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MIS605 Systems Analysis and Design Case Study 2 Sample

Task Summary

Based on your responses to Assessment 1 – Written assessment, perform process and data modelling and develop and document a number of design diagrams using UML (including Context Diagram, Level 0 and Level 1 Data Flow Diagram, Entity Relationship Diagram).

Scenario (The Case)

Book reading is an extremely healthy activity. It has many benefits and above all, it is exciting, entertaining and a great way to release stress, anxiety and depression. These are not the only benefits. Above everything; book reading helps in mental stimulation; improvement of memory and it also helps in improving language skills. It also certainly allows an individual to help concentrate better. In short, the benefits are enormous.

In recent times we have been introduced to technologies such as laptops, cell phones, tablets and other technologies but to date, the conventional book reading is something that people cherish and enjoy in its own way. It is believed that a “book has no substitute” and book readers from all over the world firmly agree to this.
Cynthia, a young technopreneur and a book lover; plans to open an online lifestyle substitute business named ‘bookedbook.com’. This online business is Cynthia’s dream. Cynthia has formally registered her new company, everything is in place from a legal perspective and the company now has ample funds to develop an online website that would support Cynthia’s business idea. bookedbook.com would be an extremely interesting website. This website will require user registration. Children would also be able to register but their registration would be accompanied with some details of parents and their contacts. The website would only offer individual registrations and proof of ID would be a must when registering. bookedbook.com will offer quarterly, biannual and annual memberships.

The whole idea is very simple. Registered book readers would be able to launch the books that they own and which they would want to give away to other registered members. A book launch would require complete details of the book. It would also require the user to provide the address where the book is available. Once the book details are provided by the subscriber (registered book reader) the company’s content manager would approve the book launch request. Once approved, the book would be available for all users for them to review and/or acquire. The review process would allow all users to provide feedback and comments about the book and would also allow users to rate the book. The acquisition process would allow book readers to acquire the book from the book owner.

The users planning on acquiring the book, would make a request for book acquisition. This request would help facilitate book reader meetup and exchange books. Once the book would be acquired the book owner would have the option of removing the book.

Bookedbook.com will also allow users to interact with one another via messaging and chat rooms. Users will be given an option to decide the mode of communication that they would prefer. Off course all chat request, messages and acquisition request and all other messages are also provided to the user via email that is provided at the time of subscription.

The website would also provide a portal to the administrator for data analytics. Cynthia is keen to observe and analyse every type of data that is obtained at this website. For example, she wants to know which book is being exchanged mostly, she wants complete customer analytics, book
exchange analytics, analysis of book reviews and rating and other similar portals for data analysis.

As soon as the user registration would expire, all book launch requests would be halted by the system and the users interested in acquiring the book(s) placed by the user whose registration is about to expire would be sent an email that these book(s) are no longer available. Users would be asked to renew their subscription 15 days before the registration expiry date to ensure continuity of services.

Cynthia does not want this website to be a book exchange platform only. She also wants the website to provide a platform for all the users to arrange for an online and face to face meetup. She wants to ensure that any book meetup events that bookedbook.com plans should be available to its users.

Users should be able to register for these events which may be paid or unpaid. She feels that these meetups would be a great source of fun for book lovers and also a source of marketing for the company.

In order to ensure this website stays profitable Cynthia also wants this website to allow book authors from all around the world to advertise their books on bookedbook.com. This functionality, however, would not require book authors to register with bookedbook.com formally. Book authors would be able to just fill in a ‘book show request form’, provide their details, provide the details of their book and a credit/debit card number. They would also provide information about the time period for which they want their book to be advertised on the website. Advertisement requests would also be approved by the content manager. Once approved, the book authors would be charged and the advertisement would go live. The ad would be removed by the system automatically once it reaches the end date. bookedbook.com will only allow advertisement of up to 5 books at a time. All advertisement requests would be entertained by the system on a first come first serve basis. The advertisement functionality is also available for subscribers. In this case the fee for advertisement is very minimal.

Cynthia wants this website to be upgradable and secure. She wants simple and modern interfaces and also wants a mobile application version of this website.


1. Please read case study provided with assessment 1. Please note that every piece of information provided in this case study serves a purpose.

2. Please complete the following tasks:

Task 1.

