Master’s Degree Dissertation Assignment Sample
This is a vital part of your Programme and will contribute substantially to your personal development. Your MSc Dissertation is worth 40 Credits (two times as much as a taught Module). You will be expected to demonstrate where appropriate your skills in providing:
(a) A synthesis of the literature.
(b) An analysis of quantitative and/or qualitative information.
(c) A summary of empirical results whether found by experimentation, observation, survey
(d) The implications of the findings.
Each Dissertation should involve all of the following:
(a) Problem identification
(b) Problem resolution
(c) Information search
(d) Application of methods developed in your Programme
(e) Drawing appropriate conclusions.
Note: The Dissertation is a piece of applied academic research and must be more than a mere technical account.
Writing the matlab dissertation help can seem like a major obstacle as it is likely to be the biggest single piece of academic work you will have undertaken. However, if you have a clear idea of the structure and nature of the research you have done or are doing then it makes it much easier to have a clear plan for the structure of the Dissertation.
The structure of the final Dissertation is to be presented as follows:
First inside page - Title, your name and year (2021, 2022, etc.)
(see Appendix III for an example of the FRONT page and the FIRST inside page)
• Contents page
• List of Tables & Figures
• First Chapter - Introduction (research purpose and objectives)
• Chapters 2, 3, 4 etc.
• Final Chapter – Conclusions and Recommendations
Chapter 1 - Introduction
Your opening chapter is extremely important as it sets the scene on what is about to come in the rest of the Dissertation. You should therefore aim for this to be a clear and concise piece of assignment help work that provides all the key information required for the reader to understand the background to the work and how you will conduct the research in the pages that follow.
Chapter 2 - Literature Review
The Literature Review chapter is the longest in terms of number of words and also the time taken to complete. This is because you must spend a considerable amount of time identifying, searching for, accessing, reading and discussing material from a wide variety of sources. Overall, this chapter will account for 25-40% of the total word count, meaning that most students will be expected to write around 4,000-5,000 words.
Chapter 3 - Research Methods
Once you have completed the previous chapter you will have a very good idea about the options open to you regarding how you will conduct your own study. Many of the journal articles that you will have discussed in the previous chapter will have provided you with detailed information on the best way to research your topic and also whether there are likely to be any problems with your planned research approach.
In the early stages of this chapter it is important that you identify and set out the key questions and/or hypotheses that you wish to test. This can only really be done after you have a thorough understanding of the types of questions and/or hypotheses that need to be asked based on your review of previous studies in the area.
Once these have been discussed, you need to explain how you will go about answering these questions or testing these hypotheses. For the vast majority of students this will involve the collection of primary data. For some students it may be more appropriate (or indeed the only option open to them) to gather and then analyse only secondary data. There is no problem with this approach but it limits your ability to show us that you are an effective researcher in terms of designing a data collection tool and then using this to gather information for the first time.
Chapter 4 - Data Description
Having completed the collection of data for your Dissertation you should spend some time describing the characteristics of that information before then going on to conduct more detailed analysis. Depending on the type of research you are involved in, this may be relatively short as far as chapter length is concerned, or may be a substantial part of your work if you are investigating more theoretical or complex issues.
Either way, it is important that the reader becomes familiar with the characteristics of the data so that they will then be able to understand the analysis and results that you will discuss in the following chapter.
Chapter 5 - Data Analysis
This is a critical part of the whole study and is where any new discoveries will be made. You need to set this chapter out in a logical manner and the most appropriate way to do this is to systemically address the research objectives, questions and/or hypotheses that you set out in previous chapters.
You may have a purely qualitative study, in which case much of the discussion here will be based on your own interpretation of information that you have gathered (such as through interviews, focus groups, observation studies etc.). It is perfectly acceptable to include direct quotes in this stage to highlight specific issues or get a particular point across. In any event, you should not identify any individual by name or other identifying characteristic. Similarly, in most studies at this level the names of organisations should be omitted from your written work unless you have the express permission of the owner/custodian to use their name.
In a quantitative study you will be presenting numerical data and this must be analysed using appropriate methods, in most cases using specific statistical tests.
Most quantitative data can be analysed using a variety of different tests but you must choose the single test that is appropriate for your objectives and hypotheses and stick to the results you generate. It is unethical to reanalyse data with a variety of statistical tests until you find a result or answer that you had hoped for.
