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PUBH6013 Qualitative Research Methods Assignment Sample


This assessment addresses the following learning outcomes:

c) Apply qualitative research methods through undertaking data collection through, e.g. focus group, interviews, observational methods.

d) Appreciate cultural and ethical considerations for qualitative research in Public Health

e) Understand sampling techniques, bias and rigour as they apply to qualitative research

f) Apply coding and analysis techniques to qualitative data


Analysis: Use the resources in module six to:

1. Code the data that you collect from your interviewees.

2. Develop themes based on your coding.

3. Report on the themes that you’ve identified, supported by relevant quotes from your interviewees. Report this part in the same style as the results section of a qualitative journal article.

Reflection: reflect on your experience of interviewing and analysing the data. What did you do well, and what did you struggle with? What could you learn to do better? What did you learn through this experience?



The current research is about the reasoning behind the diabetes among the Australian indigenous community. The research question is significant to identify the main reason of Diabetes and its effect on the life-expectancy among the Australian indigenous community. The primary research based on online papers gave a set of organised data but cannot fulfil the criteria of the research on likelihood of diabetes. The likelihood criteria can be derived from interviewing questions on selected participants. The current research proceeds with the data analysis based on interviewing. The interviews have been taken as face-to-face session where the researcher can notice the expression and actions while responding to a question. This will help a researcher to develop coding because the reaction of the respondents help enables researcher to develop their perceptions. While transcribing an interview, the researcher find some physical gesture and give better answer to a question, rather than their verbal expression. In this paper, the development of coding and theme development will be analysed in this way, on the proposed research.

Analysis and findings of interview

The study reflects a participatory action approach for conducting their interview sessions. In these interview sessions, the participants are selected from the local healthcare who have good knowledge on the health of indigenous people. Unlike the primary research, the participatory actions find out some surplus data which can create the challenge of diversion (Crosley & Jansen, 2020). The researcher is able to highlight only the relevant data while developing coding for the research.


The first step of coding is familiarization. It is conducted by transcribing the recording of participants’ interviews (Cristancho & Helmich, 2019). From the interviews of healthcare participants, the research finds out that the Likelihood of diabetes, obesity and hypertension occurs mostly in mid-aged females whereas most of them are pregnant. The same respondent informed that most of the diabetic women are from aboriginal ethnicity. Another participants respondent that he has observed the likelihood of death in diabetes is mostly among Torrens-islanders while the general mortality rate of these community is better than the non-indigenous. It implies that the indigenous people have better life-expectancy rate than the non-indigenous but they are prone to suffer in Chronic disease which slows down the dying process. From another respondent, it is drawn that the indigenous people refuse to take the primary healthcare as they believe in their traditional medicines. A team of respondent who were treating on the narcotic patients informed that the consumptions of alcohol is higher in indigenous patients compared to the non-indigenous populations. It implies that the alcohol can be a major cause in diabetes. After checking all the notes, the coding is developed in this way:

Developing codes

Notes taken from interview transcriptions


the prevalence of diabetes, obesity and hypertension occurs mostly in mid-aged females. Most of them are pregnant aboriginal women.

           Likelihood of diabetes

           Likelihood of obesity

          Likelihood of hypertension






likelihood of death in diabetes is mostly among Torrens-islanders while the general mortality rate of these community is better than the non-indigenous.

           death in diabetes

           diabetes likelihood


           mortality rate


indigenous people refuse to take the primary healthcare as they believe in their traditional medicines

           indigenous people

           primary healthcare



           traditional medicines

the consumptions of alcohol is higher in indigenous patients compared to the non-indigenous populations

           Alcohol consumption


           indigenous patients

           non-indigenous populations


Developing Themes

In the coding process, the research gathers the raw data of Diabetes disease of indigenous people. In the theme developing process, it will reach to the actual meaning derived from the raw data set (Caulfield, 2020). By looking on the patterns of the codes, the study will combine the codes into the theme. The unnecessary codes will be eliminated while the main codes will be categorized by matching their patterns. The eliminated codes can also be combined into a theme but the researcher has to remind that the data which are relevant in regards to the research objective, only taken (Crosley & Jansen, 2020). This indicates an inductive coding while giving importance to the didactive data indicates the didactive coding. Here the data that concludes the research question, ‘the likelihood of diabetes among Australian indigenous populations’, reflects inductive coding. The data those take part in addressing common symptoms of diabetes or alcohol addiction of aboriginal people, captures different broader contexts. These are called didactive coding. The didactive codes can form themes which are not relevant to this current context. For example, the diabetics patients have common diseases like obesity and hypertension. This will create less impact while developing strategies to prevent diabetes. This can be used as symptoms. The reference of females and their age group is important to this research because it will help in medicine research (Radcliffe et al., 2020). Now the study shows how it develops themes by mapping the relationship between codes.