Create a Context Diagram for the given case study.

Task 2.

Create and document a Level 0 Data Flow Diagram (DFD). The Level 0 DFD should contain all
the major high-level processes of the System and how these processes are interrelated.

Task 3.

Select three important processes from Level 0 DFD, decompose each of the processes into a
more explicit Level 1 DFD.

Task 4.

For the given case study, provide an Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD).
For the given case study, identify the data stores including the files that are not part of ERD.

Task 6.

Translate the ERD you developed in Task 4 into a physical relational database design.

Document database tables and their relationship in MSWord file. Normalise your database design to the Third Normal Form (3NF).

Please note that your responses to the tasks above must relate to the case study provided.



The case study deals with the online lifestyle substitute vision of young technopreneur named Cynthia. The bookedbook.com website is concise with features like user registration, advertisement, data analytics, review and book acquisition. The booked book. For Assignment Help com aims to serves as a platform for the book lovers all across the world. This website offers authenticity via series of procedures followed up for user registration. This platform allows the one user to interact with other via messaging and chat rooms. This assignment has designed the database to store the data precisely dealing with user, book, advertisement and other entities provided. The rest of the assignment is organized as such, context diagram, Level 0 Data Flow Diagram (DFD), Level 1 Data Flow Diagram (DFD), Entity Relational Diagram (ERD) and at last Schema design up to 3 Normal Form (NF).

1. Context Diagram

The context flow diagram is diagrammatic representation of the system (Sciore, 2020). The CFD has a centric bubble, drawn in the epicenter of the diagram. The rest of the interconnected processes encloses this context bubble. Arrow headed lines with labeling states the flow of information. CFD gives out the high-level view without going into the details of it. This is how data hiding is achieved via CFD. CFD unlike other diagram is not for technocrats or engineers. It is to be used by project stakeholder therefore should be designed as simple as possible. Pros and cons of the Context Flow Diagram are follows:


• CFD makes error listing easy and handy.
• If helps to trace out the rough sketch of the project straightforwardly.
• There are no limitations to the shapes that are used to depict CFD. Any preferred symbols can also be used. No hard and fast rule exists.
• This do not ask for any technical skillset to understand.


• Context flow diagram fails to lay down the sequence of the process happening. By the sequence it means parallel execution of the project processes or sequential processing of the project processes.

• CFD diagrams are erroneous. Since they are just a high-level depiction without venturing about the detailing of the process happening.

• Context flow diagram fails to display out the all the detailing involved in the process. Moreover, to present out the exact relationship in CFD is also very difficult. Therefore, the need for more explained ER diagrams were felt. Unlike other diagram CFD do not go for well-defined meaning for the geometric shapes used in it.

Context Flow diagram in respect of proffered case study is delineated in figure 1.

Fig 1. Context Diagram

2. Level 0 Data Flow Diagram

The Level 0 DFD (Harrington, 2016) depicts high-level processes of the system namely, advertisement, user registration, book acquisition, review and data analytics and others. The major components of DFD are listed below-

- Processes – It is represented by rounded rectangle.

- Data Flows - It can be represented by straight line with arrowhead. The direction of arrowhead represents the flow direction.

- Stored data – It can be represented by two horizontal and parallel lines including a label mentioning the database name.

- External Entities – It can be represented as a rectangle.

The diagrammatic representation is depicted in figure 2.

Fig 2. Level 0 DFD

a. Advertisement

In the context diagram advertisement process depicts the two types of labeled flow. Internal flow labeled as "Payment", towards the context bubble, ventures the payment revenue generated by the bookedbook.com via the advertisement displayed on the website. External flow labeled as "Provide slot", outwards the context bubble, asks for the time period for which their book has to be advertised on the website. The advertisement process allows the authors from all over the world to advertise their book on bookedbook.com. This process does not ask for the registration. Authors have to fill the 'book show request form' along with time period and payments.

b. User Registration

The website bookedbook.com offers its website visitors to get themselves registered. The user registration process asks users for ID proof in the return website gives registration number to the user. The arrow headed line pointing towards the context bubble labeled as "ID proof" depicts the ID proof requirement asked by bookedbook.com for the authentication purpose. The arrow headed line pointing outwards the context bubble labeled as "Provide Registration Number" depicts the allotment of registration number to the user via the portal. Children are also allowed to register. The nitty gritty for their registration process will also be the same. In addition, they will be asked for parents’ details and contact number. Registered book user is allowed to launch the book they own. The registered user can give away book to other registered members.