The role of cultural differences in influencing different marketing strategies in MNCs
The dissertation focuses on the role of cultural differences in influencing different marketing strategies in MNCs. The aim of the dissertation is to identify the different cultures and its differences in influencing the varied marketing strategies that are undertaken by the MNCs. From the identified literature it can be stated that the cultural diversity is important in bringing about a considerable understanding of the areas that are necessary for the marketing strategies to take place. The benefits as well as the challenges involved in the marketing strategies along with the cultural benefits are to be identified in this case. The research methods that are followed for this dissertation include collecting data from primary sources and interpreting it in the form of qualitative analysis. Interview method is conducted which can be regarded to have an extensive overview of the managers. 6 managers belonging to different MNCs are targeted to gain clear concept of the topic. The interpretation provides an analysis of the ways with which the cultural factors are important for the MNCs and the concept that is understood in the market. It also helps in bringing about a considerable approach in building strong recommendations for the MNCs to be associated with the cultural diversity. Recommendations in the form of being aware of the local language and identifying cultural differences as the main external threats are provided so that the MNCs can bring about considerable success within the different markets upon expansion.
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
In an era of globalisation, various cultural people work together to attain a common goal. In this way, one of the important aspects that are to be developed is the ways with each group of people can be brought together to provide the ultimate success story with which the organisations can succeed. Marketing strategies undertaken by the MNCs help in ensuring that these cultural groups work together by depending on one another and maintain prolific success strategy that can help in bringing about improvement. The focus of the dissertation is to bring about an identification of those marketing strategies that are essential for bringing about the success of the MNCs by identifying different marketing strategies that are important for influencing the cultural differences. In this chapter, the background of the research is provided along with the aims, objectives and questions that can help the researcher maintain a proper guide to the research.
The marketing mix strategy is hugely influenced by differences in the cultural practices on the global market. The technological revolution has been effective for modern organisations to expand their business on international markets with more effectiveness. The business strategy on an international level is influenced by culture and for this reason understanding of cultural differences on international background needs to be analysed. The globalisation of business organisations has accelerated the development of the economic aspects of the organisations. Technological development has also affected the financing model of international business organisations and revolutionary aspects are visible in current marketing strategies (tradewindfinance.com, 2022). The advancement of technological tools has changed marketing strategies of international organisations because cultural aspects are effectively analysed by technology before proceeding with creating marketing strategies.
International organisations have emphasized their business approaches to reach out to a huge number of international consumers with more effective business strategies. On another side, economic agreements of a particular region have a huge influential impact that determines business strategies. Multiple cultural policies have increased complexity for the international organisations for creating a marketing strategy (worldbank.org, 2018). Economical aspects of a particular culture need to be analysed by management of international organisations so that marketing business strategy could perform more beneficial for the Marketing Programme of the organisation.
The pricing strategy of services and products are hugely impacted by the financial agreement of selected region and for this reason, organisational management needs to analyse the economic agreement. Organisational management needs to understand local cultural practices because knowledge about local culture increases effectiveness in marketing strategy. On another side, local language and local cultural aspects are major aspects that determine marketing practices of organisational management (fm-magazine.com, 2019). Management needs to understand local languages before initiating marketing strategy because acute knowledge about the local language increases efficiency for effectiveness to market services and products in forming markets.
The standardized approach of international markets by the management of Mcdonald's has been ineffective because it has negatively impacted organisational financial conditions on a higher level. The failure in the foreign markets have negatively impacted the brand value of its products and for this reason, it has been incapable of developing its situation even in its home ground market (Feng et al., 2019). After the huge loss of ineffective foreign marketing strategy management of this organisation has decided to empower local authorities so that they could be able to create effective marketing strategies in their particular regions because local authorities can evaluate all cultural aspects that have a higher potential to influence the marketing of its products and services.
It has been an effective approach by its management and for this reason, it has successfully captured a higher rank in the international market. This digital potential allows these firms to communicate their marketing strategies in a locally-specific language across different regions. Further, as observed by Ottman (2017), green marketing has emerged as an important strategic tool that enables multinationals to adopt a sustainable marketing approach and formulate a responsible brand name for all categories of consumers.
The needs of consumers are different from each other and it is mainly because of the cultural differences and practices performed by different cultural communities (ama.org, 2020). Cultural practices determine consumer behaviour and for this reason understanding, cultural identity has been most important for organisational management for expanding their business on foreign markets with more effectiveness.
1.3 Research Aim
The aim of the research is to identify the different cultures and its differences in influencing the varied marketing strategies that are undertaken by the MNCs. The dissertation can help in providing evidence about the roles played by the individuals of varied cultures to bring about success for the MNCs.
