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MGT602 Business Decision Making Process Case Study Sample

Your team is to consider the decision challenges facing the Japanese government and the International Olympic Commission to run the revised 2021 Olympic Games in Tokyo in August 2021 in a Covid infection environment.

The team is to look at this specific business issue only that stakeholders face and critically analyse and evaluate alternatives to address that issue. Your team will need to look at the relevant decision-making models that are or may be utilised to address the issue. Your team will need to propose a list of recommendations to address the issue. You must support your research with relevant data and use appropriate visuals to enhance the report.

What do you have to do

Part A.

Group report of business decision making process up to 3,000 words;

• Risk to athletes of Covid infection
• Managing international visitors
• Controlling potential outbreaks
• Protecting the local population from infection
• Should the Games proceed or not, as a part games or full games format.?

Part C. Individual reflective Up to 200-word self-reflection

This assessment has been designed to:

• Apply decision-making systems and techniques in a group
• Interrogate and interpret a range of data analytics pertinent to a relevant contemporary organisational challenge, decision or change of strategy.
• Apply and evaluate those systems and techniques to support effective decision making in organisations.
• Engage as a team to present your findings in a visual, oral and written format that critically evaluates the decision making process in a contemporary organization.

Part A: MGT602 Assessment 2 guidelines 3000-word report.

This assessment draws on learning activities and resources from Modules 1-4. It is designed for you to analyse a corporate case study and the decision-making process using only theories and concepts from Business Decision analytics.

You should consider in researching and preparing your case study report the following:

• The problem detailed by your learning facilitator

• Background to the case

• Collection of relevant internal and external data sources that the organization may have used in the decision-making process

• Identification of the key person or persons making the decision

• Analysis and influence of individuals and group dynamics impact on the decision making

• Analysis of the decision-making process considering all theories and concepts discussed in Modules 1, 2, 3 and 4.

• Visual interpretation and presentation of relevant data / trends/ patterns 


Part A: Group report


The entire report is based on the issue of conduction a revised Olympic in August 2021 in this Covid-19 situation. The commission of the Olympics and the Japanese government tries to resolve these crucial issues. For Assignment Help, The team members of this report try to use some typical theories with the help of which a base can be created that can help anticipate or mitigate the issue. Hence, the submission is all about finding the ways through which the issue of executing Olympic 2021 mitigated and also the health quality of people can be safeguarded typically. Some significant theories used in this report are the rational model that deals with the environment where the issue is privileged and the capability of people to resolve the issue. This rational theory deals with the step-by-step procedure to make a significant decision that can help solve a particular problem.After doing critical analysis on the issue and also after applying the relevant theories, the conclusion arises is that government bodies of Japan need to take the appropriate precautions that can help the athletes of Olympics to safeguard their life, and also the authorities need to aware of people about the execution of the plan that can help people to protect themselves from the adverse effects of Covid-19 impact. The submission is structured in different sections where the first section represents the group report, the second section represents the presentation of the analysis, and lastly, an individual reflection is included in this submission.

Analysis and evaluation

Background of the case

Covid-19 pandemic created a crisis in every sector of human lives from economy to health. The entertainment and sports sector are also hampered due to episodes of lockdown and travel restrictions imposed in different parts of the world. The nature of the novel Coronavirus and its contagious effect has created chaos and compelled to suspend sports activities. In the midst of this pandemic, a crucial decision is taken by the government of Japan and the International Olympic Commission 2021 to conduct Tokyo Olympics 2021 on revised dates of August 2021. Several challenges will be faced as it will enhance the risk of the athletes and the international visitors. The mass gathering may lead to a potential outbreak of the disease, and proper decision making is necessary to ensure the safety of local and international visitors. According to recent updates, the state has declared an emergency, and the Olympics will be held without fans. Tokyo has confirmed 896 new cases that have led to this emergency. Highly transmittable recent Coronavirus variant is the reason for imposing travel restrictions and keeping countries like Indonesia, Kyrgyzstan and Zambia on high alert. Visitors are not following safety measures and not wearing masks that create more issues (Japantimes, 2021).

Identification of key personnel in decision-making

The decision-makers involved in organising Tokyo Olympics are the government of Japan and the International Olympic Committee. The government has decided to conduct the opening ceremony without spectators, and only VIP guests will be allowed in the ceremony. Night events after 9 PM and significant venue events will be held without spectators. Guest lists have decreased in the opening ceremony from 10,000 initially due to a sudden increase in Covid-19 cases (Indiatoday, 2021a). The Japan Government is reluctant about the commencement of the sports as it could jeopardise the health and safety of local people, visitors and the participating athletes. Still, they have a contract with IOC, and only they have the right to cancel the game. Environmental protection and social responsibility have heightened the need for organisations and industries, and it has become one of the essential themes (Kannan, 2018).
Collection of data sources