c. Book Acquisition

Book acquisition process allows the book reader to acquire the book from the book owner. The user has to make a request first for the book acquisition. This request facilitates the smooth meet-up and book exchange process to happen. The user can remove the book after the successful book acquisition. In the context diagram this process depicts the two types of labeled flow. Internal flow labeled as "Approval", towards the context bubble, marks the approval of the book. External flow labeled as "Details", outwards the context bubble, provides the details of the required book.

d. Data Analytics

In the context diagram Data Analytics process depicts the two types of labeled flow. Internal flow labeled as "Analysis Result", towards the context bubble, this provides the results, done on the given dataset to website administrator. The prerequisite for the results to be generated is dataset generated on the website. External flow labeled as "Data", outwards the context bubble, this provides the dataset for the analysis. The data is broadly centric to customer and book. This includes all possible type of data generated like whichever book is exchanged most, which one is reviewed best and other related information.

e. Review

The review bubble depicted in the context diagram and Level 0 data flow diagram allows the user to provide feedback and comments about the book. The rating of books is generated. This review mechanism serves the purpose for data analytics. In the context diagram Review process is presented inside the bubble. The two-arrow headed line one pointing outwards from the main context bubble, labeled as "Related Data" and other one pointing towards the main context bubble, labeled as "Feedback" depicts the types of functionalities happening.

3. Level 1 Data Flow Diagram

Three important processes from Level 0 DFD are decomposed further and stated below. The Level 1 DFD are presented as follows:

a. Level 1 DFD (Narayanan, 2016) for User Registration in accordance with the case study provided is depicted in figure 3a.

Fig. 3a. Level 1 DFD for User Registration

b. L Level 1 DFD (Narayanan, 2016) for Book Advertisement in accordance with the case study provided is depicted in figure 3b.

Fig. 3b. Level 1 DFD for Book Advertisement

c. Level 1 DFD (Narayanan, 2016) for Book Launch in accordance with the case study provided is depicted in figure 3c.

Fig. 3c. Level 1 DFD for Book Launch

In Level 1 DFD, the processes of level 0 DFD are further decomposed in sub-processes. It is used to show the internal processes of the major/trivial process of level 0 DFD.

4. Entity Relationship Diagram

ER diagram has three main components: Entity, Attribute and Relationship (Cooper, 2013). ER diagram uses several geometric shapes to portray out different meaning to entities involved. Unlike context diagram where the high-level functioning of the process is depicted, ER diagram lays down all the nitty gritty involved in relation with the process. The required entity relationship diagram for the given case study is depicted in figure 4.

Fig 4. ER Diagram

5. Schema design up to 3NF

ER diagram depicted in above figure is served as one of the fundamentals of physical relational database. Some of the relational schema (Date, 2019) is described below.






PR and FR stand primary key and foreign key respectively.


The relational schema is considered to be in first normal form if the attributes hold only the atomic values, i.e., no attribute may have multiple values. (Gordon, 2017). Basically, multivalued attribute is not allowed.

The following table is not in 1NF.

This can be converted into 1NF by arranging the data as in the following table.


The relational schema will be considered as in 2NF if and only if both the following conditions satisfies. The schema must be in 1NF (First normal form). There must be no non-prime attribute that is dependent on the any subset of candidate key of the schema.

A non-prime attribute can be defined as an attribute that is not the part of any candidate key.

Example: Consider the following table for example.

This table is in 1NF but not in 2NF, because ‘Age’ is non-prime attributes and is dependent on User ID, which is proper subset of candidate key. Thus, we can break the table in 2NF as-



Schema to get into the third normal form must needs to be firstly observed in second normal form. Moreover, it should not hold transitive functionality. Transitive functionality reflects the dependency of non-primitive attribute on that of the super key.

Mentioned above are only necessary conditions for any relational schema to be considered as in third normal form.

Example: Consider the following table for example.

This table is in 2NF, but not in 3NF as the attributes Book ID and Book Name are transitively dependent on super key User ID. Thus, we can split the table as follows to make it in 3NF.



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