1.4 Research Objectives
The objectives of this research work include the following:
• To understand the importance of culture for MNCs
• To understand what is meant by cultural differences at MNCs
• To examine the cultural differences that occur in MNCs and how they are managed
• To evaluate the role of cultural difference as an important factor in the formulation of Global Marketing Strategies
1.5 Research Questions
The research questions include:
• What is the importance of culture for MNCs?
• What is meant by cultural differences at MNCs?
• How do cultural differences occur in MNCs and how are they managed?
• Why is cultural difference an important factor in the formulation of Global Marketing Strategies?
1.6 Research hypothesis
H1: There is a huge influence of cultural differences in different marketing strategies adopted by MNCs
H0: There is no influence of cultural differences in different marketing strategies adopted by MNCs
1.7 Research Rationale
Figure 1: Differences in the cultural aspects in the different countries
(Source: Guzman et al., 2018)
Cultural aspects are different in each country and for this reason, organisational management needs to understand the different cultural aspects of foreign countries so that they could be able to create an effective marketing strategy. The differences in power politics emphasized differentiation in the different marketing strategies that are helpful for organisational management to market their products and services more effectively. Cultural ethnicity differs community members to adopt different lifestyles and consumers adopt products as per their needs to maintain their initiated lifestyle. In order to maintain the active participation of organisational management for successful globalisation, management has to proceed with a higher effective marketing strategy.
Otherwise, organisational management has to face a huge amount of financial loss that could be the reason for their devastation. Numerous organisations have faced a lot of issues after initiating their business to foreign markets due to their ineffective marketing strategy. Employees of different organisations play a major role in practising different business ventures and due to this reason, organisational management needs to understand the individual characteristics of local employees for a successful business model.
Figure 2: Marketing spending are increasing dramatically
(Source: statista.com, 2021)
In order to promote services and products to foreign markets, organisational management has to practice a higher amount of expense. In the 2020 financial year, the United States has devoted 61.4 billion dollars only for telemarketing. But this marketing spending has increased to 244.7 billion dollars for overall marketing strategies (statista.com, 2021). Organisational managements invest a huge amount in their marketing system that includes directories, telemarketing, public relations, sales promotions and others. Such a higher amount of product promotional investment organisational management has increased the price of their services and products. The organisational management needs to decrease their costs for the promotional activities that would help the organisational management to develop their sustainability power for critical situations. Immediate research on this particular topic is necessary that would help organisational management to develop their understanding of different aspects of the marketing strategies.
This research would enlighten all aspects of the marketing strategy of MNCs that are interrelated with cultural norms of different regions. This particular research would be effective for the organisational management to develop their understanding of different impactful influences of cultural aspects on organisational managements for initiating marketing strategy in foreign countries. The major aspect of this paper is to shed light on different cultural practices that have a higher potential to influence marketing strategies of the MNCs. On another side, this paper would also help numerous organisational managements for initiating an impactful footstep in succeeding with the increasing trend of globalisation. Management of organisational would to helpful by this particular research paper for analysing important aspects of culture foreign countries so that expansion of business would have higher potential to achieve success.
1.8 Research Significance
The significance of this research is that it evaluates the impact of social and cultural patterns on marketing and looks at marketing theory from a wider social perspective. The rising number of multinational organisations across the world and their ability to spread across global markets has made it particularly important to evaluate the impact of different cultures on their marketing strategies. According to recent reports, there have been close to 213 million organisations that have their operational bases all across the world in 2020 (statista.com, 2021). This implies that these firms would be motivated to take account of the cultural demands of consumers across the different countries within which they operate. This research has also been effective in understanding the importance of consumer engagement and heightened consumer knowledge on the business strategies of firms. In addition, it also sheds light on the influence of internal managerial strategies, including a diverse employee and leadership culture and their impact on the unique marketing approach adopted by MNCs.
1.9 Structure of The Dissertation
The dissertation consists of five chapters each dedicated to bring about the achievement of the set objectives. The first chapter provides an introduction, which forms the background of the research. It sets up the aims, objectives and questions that are essential in bringing about quality application of the concepts and theories throughout the dissertation. The second chapter provides the critical explanation of the existing concepts and theories along with the variables that are associated with the topic. Works of scholars along with the counter arguments are presented in the chapter. The third chapter provides an analysis of the data that is to be collected and the method of analysis for meeting the objectives. The fourth chapter helps in interpreting the data collected and align it with the evidence found in the literature review. The final chapter helps in the conclusion of research. Recommendations are also provided if needed.
