MANU2117 Integrated logistic support Management Assignment Sample
a. Select a logistics/transportation or manufacturing system of your choice and describe the applicable life-cycle phases and activities, tailoring your description to that system.
b. As best you can, identify life-cycle activities that occur in the waterfall model, the spiral model, and the “vee” model. Of these models, pick the one you prefer for your selected model and explain why.
Identify a specific logistics/transportation or manufacturing problem that you wish to solve through the design and development of a new system (must select a different problem from Question 1 above problem). For your system: (2 points for each part)
a. Describe the current deficiency and identify the need for the new system.
b. Discuss the various alternative technical approaches that you may wish to consider in designing the new system.
c. Define the basic operational requirements for the new system.
d. For the selected problem, develop operational functional flow block diagram to the third level.
Logistics system includes those functions, associated primarily with the forward flow of activities illustrated in the figure below, involved with the initial acquisition (procurement) of items from various sources of supply, the flow of materials throughout the production/ construction process, the transportation and distribution of products from the manufacturer to the customer (user), the sustaining on-site customer service as required, and all the related business-oriented processes (e.g., accounting, financial management, information flow, money flow) necessary to ensure that the entire flow is effective and efficient. A simplified illustration of this flow is presented in the figure below. The figure shows different paths that may be utilized depending on the requirements; that is, materials shipped from vendor or supplier to manufacturer, manufacturer to warehouses, warehouses to end-users or customers and so on. Given a top-level definition of the logistics system through the functional analysis, the system has been broken down into components or subsystems and lower-level elements such as raw material suppliers (vendors), manufacturers, warehouses, end-users or customers, transportation system, and so on. The challenge is to identify individual functional requirements and associated resources on an independent basis. Consider the following data are available for designing the logistics system:
Product: Motor Generator for industrial use, Total annual demand = 5,500 units of motor generator, Production capacity of a single manufacturing plant = 2,000 units per year (maximum capacity), Potential Location of Manufacturing plants = in Asia (e.g. China, India, Thailand, Vietnam, etc.), Potential Demand Centres are based in Western Europe and North America (USA, Canada and Mexico), Potential Location of Vendors or Raw Material Suppliers are in Asia and North America, Transportation Systems used to transport raw materials, finished product (generators) = trucks, rail line, ships (waterways), Loading and unloading machines used at Warehouses = Fork-Lift machines, conveyors (heavy duty), Total number of end-users or customers (or demand centres) = 5,
Maximum Warehouse capacity to hold items (generators) = 1,500 per warehouse per year,
Maximum capacity of trucks to transport generators = 25 generators per truck per trip,
Maximum capacity of rail line = 150 generators per trip,
Maximum capacity of cargo ships = 1,000 generators per trip,
Volume of raw materials consumption per unit of generator manufacturing = 3* volume of a generator, Raw materials are carried using the similar modes of transportation, but no warehousing is required, Transportation Cost from raw material supplier to Manufacturer = $3.5 per generator volume by truck, $2.0 per generator volume by rail line, and $1.25 per generator volume by cargo ships, Transportation Cost from Manufacturer to Warehouses = $4.0 per generator by truck, $3.0 per generator by rail line, and $1.50 per generator by cargo ships, Transportation Cost from Warehouses to end-user or customers = $3.0 per generator by truck, $2.0 per generator by rail line, and there are no waterways for cargo ship transport, Assume that the assembly line equipment requirement at the manufacturing plants, raw-material suppliers’ sites, and warehouses have already been designed and installed and you do not need to calculate it. Complete the requirement analysis for the above logistics system and determine the resources (both equipment and manpower) required. Analyze it using the Concepts and ideas covered in the class lectures and relevant chapters in the textbook and reference book. Use as many notes, references and case studies as you can get hold of and need to. You can make reasonable assumption for any missing data, but you need to use the given data in the calculations (if data is given above).
Cairns Airport is one of Australia's leading regional airports, providing both international and domestic flights while being the gateway to Northern Australia. It is the seventh busiest airport in Australia. The airport is located 4.3 km northwest of Cairns or 7 kilometres north of the Cairns central business district, in the suburb of Aeroglen.
At Cairns airport in Queensland, Australia, it takes on the average 5 minutes to land an aero-plane, once it is given the signal to land. The landing time is exponentially distributed. Although incoming planes have scheduled arrival times, the wide variability in arrival times produces an effect which makes the incoming planes appear to arrive in a Poisson fashion at an average rate of 6 per hour. This produces occasional stack-ups at the airport which can be dangerous and very costly. Under these circumstances, how much time will a pilot expect to spend circling the field waiting to land? If the aviation controller wants to reduce the maximum time spent circling the field waiting to land to 5 minutes, what is the optimal recommendation?
