrated by successful completion of the task below include:

b) Identify and demonstrate interview techniques used to enhance communication during history taking

c) Discuss ways to incorporate health teaching as part of the health assessment

d) Perform a thorough and accurate holistic health assessment

e) Discuss the importance of understanding the diversity of society and cultural safety approaches that influences the approach to healthcare

f) Recognise elements of the development of person centred care plans

This assessment requires you to answer 3 questions. The questions are the same for each character however, given the different circumstances, socio-economic and medical histories of the characters, each case study is to be uniquely considered.

Short Answer Questions for case study assignment help -

1) Using resources provided in this subject, identify and explain what information is needed to a gain a more comprehensive past history for your chosen video character. Consider the patients level of health literacy and cultural safety issues in your answer.

2) Based on the information given for each character, identify and explain what abnormalities/concerns you can identify in the physical observations and patient history.

3) Identify and explain what additional physical assessments are needed in order to facilitate a diagnosis for your chosen character, and identify and describe what body systems need to be explored further.


PULSE: 70 bpm (resting), 100 bpm (on exertion).


RESPIRATION: 18 (Theo reports thick secretions, ‘worse when getting up in the morning’, primary auscultation- audible moist cough that Theo states ‘is hard to get rid of’).

SaO2: 95% room air (RA)

WEIGHT: Body Mass Index (BMI) 16.

BP: 100/70 mmHg


GENERAL APPEARANCE: Dishevelled, tooth decay, nicotine stained fingers, initial visual inspection

Theo observed to have to have minimal body fat.

Mobility: ambulant does not appear to have any deficits.

Urinalysis: Leukocytes ++. Slight Specific Gravity increase of 1.010.


1. Title and a brief summary

Personal Improvement Plan

From this project, it can be understood that my BMI score is increasing gradually (32.4). This is quite high. So, to improve my health, I have set an aim to reduce my weight by 5 kilos in 5 weeks and increase my daily walking by 10,000 steps more daily. In this project, I have steed various ways through which I have achieved this aim of mine.

2. Introduction - Why did you choose this project?

a. Problem description

My major problem is my increased body weight. I need to lose some weight since my Body Mass Index (BMI) is much higher than what is considered healthy for someone of my age and height (health.gov.au, 2021). My doctor says that the back discomfort I've been having is related to my weight gain and that my latest blood test reveals an increase in cholesterol. As a result of my recent commitments, I have been too busy to maintain my usual level of physical activity. When I was routinely going to the gym, at least twice a week, I never had the back issues I'm having now. After a consultation with a nutrition specialist, I will also make certain lifestyle adjustments under my power, such as giving up junk food and switching to vegetables and fruits.

This is a major issue. According to data from the World Health Organization (WHO), in 2016, over 1.9 billion adults were overweight, and over 650 million were obese. In the same year, 41 million children under the age of 5 were overweight or obese (Who.int, 2021). The prevalence of obesity has more than tripled since 1975, and it is a major risk factor for several chronic diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer (Who.int, 2021). The increasing prevalence of obesity has been attributed to several factors, including changes in diet, sedentary lifestyles, and environmental factors.

b. Available knowledge

From my problem, I understood that I have a major issue with obesity. Previously I did not know the negative impacts obesity can have on our bodies. After some, I understood that one of the most significant impacts of obesity is an increased risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain types of cancer. Obesity can also lead to physical limitations, such as reduced mobility, joint pain, and difficulty performing everyday activities (Gibbons et al. 2019). In addition, obesity can negatively impact mental health, leading to depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem.

c. Rationale

Lewin's Change Management Model is a framework for managing and implementing change within an organisation. The model consists of three stages: unfreezing, changing, and refreezing (Bashori et al. 2020). The unfreezing stage involves preparing anything for change by creating awareness of the need for change and breaking down the existing mindset and habits. During this stage, I will develop my aim to reduce my weight and enter into a healthy lifestyle. The changing stage involves implementing the change, which may involve changes to organisational structure, processes, or culture. During this step, I will change my eating habit and regularly go for a walk to make up to 10000 steps daily. Finally, refreezing involves stabilising the new changes and embedding them into the culture (Cone & Unni, 2020). Under this step, I will make new changes, such as consuming vegan foods and giving up on meat.

d. Aims statement

My proposed aim is to “Reduce my weight by 5 kilos in 5 weeks and increase my daily walking by 10,000 steps more daily”.