This section has outlined the rationale and significance of this research, which include the need to evaluate the impact of culture and understand cultural distinctions in marketing. The objectives of this work include an assessment of different cultural elements and their influence on the marketing approach of MNCs. Further, it has also addressed aspects like the challenges associated with cultural differences in marketing, along with strategies adopted by firms to mitigate these challenges.
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
The literature review provides an analysis of the concepts and the theories that are to be applied so that extensive research on the topic can take place. It is necessary to understand the existing literature so that an overall identification of the strategies that is to be undertaken can take place. One of the important areas in this case is the fact that argument as well as counter argument associated with topic along with that of the variables is made. Different opinion of scholars is highlighted in the chapter to provide an opportunity to maintain an extensive research that can provide identification of the topic.
2.2 Concept of Cultural Differences
Cultural differences involve the ways with which integrated system of socially acquired values are undertaken in bringing together an identification of the beliefs and values that exist for a system to be functional. The overall application of the cultural differences can be distinguished between the social groups that exist in the market. According to Rao-Nicholson and Khan (2017), one of the important aspects of the cultural differences that can be taken into consideration is the way it brings about variety of choices among an organisation. In terms of decision making and forming strategies cultural differences are regarded to have a steady implication in the overall business strategy that is to take place among an organisation. Hence, as stated by Gherasim and Gherasim (2018) the concept is of utmost value in bringing together people from different groups and promoting globalisation in a way that can allow each of the organisations and the employees to have a severe positive impact on the existing market.
Social Exchange Theory (SET)
This work is based on an evaluation of the relationship between marketing and cultural difference, which can be understood through an application of theories like the social exchange theory. This is an important theory for understanding cross-cultural communication, in which social behaviour is largely seen as an immediate result of the exchange and interaction between different groups. In this context, the effectiveness of these social interactions is understood by weighing the positive and negative outcomes that result from these interactions.
In the theory, it is stated that a person will weigh the cost of the social interaction against the reward of that social interaction. For this reason, it can be stated that risks and benefits can be identified as potential metaphors so that the prediction of the behaviour of the individuals in the society can be put in place. In the words of Cañas-Bajo and Silvennoinen (2017) one of the important applications of the theory is that it can help in understanding the clarity of relationships that exist in bringing about different cultural trends and help in maintaining the communication level between the people.
This implies that within the process of communication, people usually expect reciprocal behaviours that emerge from their interactions with other people. This suggests that the element of rewards and costs are important factors for judging different social interactions within group processes (Cropanzano et al., 2017). This theory can be suitably applied to marketing by underlining that consumers would judge the effectiveness of different marketing methods in terms of the possible rewards that these would generate for them. This implies that cultural difference is an important criterion for understanding marketing methods as they influence the relative value attached to the marketing communication by consumers.
Without an analysis of the culture, determination of the areas that require improvement cannot be made. This theory can be applied among companies that aim to seek expansion in foreign nations. According to Kotler (2019), the overall application of the expansion strategies need to be associated with the cultural phenomenon in a way that can allow these aspects to have a complete understanding of the behaviour of each people. Thus, as stated by Feng et al. (2019) the application of the social exchange theory for organisations is regarded as a way to bring about effective and efficient analysis of the market along with the application of the impact that might exist in the current situation of the market.
2.4 Cultural Differences Model
Geert Hofstede’s cultural dimensions (the 4+1 model)
An important model for understanding cultural differences and their influence on marketing is the Cultural Dimensions model formulated by Geert Hofstede, which formulates four specific dimensions important for understanding cultural values. These dimensions include individualism-collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, power distance and masculinity-femininity, which determine the specific orientation of different cultures across the world. According to Guzman et al. (2018), these separate dimensions would influence the kind of values and principles that people within these societies would adhere to for maintaining balance. There is, for instance, greater importance attached to group values like belongingness and harmony in collectivistic rather than individual societies. As stated by Rao-Nicholson and Khan (2017) these values, in turn, would determine the kind of marketing strategies that are adopted by MNCs and their unique cultural preferences.
Hofstede’s model provides an analysis of the areas that every company need to improve on so that success can be reached in the market. According to Reddy et al. (2017), this again is applicable during the expansion mainly because it can help in bringing about a combat and mitigation for the external environment that exists. In this way, one of the important lessons that is to be brought about in this case is the ways with which the Hofstede’s dimension can help in the understanding of the level of success that can be gained even before entering the market. However, as pointed out by Katsikeas et al. (2019) it is also to be noted that achieving all the dimensions might not bring about success for any organisation, as the model cannot be comprehended in adjusting any one variable of the culture. Hence, although the application is convenient for understanding the potential success that can be gained in the market, it can also bring about doubts about the application.