After landing at the airport, all international passengers walk on a travellator to arrive at the Immigration counters for immigration clearance. The average arrival rate of the passengers at the immigration counters is 1.2 per minute and the arrival process is assumed to be Poisson distributed. There are five immigration service counters open at any given time at the international terminal of the Cairns airport and each officer can serve 16 passengers per hour with service time exponentially distributed. Determine the average queue length waiting time of the passengers in the queue in front of the immigration. If the expected waiting time is required to be less than or equal to 5 minutes, what changes are needed in terms of number of immigration counters and the design.
Following the immigration clearance, passengers are directed to Baggage Claim area of the airport. Assuming the arrival rate of the passengers at the Baggage Claim to be equal to overall service rate at the immigration counters and all the passengers have checked-in baggage to claim, and average time to search and collect the baggage from any of the two identical moving conveyors to be 7 minutes which is exponentially distributed. Determine the optimal number of moving conveyors required at the international terminal if the maximum waiting time should not exceed 12 minutes at the Baggage Claim conveyors. After the baggage claim, the passengers are directed to Customs and Quarantine area of the airport. Suppose 20 per cent of the passengers who claim their baggage do not have any item to declare at the Customs and Quarantine inspection and exit through the green signal channel and proceed to Taxi stand of the airport. The remaining 80% of the arriving passengers at the baggage Claim exit are directed to Quarantine area equipped with five X-Ray machines and inspectors. On the average passengers spend 10 minutes at the X-Ray machines and baggage inspection before they leave for Taxi stand. If you happen to be one of passengers, give your recommendation for the optimal number of X-Ray machines and inspectors. Comment on the existing facility design.
At the Geelong port in Victoria there are twelve berths and seven unloading crews. When all the berths are full, arriving ships are diverted to an overflow facility 30 kilometres down the shore in Docklands port area near Melbourne city. Oil tankers from the Middle-East region’s oilfields arrive according to a Poisson process with a mean of every 65 minutes. It takes an unloading crew, on the average, six hours to unload a tanker, the unloading time following an exponential distribution.
a). On the average, how many tankers are at the port?
b). On the average, how long does a tanker spend at the port?
c). What is the average arrival rate at the overflow facility?
d). What is the probability that the unloading crews will be sitting idle?
Determine the optimal number of unloading crews if the captain of the ship cannot spend longer than 8 hours at the Melbourne Port due to his other commitments at Sydney and Brisbane ports.
The procedures required in transferring materials and goods along the supply chain are subsequently referred to as logistics. Distribution and transportation systems are components of the logistic system. Transport is the process of using transportation to obtain raw materials, handle materials, and distributing goods from the production house to the using point. Systems for supply chains include and are subsets of logistics. The supply chain is basically a process of obtaining and moving components and raw materials, moving items in and out of manufacturing facilities, storing, loading and unloading goods, and delivering goods to clients. Some companies provide a GPS tracking system to their customers. This system helps the customers by allowing them to track the location of their product. According to studies, this system is more liable as the customers can monitor the status of delivery for their products. DB Schenker is one of the leading logistic companies in Australia.
a) In order to keep logistics flow, DB Schenker offers customers in a wide range of sectors logistics operations across the entire supply chain, including planning, acquiring, production, storage, and delivery as well as returns transportation and valuation services. The increase and fall in consumer demand for technology is influenced by seasonality, advertising and promotion activities, product life cycles, and the intensity of competition. The distribution network frequently has to manage erratic volume swings from manufacture through delivery. Rising demand in new countries necessitates value solutions, labour, and local knowledge.
Life cycle of a product means the whole procedure of the development of the product. The prototype design can be considered to be the starting point of product development. This cycle also involves the improvement which was done to the product during the research. Employees may be in danger if the dock equipment is improperly chosen (Lenget al. 2020). To meet customer demands, logistic companies should also have strong storing units which can help in storing their goods during the production time. Life cycle phases and activities of DB Schenker is planning, organizational improvement, implementation, processing of order, updating the inventory, distributing goods, receiving goods and acknowledging all the transactions. The phases of the logistic company are intended to gather all the other uses of organization that includes the sustainment, disposal and acquisitions of different systems. The key objective of the life cycle of DB Schenker is to make sure that the sustainment is the basic consideration of all the activities which are linked with the phases of the system beyond the life cycle. As a result, it must be ensured that the least strategy of cost is being used to maximize the outcome over time.