The data sources regarding the decision are related to the opinion of the employees of IOC and the government of Japan. These are the internal data sources. The external data sources are relayed to newspaper articles, opinion poll according to the survey of common people and health experts across the globe. The decision-making process of the stakeholders in this situation is related to social responsibility as the Covid-19 pandemic can disrupt the health system of the country. The decision-making process is influenced by the data and information available and also prior experience of a situation. Tokyo has been significantly struggling from the new variant where more than 7000 people are daily affected, and seriously ill patients are straining to hospitals in metropolitan areas (Indiatoday, 2021b). However, recently, the emergency measures have been decided to relax as the number of cases is dropping and the situation is under control.Nevertheless, the government decision of holding the Olympics is still constantly being questioned and criticised by health experts and ordinary people. A political agenda behind this decision is considered before the elections, and that is the reason why the government is not backing out of its determination of conducting the event. Japan's vaccination rate is a little more than 8%, and it is an alarming situation as the country is going to host Olympics in recent times (NBCnews, 2021).Almost 70% of the population of Tokyo is against this game, but the government does not have the right to cancel as the responsibility solely lies with IOC officials (Illmer, 2021). Al the above data sources are relevant for the organization to end up in taking a proper decision.

It is vital for the country to increase the vaccination rate for protecting the local population from getting affected when the Olympics starts and foreign people, guests along with athletes, starts to appear in the city. Two dose vaccination of frontline workers is only 75% which indicates that they are likely to fall prey to the dangerous Covid-19 virus (Tsukimori, 2021). These statistics must influence the decision-making process of conducting the Olympics. The government must take necessary actions to increase their vaccination so that they can be ready to welcome the Olympics in 2021. It is the foremost responsibility of the government, and also other supporters and private institutions must come forward in improving the conditions in Tokyo. Machine data sources and file data sources can be used by companies with the help of which the company can make significant decisions. Also, the annual reports, financial reports can be used to make decisions that can help to address a potential issue.

Influence of group dynamics and individuals on decision making

A decision-making process regarding the Olympic games lies in the control of the IOC and the government of Japan involving the other sponsors like several sports brands. The different stages of group dynamics developed by Tuckman are forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning. The first stage is the formation of the group when the individuals come together. The next stage is storming, when conflict and uncertainties appear within the team, and the people do not know each other properly in the initial stages. In the norming stage, the conflicts resolve, and the next stage is about the performance of the individuals. The adjournment phase is the final phase when the group task is completed, and the group is redeployed. In the group stage, a decision-making process is possible when the team settles and performs together. Negative behaviour in the workplace affects team performance and hampers group dynamics, and strategies must be used for mediating such effects (Ammentorp& Madden, 2018). The Tuckman theory is also applicable in decision making process of Olympics organization where after conflicting stages, the final decision of conducting the event has taken place (Olofu, Kanu &Ugochigborogu, 2020).

My teammates and I utilised the model mentioned above in order to come to a certain decision that the Olympics should proceed or not in this pandemic situation. Among the 4 members of the group, two members suggested that the Olympics should not be executed this year and the Japanese government should postponed the schedule of the event. However, the other two members stated that the Olympics should be executed with appropriate precautions. This conflict delayed our work to came to a certain result as concerning the voting two people voted for a result, and the other two people voted for another result. Therefore, we have analysed the matter to a greater extent in order to derive a solution or decision. It is found that the political agenda of the government and also the commitment of the IOC officials. A bias regarding Japanese government politics exists in this case. They are not ready for taking off the event; the people and some employees may have conflicting ideas and a struggle about power. Moreover, the final decision of IOC is considered, and the decision was to conduct the Olympics by considering all the security measures. The health condition of athletes and ordinary people must be kept in consideration during the commencement of Olympic events. People entering from several countries may be carriers of the infection, and it is essential that they are tested for the Covid-19 virus before entering the country. Vaccination papers need to be submitted by athletes and foreign travellers for safeguarding the local population. By considering all these aspects, it is finally determined that the Olympics cannot be cancelled as the economic condition is also at stake. Several sponsors and also daily work of labour forces in Japan are involved. Even after dilemmas, conflicting opinions related to safety and security, the event is finally decided to be held without spectators in the venue. Therefore, we come under a certain decision that the Olympic game should not be executed in this year as it can not only harm to the stakeholders of the event but also it can harm the local people of Japan. The Japanese government should consider this matter and postponed the schedule of the game.

Analysis of decision-making process

Decision-making is a theory that defines how a rational individual must behave under the situation of risk and uncertainty. It involves series of activities starting from problem identification, collection of information, define alternatives and select options considering the risks associated and expectations of gain. Decision-making models are divided as rational and intuitive (dual-process approach), and the latter can be further divided into the experience-based and emotional models (Kaufmann, Wagner & Carter, 2017). The different theoretical processes and model that will be discussed for decision-making are the rational model, model of bounded rationality.

The rational model- A rational model has completely informed decision making as described by neoclassical microeconomic theory. The stages or steps of decision making includes intelligence which is to find occasion for decision making, design dealing with planning and analysing the outcomes of a decision. This choice is selecting a particular course of action and review by assessing the past outcomes of the decision.