2.5 Types of Marketing Strategies Used in MNCs
The multinational firms are usually those, which have their operational bases across geographical and cultural regions, which enables them to implement different marketing strategies to compete with a large international market. As observed by Dadzie et al. (2017), the 4Ps of the marketing mix, which includes place, product, price and promotion, influences the marketing approach adopted by firms. This often results in organisations adopting marketing practices like demand differentiation, segmentation, positioning and targeting, which are used to target different markets. This approach is suitable for these firms in understanding the cultural and social demographics of consumers and their impact on consumer choices.
Another important type of marketing that is used in the MNCs is that of the standardisation. According to Song et al. (2018), the reason for this is that the standardisation of the products, approach as well as distribution channels are made which can bring about global and domestic transactions. In this way, the effectiveness of the market can be determined in bringing about an identified aspect of the cultures. As identified by Felipe et al. (2017) the fact that local needs are to be met is also one of the areas in which the marketers and the companies can bring about successful transition into the market. For this reason, it is necessary that an overview of the market be maintained so that the marketing strategies used can bring about effective coordination between the employees and the customers. In this way, such an aspect is important for the marketing strategies, which in turn can be related to the MNCs.
According to Rao-Nicholson and Khan (2017), many firms have increasingly adopted international marketing strategies in which the element of standardization plays a crucial role. They suggest that for multinational organisations, maintaining a definite brand image is essential, which is reflected in their uniform logo, slogan or name, and motivates them to standardize their products across cultural regions. It has also been stated by Tan and Sousa (2018) that business relatedness is an important aspect that affects the decisions of MNCs to sustain themselves in the global market. This relatedness can be achieved by adopting a marketing approach that is built on uniform distribution channels and products across markets.
Multinational organisations are also known for adopting marketing strategies that are specific to a particular region or locale and take account of cultural differences. As illustrated by Luo and Shenkar (2017), localization is a significant marketing approach that is adopted by MNCs, which allows them to adapt to a competitive marketplace by being more responsive to the local cultural needs of consumers. They suggest that this approach is also crucial for integrating a cost-effective marketing approach by employing an indigenous workforce and formulating a culturally specific language of communication. According to Hennart (2019), these firms are now increasingly engaged in cross-border transactions, which emphasize the role of technology adoption and digitized services in marketing.
2.6 Elements of Culture
The various elements of culture, which have a considerable influence on the marketing strategies of firms, include language systems, values, customs, religious beliefs and business norms. According to Payne et al. (2018), different elements of a workplace culture, which includes the values, vision, engagement and leadership support, have an impact on the internal and external communication strategies adopted by firms. These values would, for instance, determine the level of transparency and openness that multinational organisations would display while communicating their marketing strategies to consumers.
In the opinion of Gherasim and Gherasim (2018), the different cultural elements that influence international marketing include material culture and spiritual culture. Material culture includes the total material achievements, including crafts, weapons, clothing, dwellings and jewellery, which reflect on a society’s collective benefits and production skills. The spiritual culture includes aspects like symbols and language, which would impact the communication styles and language skills that these organisations would adopt. Steenkamp (2019) has also suggested that as against the arguments of the popularity of global consumer culture through increasing globalisation; a local consumer culture is also becoming increasingly important, which motivates organisations to adopt localized marketing strategies.
The elements discussed above are different elements of national and regional culture that determines the market strategy and orientation of multinational corporations. In the view of Paurova et al. (2019), a corporate culture within an organisation is an important determinant of the marketing strategies that it would adopt and includes elements like harmony and leadership skills. This implies that marketing in MNCS is affected by the internal as well as an external culture of these firms.
In the view of Cañas-Bajo and Silvennoinen (2017), the level of acceptance of marketing and advertising through audio and visual mediums is dependent on the specific cultural characteristics of the consumers to whom they are being directed. According to Elsbach and Stigliani (2018), organisational culture influences the problem-solving activities adopted by a firm, which influences their marketing and commercialization of products and services. This implies that elements like creativity and innovation within a corporate culture are important determinants of the communication strategies of firms.