·         Likelihood of diabetes

·         Females

·         Mid-aged

·         Aboriginal


Likelihood of diabetes among mid-aged aboriginal females.

·         Likelihood of diabetes

·         Females

·         Pregnant

·         Aboriginal

Likelihood of diabetes among pregnant aboriginal females.

·         death in diabetes

·         diabetes likelihood

·         Torrens-islanders

The likelihood of death among Torrens-islanders in diabetes

·         indigenous people

·         primary healthcare

·         diabetes likelihood


The primary healthcare of indigenous diabetic patients

·         indigenous people

·         traditional medicines

·         diabetes likelihood


The use of traditional medicines in indigenous diabetics.

·         Alcohol consumption

·         indigenous patients

·         diabetes likelihood

Alcohol consumption among indigenous diabetic patients



From the above table it can be shown that the meaningful codes are only used which can answer the problem of this research. It avoids unnecessary themes development like mortality rate among indigenous; mortality rate among diabetics; mortality rate among alcoholic; alcoholic among indigenous; and chronic disease among diabetes. The purpose is to locate the genetic DNA of indigenous and their likelihood of developing diabetes, which is detected through this research.


As the research is conducted in a cross-cultural environment, as a researcher I feel it is very necessary to take some ethical consideration of the research. Before making any decision, I should check my biasness to any culture. Through out my research, from data collection to decision making, I am on the track of moral behaviour and justice. I have maintained the respect for all the cultures discussed in this research. Also, I select participants of healthcare from various cultural backgrounds. They were both from Indigenous and non-indigenous background. It helped me to check the consistency of their statement. Also, I tried to put the social context of indigenous people which is often ignored in the health research. I have drawn this from value coding. My research is not bounded within men, rather I have mentioned the special needs of women health in the research of Diabetes (Goins et al, 2020). I felt the inclusion of woman is very necessary in this research as the healthcare of the marginalised woman is overlooked or challenged in Australian society. I have mentioned the need of primary care among diabetes patients as I observed from the transcriptions of participants that the indigenous women often do not get the primary care in the time of child birth. From the conversation of the respondents, I came to know that the social belief among indigenous are profound. They believe in traditional medicines. So, they refuse to take the help of primary healthcare which I have highlighted in my research. I have addressed the habit of drinking among indigenous patients because alcohol can be a major driver of diabetes. I have to consider the ethical challenges of a social research as it is not purely a medical research.
Being a researcher, I am obliged to keep confide the names of the participants, their healthcare organizations and the patient’s personal case history data given by them. During the research I used my personal laptop for recording their video, as I need to watch their physical expressions also. I found it is helpful in this research as most of the participants are from different cultures and languages. Some of them have no clarity of speaking but they try to express the meaning. For this reason, a visual observation is important.


Developing codes and themes are important to make a research question. In this study, we observe only didactive coding which ideates many references. It helps to assess the proposed idea that whether diabetes occur more in indigenous. An inductive coding will answer it by gathering and connecting all the data. An inductive coding helps to reach to the conclusion of a research question and used in getting a research theory out of codes. Though the initial target of coding is to interpret the data and familiarise the data, it also reflects the value coding which indicates the cultural value through the health attitude of indigenous people.While moving from coding to analysation, the core topic qualitative data analysis comes. The researcher analyses the data and locates the code categorization. The categorization and data set of codes combinedly develop themes. The inductive coding gives a proper answer of the research question that there is a genetical connection between Diabetes and Indigenous community.


Caulfield, J. (2020). How to do thematic analysis. Scribber. How to Do Thematic Analysis | A Step-by-Step Guide & Examples (scribbr.com)[5th Aug 2021]

Cristancho, S. M., &Helmich, E. (2019). Rich pictures: a companion method for qualitative research in medical education. Medical Education, 53(9), 916–924. https://doi-org.torrens.idm.oclc.org/10.1111/medu.13890

Crosley, J., & Jansen, D. (2020).Qualitative Data Coding 101:How to code qualitative data, explained simply.Gradcoach. Qualitative Data Coding: Explained Simply (With Examples) - Grad Coach [5th Aug 2021]

Goins, R. T., Jones, J., Schure, M., Winchester, B., & Bradley, V. (2020). Type 2 diabetes management among older American Indians: beliefs, attitudes, and practices. Ethnicity & Health, 25(8), 1055–1071. https://doi-org.torrens.idm.oclc.org/10.1080/13557858.2018.1493092

Radcliffe, P., Canfield, M., Lucas D’Oliveira, A. F. P., Finch, E., Segura, L., Torrens, M., & Gilchrist, G. (2020). Patterns of alcohol use among men receiving treatment for heroin and/or cocaine use in England, Brazil and Spain. A cross-country analysis. Drugs: Education, Prevention & Policy, 27(4), 297–305. https://doi-org.torrens.idm.oclc.org/10.1080/09687637.2019.1658715

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