The model of bounded rationality- Rational individuals believe that all the information must be available, but it is not possible. The concept of bounded rationality is based on two concepts, the task environment and the computational capabilities of the individuals. The problem is divided into a small area so that it becomes feasible to search. The two aspects are searching and satisficing. If one of the searched alternatives satisfies the maximum criteria, it is considered satisfactory. Bounded rationality offers more clarity and circumspect assessment of factors when rational choices are limited (Battaglio et al. 2019). A bounded reality model is most effective where the information must be taken properly, and the solutions need to be considered after evaluating all the options. Olympics is a global event, and a rational decision with a bounded number of choices must be considered. As human s cannot have all the information, they utilise the available resources to make the best possible decision (Simon, 1955).

The problem-solving approach can be practical to secure the foreign as well as a local population from the covid-19 outbreak. A massive gathering due to Covid-19 is possible, which is dangerous for the whole country, and the aim of performing the Olympics is not the main criteria; the decision can be cancelling the event or taking proper measures to stop the spread of the virus and control the excessive spreading due to human interactions and allowing people to enter Tokyo city. Organisational procedures are not relevant at the time of the global pandemic, and also, precedence of cancelling Olympic events is standard during World War. So, a decision to altogether cancelling the events can be possible in this situation.

The decision-making process remains a constant battle between the two or more parties or groups. Sometimes one group wins, and sometimes the other. The difference between opinion and power games constantly continues, and the people are interested in their agendas or perspectives. Societies formed by the principles of subsidiarity can take better political decisions that are justifiably correct. In the view of Akinci & Sadler-Smith(2012) the made decision should be in-line and satisfy the demand of a certain situation.A political power play is visible as the government is not cancelling the event just before the elections. A political view can continue, and a final decision may not be achieved. A more ethical approach is necessary as human lives are concerned. It must focus on the positive outcomes of a larger population and not limited to political agenda and positive results for a limited group of people. IOC must come forward and provide their insight depending on their experiences and taking into consideration the information about present situations of Covid-19. The individual differences consider the difference of opinion and the managing style of the managers, their leadership methods, decision-making process. Every person is different, and they approach the issues differently with decision making. Individual perspectives are not applicable as a collective group decision is essential when a situation like the Olympics is concerned. It is a global event, and the decision making of individual officials is not acceptable. Considering the viewpoint of the population must also be considered when making the decision about conducting the event or altogether cancel it.

The naturalist Decision-making process can be used for addressing national and international, emerging and current societal challenges (Hoffman & Klein, 2017). The decision is taken based on the individual goal the situation can achieve. The decision-maker recognises a course of action through mental stimulation. The naturalistic approach will be more effective when the decision making has a good experience associated with it. Brainstorming and more thinking is related if the problem is not familiar and the decision needs to be taken after thinking a lot and when the decision is complete and acceptable.

The situation concerned here is about the Covid-19 pandemic situation, and much life can be at stake with the decision of the Olympics at Tokyo when some highly transmitting variants are affecting the population. The decision was taken after a bit of stability due to the vast amount of vaccination drives and natural immunity-boosting of the ordinary people and the athletes. However, the situation is again alarming, and the government has again announced that no spectators are allowed in the auditorium for track and field events. (Lootok, 2017). In the case of Research and Development projects, the intuitive model is used in the earlier phases, followed by the political decision-making model and then finally using rational decision making in the last stages of the innovation process (Kolbe, Bossink& de Man, 2020). In the case of decision making related to the Olympics, rational and intuitive decisions can be helpful by analysing the current statistics of the Covid-19 virus across the world and make a proper decision considering the health dynamics of the nation and also economic conditions.

Concerning the outcome, by applying the decision-making models, it can be stated that the Olympics need not occur this year. The various eave of Covid-19 pandemic devastated the lives of multiple people who are not encouraging the authorities of Japan and Olympic to execute the event this year. It will be better for the commission of the Olympic game to execute the event after sometimes when the pandemic situation will be controlled and no other waves of Covid-19 will arise in any nation. Various people who will take part in the game may create problems for the resident of Japan that will not result in any positive aspect for the people in Japan. However, the Japanese government and Olympic commission need to execute a meeting where they can discuss the matter and make a crucial decision that will consider the negative aspect of conducting the game.


As per the above discussion, it can be concluded that the government bodies of Japan need to make crucial decisions for conducting the Olympics safely in the nation. Hence, the findings of this report can be taken into account by the government bodies of Japan and the Olympic commission. The findings can help the authorities to safeguard people life appropriately. The authorities should also consider the models discussed above in order to execute their objective. The group members shared their viewpoints, due to which it is found that in this pandemic, not only the conductors but also the athletes should be taken precautions in order to play their game and achieve the goal properly. Henceforth, the theories should be taken, or the findings of the report should be taken into account with the help of which the issue can be resolved appropriately. Every group member contributes to this report correctly which helps to meet the objectives and also finish the submission on time and showcase the findings. My teammates have contributed critically to the decision-making process, and they also assist me in deriving the epitome of the study. However, we have also faced various contradictory situations that my teammates and I handled critically. We have applied the decision-making models in order to solve the problem also. Lastly, it can be suggested that the Olympics should not be proceeded by the authorities this year as it will not play a positive role for the players as well as local people in Japan.


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