3. Methods - What did you do?

a. Context

Previously when I did a check-up, I understood that my BMI score was 32.4, which is higher than a normal person's. With a score above 30.0, I understood that I have obese. A high body mass index (BMI) score indicates being overweight or obese, and it can have several negative impacts on an individual's health. A high BMI can increase the risk of developing chronic health conditions such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, stroke, and some types of cancer (Dadar Singh et al. 2022). However, after fulfilling my aim, my BMI score decreased to 26.2. Though it means that I am overweight, I have completed my goal and will focus on having a healthy weight range in the future. To measure my BMI. Firstly I used a scale to measure my weight accurately. Before stepping on the scale, I was sure to remove any heavy clothing, shoes, or accessories. I recorded my weight in kilograms (kg). Then, I used a measuring tape or a wall-mounted height rod to measure my height accurately. Next, I used the following formula to calculate my BMI: BMI = weight (kg) / (height (m))^2. Finally, I interpreted the data and determined my BMI.

b. Intervention/s

To ensure that I can lead a healthy lifestyle, I will take various measures. The interventions include walking 10,000 steps more daily. I will also ensure that I will consume less junk food and healthier food. This will be done by including more fruits and vegetables in my diet. Eating junk food regularly can lead to obesity, which can increase the risk of developing chronic health conditions such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and some types of cancer. Junk food can also negatively impact mental health, leading to depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. The tools that have been used to measure BMI in this project are digital or analogue scales to measure weight accurately, a measuring tape to measure height accurately, a calculator or a BMI chart to calculate BMI based on the weight and height measurements and BMI apps that use the height and weight inputs to calculate BMI automatically. It is important to note that BMI is not a perfect indicator of an individual's health, as it does not consider factors such as muscle mass, body composition, and overall fitness level. Therefore, it should be used as a general guideline and not as a definitive measure of an individual's health.

c. Measures

I want to keep track of the following for a week or two before I start my 5-week programme to establish a baseline. The data from these items will be used as part of my benchmark.

? My BMI

? Average calories I consume in a day

? Factors include the number of drinks I have each week, the amount of coffee and water I drink, and other things.

? In the course of my normal, regular strolls

? What I eat in terms of produce daily

? My consumption of high-fat, high-sugar, and high-salt meals

I just had a blood test done to get a sense of how my blood is doing right now, and I want to do another one at the end of the five weeks to see if anything has changed.

d. Analysis (if relevant)

From the entire effort given, I have witnessed that, to a certain extent, I was able to improve my health condition. Previously I was obese, but after achieving my aim, I saw that I had become an overweight person. Previously my BMI score was around 32.4, and after achieving my goals, the BMI score reduced to 26.2. My BMI score was reduced by 6.2 scores. This was a huge achievement for me. However, another goal of mine was to walk 10,000 steps more daily. This was not possible for me. With my maximum effort, I could only make up 5000 steps more daily. I tried to control my junk food craving and started having only vegetables and fruits. However, it seemed impossible. So, to please my taste buds, my nutritionist gave me permission to have junk food once a month. In the future, I wish to control all these cravings and keep a target of becoming a healthy person with a normal BMI score.

e. Ethical considerations

Losing weight was a personal goal for me, but ethical considerations need to be taken into account. I ensured that I did not use fad diets or extreme weight loss methods. This is because it can be dangerous and harmful to health. Another ethical consideration is the pressure to conform to societal beauty standards, which can lead to body shaming and discrimination against people who do not fit those standards (Brytek-Matera et al. 2019). Additionally, there is a concern about weight bias and discrimination in healthcare, which can affect the quality of care that individuals receive. It is important to approach weight loss in an ethical and responsible manner, focusing on health and well-being rather than conforming to societal expectations or harmful weight loss methods.

4. Results - What did you find?


Figure 1: BMI Score Improvement
(Source: Author)

The table above shows my improvement in BMI score week-wise. The BMI score in 5 weeks has been stated above. From the graph above, it can be seen that my initial BMI score in week one was 32.4, it can be seen that my BMI score in week two was 31.9, it can be seen that my BMI score in week three was 29.6 it can be seen, that my BMI score in week four was 27.3 and it can be seen that my BMI score in week five was 26.2. From the graph, it can be witnessed that my improvement from week one to week two. However, from week two to week three and week three to week four was quite impressive.
Steps covered

Figure 2: Steps Covered
(Source: Author)

The table above shows my improvement in steps covered week-wise. The steps covered in 5 weeks have been stated above. From the graph above, it can be seen that I covered around 2000 steps more daily in week one, it can be seen that I covered around 3210 steps more daily in week two, it can be seen that I covered around 4200 steps more daily in week three, it can be seen that I covered around 3600 steps more daily in week four and it can be seen that I covered around 4980 steps more daily in week five. From the graph, it can be witnessed that my improvement from week one to week two. However, from week two to week three and week three to week four was quite impressive.

5. Discussion – What does it mean?

a. Key findings

Losing weight was a challenging task for me, and it was not uncommon to lack motivation at times. There are various reasons I struggled with motivation when it came to losing weight. It was due to a lack of my self-discipline, not seeing results fast enough, or feeling overwhelmed by the process. The main reason was due to the absence of a support system. Losing weight was challenging, and having a support system of friends or family can make the journey easier. Again, it was due to a lack of enjoyment in the weight loss process. When exercise and healthy eating became a chore, it was easy to lose motivation. Finding an activity or food that I enjoy can make the process more enjoyable and sustainable. It was not uncommon to hit a weight loss plateau, where weight loss stalled even with consistent efforts. This was discouraging and led to a lack of motivation for me. For me, eating is a way to cope with stress, anxiety, or other emotions. Breaking this habit was challenging and led to a lack of motivation. Initially, I did not know how to lose weight effectively, which led to frustration and a lack of motivation. Understanding nutrition and exercise was important for success.