Figure 1: Life cycle phases of logistics company
b) Vee model for assignment help is found to be suitable for DB Schenker as the product needs to be delivered from the manufacturer to the customer with proper management system. The appearance of the product, the information about the development of the product, the procedure of delivery and shipment, and the roles of the concerned team. Vee model has a higher amount of success over the waterfall model which can bring sustainability to the DB Schenker. The company should start using this model as it is providing a detailed life cycle model. As the world is advancing towards a technological era, these companies should also make it a part of their organisation. Technologies like a delivery tracking system, Data monitoring systems and scheduled delivery systems should be included in their program.
One of the leading providers of supply chain solutions is Kuehne + Nagel International AG (K+N). The company's primary line of business is the supply of end-to-end logistics solutions, including contract logistics and integrated logistics for rail, road, air, sea, and other modes of transportation. Additionally, the business concentrates on offering IT-based logistics solutions. Aerospace, automobile, elevated, retailing, fast-moving basic goods, pharmaceutical and healthcare, industrial, and oil & gas are some of the key sectors the company serves. It also serves as a strategic solutions company, including fairs, events, and emergency and relief logistics. The Management of Kuehne + Nagel International logistics of physical products needs the integration of some factors, including information flow, material handling, product production, product packaging, storage control, and transportation to the consumer. The problem is the "card punching attendance system" is not proper in the company. A new system of attendance which is strong enough to monitor the attendance of the company must be designed to ignore all the significant losses of the company.
a) The current deficiency in the "card punching attendance system" should be designed in such a manner that helps in the personal approach of all the employees in case of their absence. The card punching might be carried out by other workers. However, the new system is required to avoid the unethical manner of card punching and provided work should have the capacity to make their attendance in the system card punching by the employees.
The company started joint ventures with other tech giants to resolve this problem. However, their main problem still lies in the attendance system. The lack in this aspect creates an opportunity for the rival company (Malindzakova and Zimon, 2019). So, to increase their sales, they need to work on their weakness and find some innovative and time-saving options. The company should combine their mid-capacity vehicles with low-capacity vehicles. This will create a desired change in the supply chain. The supply chain should be rebuilt and the number of products which are needed to be delivered should be monitored.
b) Many technical approaches are required to be considered when the person desires to design the new system. Firstly, it is required to use the camera for monitoring the unethical manner of card punching and secondly, the "biometric finger punching" which is probably found in the attendance system.
c) There are several basic operational requirements of the biometric new system. First, the system of attendance should have the capacity to have the entire management functionality of leave. Secondly, the system must have the capability to configure the changes within the figures of the employees (Winkelhaus and Grosse, 2020).
The new system must cover all the weak points of the company. The need for a new warehouse and good quality vehicles should be fulfilled as soon as possible. To tackle this problem, the company needs to work on its weak points. The basic operation starts from changing the goods carrying capacity of the vehicles. Vehicles are warehouses are the main component of a logistic company. So, keeping a good warehouse along with a wide range of vehicles is a necessity for the company.
d) The company should start using new technologies for their transportation. Drones are deployed for an endless variety of functions and seem to be everywhere.
Figure 2: Operational Functional block diagram
The process of using transportation to gather raw materials, handle commodities and distribute goods from the manufacturing unit to the customer. Supply chains are considered to be the key part of the system. Obtaining and moving raw materials, storing, loading, and unloading goods and transporting the finished goods to customers make up the supply chain (Giusti et al. 2019). As stated above, if the supply chain problem is resolved then the company will tackle its biggest problem which will help the company in regaining its customers. Logistics managers are essential in the current status of our global industry. Their role is very crucial for businesses as they transport their goods from the source to the market.
The equipment of the dock has a high significance. Employees may be in danger if the dock equipment is improperly chosen. Since the docking area is where the shipping and receiving processes converge, safety there should always come first (Facchiniet al. 2019).
The requirement of a motor generator: 5500 units
Maximum output of a single production plant: 2,000 units per units
Potential Demand Centres are headquartered in Western Europe and North America (USA, Canada, and Mexico), Potential Locations of Vendors or Raw Material Suppliers are in Asia and North America, and Potential Locations of Manufacturing Plants Are in Asia. Vehicles, railroads, and ships are examples of transportation systems used to move raw materials and finished goods.