b. Interpretation of results

From the entire process, I have understood the negative impacts of junk food and unhealthy lifestyles that can hamper the human body. With excessive consumption of junk food and an unhealthy diet, I became obese with an increased BMI score of 32.4. From research, I understood that according to my age, my BMI score was quite high compared to normal. So, to focus on my health, I developed a plan and set an aim of losing 5 kilos in 5 weeks. After 5 weeks, from the data presented above, it can be stated that I have improved a lot, although I still have to take more action. However, I witnessed that there are still many areas of improvement that I have to focus on. For example, in week three, my steps covered was 4200, whereas, in week 4, it was around 3600. This reduction in the steps was because of my busy schedule. I was so engrossed in my office that I could not give much time to my health. Due to a meeting, I had to delay my walking time. This issue was resolved in the next week as my steps covered increased to 4980. However, this did not have an impact on my BMI score in week 4 because I kept my diet intact. I did not consume any junk food and only ate vegetables and fruits.

c. Limitations

One of the major challenges that I faced while doing this project was searching for a good nutritionist who could guide me in this journey. Another issue that I faced while doing this project was giving up on my favourite food. This was initially very difficult for me as I used to live on junk foods. Losing weight also required lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise and healthy eating habits. These changes were initially difficult for me to implement and maintain. I also received unsolicited advice from others about their weight loss journey, which can be unwanted and demotivating.

d. Conclusions

This project has positively impacted me as I was able to improve my health and lead a healthy life. I could improve my diet and avoid junk foods that were hampering my health.

Losing weight reduced the risk of chronic conditions and improved my overall health. Carrying excess weight can put stress on joints, making it difficult to move around. Weight loss helped me to reduce this stress, making movement easier and less painful. My back pains were alos reduced. It also helped me to reduce or eliminate sleep disorders, leading to better sleep. I will work to maintain a healthy weight range in the future, even if I am now overweight. I want to become a healthy person with a normal body mass index score in the future by controlling my junk food cravings.

6. Critical reflection

My realisation of how unhealthy my life has been was one of the surprises I encountered throughout this transition journey. Although I've always held the opinion that nutrition has no direct connection with back pain, I was surprised to see that various writers have focused on the causes of back pain (Pasdar et al. 2022). The more I've dedicated myself to making this transformation, the more I've learned about various diseases, and health conditions that I may face in the future or that may enhance the chances of their occurring. As a result, people are more likely to believe that they can avoid the ill effects of any area of their lives by just making an effort to do so.

Over the first three weeks of putting the change into action and treating the issue, I mastered the insights that led to its success via in-depth research and concentration on the main keywords involving health, BMI, contributing factors and causes, and prevention. Pain in the axial lumbosacral region, pain in the radiculopathy, and pain that is transferred from elsewhere in the body are the three most common causes of low back pain (Urits et al. 2019). Back pain affects between 10 and 30 per cent of adults in the United States in any given year. This realisation has motivated me to continue taking preventive measures and making efforts to ensure that I do not become one of the many people whose day-to-day activities are hampered by back pain brought on by the additional weight they are carrying, which is the case for me because of the additional weight I am carrying. (Attention is paid to preventive measures)

In addition to this, I came to the conclusion that before I could consider the new method to be completely functioning, it would need a significant amount of time and effort on my behalf to include all of these new aspects into my routine and maintain a record of them. I neglected to carry out what are known as "initial background studies." I should have spent more time researching the issue before making a change, such as how to take into consideration my age in the transition process or how difficult my exercises would be during the first week due to lactic acid and agonising pain in my body. I should have done this before making a shift. When a change is launched, one of my study interests is to investigate the influence of factors such as social pressures, structural adjustments, and preparation for change (Rogerson et al. 2016).

What went right:

- Results are seen during the first three weeks

- I felt better in general (Back pain, general happiness, and similar)

- There wasn't a lot of variation in the process I mapped.

- As a result of my investigation and implementation of the structured change, I now understand the issue better and am less resistant to future adjustments (Kept my motivation high)

? The responsibility for the transition and the difficulties lay with me.
I feel that I have gotten a great lot of insight into the process, and if I were to do it again, I would probably change it so that it is relevant to a wider range of situations. Despite the fact that the change I decided on is extremely individualised, I would want to expand more while yet being focused on the same topic matter.
If I were to carry out this project once again, there are a few aspects of it that I would change in order to guarantee that I get the results I want and am able to classify it as a triumph.

- Some of my measurement tools may be off, so I will have to upgrade them.

- I want to investigate transformation projects of greater length, during which I expect to include outside parties for advice and guidance.

- Nothing else will be ruled out entirely at this time.

- In the process, I will examine rewards.

- I plan to evaluate a potential shift in my lifestyle on many occasions, taking into account the potential influence of external factors like climate, season, and time of year.

? I'd analyse my plan's immediate and distant outcomes.

In addition to this, I would consider how the medication would influence my eating habits, what kind of assistance from the outside world I might need in order to be really effective if a customised or standard solution would be preferable, and the total cost of the process (Chang et al. 2017). 


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