Machines for loading and unloading used in warehouses are heavy-duty conveyors and Folk-lift machines.
Number of customers:5
Warehouse maximum capacity to hold goods:1500 per warehouse
The maximum number of generators that can be supplied by trucks: is 25 generators per truck
Rail line capacity: 150 generators
Max capacity of cargo ships: 1,000 generators per trip
The volume of raw materials consumed per generator manufacturing unit equals three times the generator's volume.
Similar transportation methods are used to carry raw materials, but no warehousing is necessary.
The cost of transportation by truck from the raw material source to the manufacturer is $3.5 per volume of a generator. Transportation costs from manufacturers to warehouses are $4.0 per generator by truck, $3.0 per generator by rail line, and $1.50 per generator by cargo ships. Transportation costs from warehouses to end users or customers are $2.0 per generator by truck, $2.0 per generator by rail line, and $1.25 per generator volume by cargo ships. There are no waterways for the transportation of cargo ships.
Table 1: Total units
Table 2: Total items
Table 3: Total cost
Vehicles and goods lifting machines are very important for a logistic company. The vehicles help the workers by lifting heavy goods which save both, time and energy. So having a wide and good range of vehicles which can lift weight and move around quickly are very important. The complex has vehicle dumpers for quickly accepting rapeseed, corn, and barley and transferring it to the warehouse in piecemeal containers (Sgarbossaet al. 2020). The tools which are used to lift heavy-weight goods like cranes should be used to save time. These machines make the work simpler with the technology. Along with all this, companies should also focus on increasing the speed of their delivery. Businesses must concentrate on delivery times and costs if they want to remain competitive in the market. If a product's manufacturing costs (cost of production) are the same, logistics providers might offer their clients distinct value propositions. The majority of clients will choose a business that offers prompt delivery at a reasonable cost.
By maintaining open lines of inquiry with suppliers and keeping them informed about logistics strategies, physical storage can be decreased. Cooperating with suppliers and providing them with information on the demand pattern will help the company in clearing the deadstock, which is more of a headache for any company. Designing the routing is very crucial so that the goods are maintained in transportation for the majority of the time to lower the cost of the inventory. This also saves time for the company and the supply team.
The average time is 5 minutes to land an aero plane
Therefore, variability of arrival= 5/60+4.3= 4.38
The average rate to arrive in a Poisson fashion= 6/ 60=0.1
The field waiting time= 5minutes
The maximum time spent =5* 0.1+4.38=4.88 minutes to arrive
The pilot will take 4.88 minutes to spend circling in the field.
Storing places like warehouses and storehouses are very important for the transport company. Some companies also deploy a large number of customised trucks which act like a storage house. These trucks are very useful as they give dual advantages to the user. Depending on their design, some trucks can be operated by the operators. When it comes to storage houses, the company needs to have multiple storage houses. It provides the opportunity to store many goods at a time. So, the company should use big storage houses along with these trucks which enables the operators to store goods within them. Generally, companies keep storing houses which helps the manufacturing unit in producing large quantities of goods (Min et al. 2019). The same strategy is used by logistic companies. They keep a large warehouse and store their goods which are to be delivered to the customers. The companies should also modernise their equipment and tools which are time-saving and way cheaper. Substituting information is essential and necessitates taking important actions to build the logistics network.
Finding the appropriate places to locate is the first step. Once every location has been identified, then the company needs to forward and reverse supply chains to determine which locations are most advantageous for efficient and affordable logistics. The company needs to develop an export-import strategy as the next phase is very important. Determining the quantity of the goods being exported and imported, will help the company in getting the required number of freights, and then the managers can decide where to locate the inventory for tactical advantage. The next process includes choosing the warehouse location. By determining how many warehouses are required, and their distance from markets, the company can construct the warehouses in a cost- and time-effective manner throughout the world. The fourth step is to choose a combination of carriers and modes of transportation to efficiently supply the deliveries. The correct amount of partners must be chosen by the company to build a successful logistics network.
Determining the operations' useful procedure can be assisted by an efficient analytical approach. This cluster requires a strong customer link to engage or share capacity, resources, facilities, and information with internal and external customers and suppliers. The correct data about the capacity, facility and resources must be provided. To reduce drawn-out waiting and useless delays, more information must be given to the concerned team. The planningand optimization of transportation goods are the main goal of transportation management, which is an essential component of logistics transportation (Perboliet al. 2018).
After analysing the problem, it was found that the organisation lacks in Road transport. During the covid period, the organisation didn't have enough vessels to carry the essentials. These things are still the same. The problems are even bothering the company today. One important aspect of this analysis was cost cutting. Minimising the cost of less important items is an efficient way of increasing profit. The company should start implementing things which will help in cost reduction. The company should also improve its transport selection. Selecting a good mode of transport for delivering goods is very important for a logistic company. Remote areas that previously had little impact on international supply chain can now make goods and distribute them to markets at competitive prices (Garcia et al. 2018). The transporter can complete the shipping procedure at a lesser cost because of effective mode selection. The cost is only one factor in determining the most cost-effective mode of transportation; other factors include effectiveness and accessibility for both the producer and the consumer. The best balance between cost and speed can be achieved by using an efficient mode of transportation. Costs associated with logistics are influenced by several factors. Some of those elements, including the presence of transportation infrastructures and the accessibility of logistics providers, are controllable, while others are not. These elements evolve as well. For example, customer demands typically shift over time. By regularly evaluating these parameters, one may save logistics costs and enhance customer service.
The port also has the facility of an airport. Several planes can be used by the company to transport goods through the air. This will increase the profit of the company and the stakeholders. However, before taking off or landing the pilots and the crew members need to take clearance from the ground staff. Once granted the all-clear to land, an aeroplane takes an average of 5 minutes to touch down at Cairns Airport in Queensland, Australia. A pilot needs to spend an average of minutes circling the field. The maximum time spent circling the field waiting can be reduced by clearing the runway as soon as possible. In this way, the ground staff will take comparatively less time to give clearance to the pilot.The arrival process is considered to be distributed with Poisson, with an average arrival rate of 1.2 passengers per minute at the immigration counters (Di Mascioet al. 2020).
The average time is 5 minutes to land an aero plane
Therefore, variability of arrival= Total time /hour+ time of dispatch= 5/60+4.3= 4.38
The average rate to arrive in a Poisson fashion=Time / hour 6/ 60=0.1
The field waiting time= 5minutes
The maximum time spent = field wait time* 0.1+ 4.38=5* 0.1+4.38=4.88 minutes to arrive
The pilot will take 4.88 minutes to spend circling in the field.
The transportation method is typically used for time-sensitive, perishable, or expensive goods whose final consumers are located far away because it is more expensive than other routes of transportation. Globalization has several primary contributors, one of which is air travel. With a speed that no other form of transportation can match, it allows for the international mobility of people and things. However, above the airspace of certain nations, commercial airliners and air freight are typically restricted to designated fly zones. The hub-and-spoke supply chain system is currently used by the majority of large carriers. This means that large businesses run a primary hub in the middle of their operational area, connecting to more compact regional hubs placed in the same general vicinity but strategically far from it. There must be 8 conveyor belts in order to restrict the baggage claim time to 12 minutes.
There are 12 docks and 7 unloading workers in the Victoria port of Geelong. Ships are diverted to 30 km down the coast at the Docklands port region near Melbourne city when all the berths are occupied. According to a Poisson process, oil tankers from the Middle Eastern oilfields arrive on average every 65 minutes. An average tanker unloading crew needs six hours to complete the task, with the time following an exponential distribution. So, from this information, we can conclude that there are not many ships present at the port. The following are the answers to the questions which were asked:
a) The overflow facility 30 kilometres down
Therefore, arrival of shipping = No of ships * 0.30+time=30*0.30+60=69
The tankers required=No of tankers/time= 69/3= 23
On the average 23 tankers are at the port.
b) The arrival of tankers required= 65
The tankers spend at port=65/23 total /number of tanker=2.82 minutes
On the average 2.82 minutes tanker spend at the port.
c) The average arrival rate at the overflow facility= tanker spend at port/time= 2.82*60/65=2.6
d) The probability rate=time of tanker/nu of ships+100=2.82*2.6+65/100=7%
From the above information, we can conclude that the port is big however sometimes the incoming ships are sent to another port near the dockland. The crew is less in numbers but they are very efficient. As they tend to unload a tanker in 6 hours, so on average only six tankers can be present at the port.
This assumes that all passengers have reviewed their bags for claims and that the delivery ratio of passengers at the security checkpoint is equal to the quality-of-service rate at the mass migration counters (Pereraet al. 2018). The port is big enough and it seems the quiet is always filled with tankers, however, there is a probability of 10% that there won't be any tankers on the port. The crew members take approximately six hours to unload a tanker and hence only six tankers can be present at the port at a time on average.