Other elements also exist which can be considered to bring about an analysis of the existing culture so that the global marketing strategy can have a perfect application in the market. In the words of Rao-Nicholson and Khan (2017) elements in the form of language, symbols, values and norms are some of the areas that are to be considered so that the cultural elements in the market can take place. As stated by Tan and Sousa (2018) it is necessary that an active account of the areas be undertaken so that the marketing probability along with that of the social securities can have a significant impact in bringing about cultural understanding of the factors associated with the market. In this regard, it can be stated that one of the areas that is considered in terms of the cultural aspects had been the ways with which commitment to the ethical form of work is undertaken to bring about marketing success. Thus, as pointed out by Steenkamp (2019) for this reason, the elements associated with the cultural aspects and benefits are regarded to have a significant impact in the overall commencement of the work as well as the attitude that takes place among the marketers. This is an important element of success associated with the cultural and marketing management implication.
2.7 Cultural Differences and Global Marketing Strategies
The marketing operations of multinationals involve a substantial amount of cross-cultural transactions and acquisitions, which make them susceptible to multiple cultural differences across organisational divisions. According to Kotler (2019), the global marketing approach adopted by many firms has become more responsive to the needs and values of consumers across the world. Consumers, in this sense, are more participative and empowered as their marketing choices are shown to have a considerable impact on firms and their branding methods.
This implies that cultural differences across their consumer bases have enabled MNCs to adopt global marketing strategies that are responsive and inclusive of these differences. These differences are also reflective of the managerial strategies that are adopted by these firms, which determine the level of communication that can be reached with consumers. These firms have their bases across different geographical regions and consist of employees that belong to different cultural backgrounds. This implies that a company culture that is adept and managing cultural differences is an important step forward in formulating effective global marketing strategies that would be beneficial for consumers (Groysberg et al., 2018).
Effective management of cultural differences would further be beneficial in gaining varied opinions and perspectives of employees from different cultural backgrounds, resulting in more inclusive and creative international marketing methods. According to Watson et al. (2018), cultural differences play a crucial role in influencing the international market entry strategies, which are adopted by firms, including their specific relational approaches, which impacts their business success. Consumer preferences and tastes have an influence on economic integration across borders and result in the adoption of relational, hybrid and digital global marketing models.
2.8 Impact of Culture on Marketing Strategies in the MNCs
As discussed in previous sections, the different elements of culture, including its symbols, values and language systems, have a critical impact on the marketing strategies that are adopted by different organisations. In the opinion of Song et al. (2018), the reactions of consumers to different marketing methods and product offerings of MNCs depend on their specific national cultures. It has been assessed that products that match the tastes and cultural preferences of consumers would have a higher level of acceptance across different consumer categories. This would, in turn, result in an increase in consumer loyalty for these products and create a suitable brand image for these multinational firms.
Another important aspect that can be regarded in this case from the point of view of the marketing is that cultural differences can have a significant impact in bringing about major development in the business. According to Groysberg et al.(2018), the fact that one of the important elements of the marketing is based on the language that is spoken among the different nations brings about a considerable understanding of the associates of the products. In the words of Elsbach and Stigliani (2018), every marketing element is stated to be considered based on the creativity displayed in reaching to the audience.
The overall impacts that can be associated in this manner include one of the important aspects for bringing about trust among the existing audience. This can be brought about severely of loyal customers and any organisation that is looking to expand in a market that does not speak English can use the knowledge to improve the level of sales. For this reason, as stated by Watson et al. (2018) language becomes one of the most important elements among the marketing strategies, which is necessary for bridging cultural indifference as well as maintaining the required applications in coping up with the challenges that exist in the market. In the words of Yun et al. (2020) such an impact is deemed to be of utmost importance in ensuring that every organisation remains aware of the marketing strategies associated with the business.
According to Yun et al. (2020), culture is an important determinant of innovation within an organisation and determines its capacity to manage its external and internal resources. This implies that organisations that support cultural differences can formulate greater innovation and creativity within their marketing strategies. In the view of Felipe et al. (2017), cultural values also have a considerable influence on the level of agility that is inbuilt within different firms. This implies that support for dynamic cultural differences results in the adoption of marketing practices that are flexible and inclusive of consumer preferences across global markets. In recent decades, diversity marketing has emerged as an important marketing method for firms, which is based on formulating advertisement strategies that look into the certain definite aspects that would appeal to consumers of a particular culture (Petrescu & Krishen, 2019).
Further, these strategies look at the cultural needs of subsections within national culture and the marketing strategies that would appeal to them. There has been, for instance, a considerable amount of attention paid to the cultural preferences of women by global fashion brands, which have multiple bases in different parts of the world. This implies that marketing strategies that are inclusive of cultural differences have a significant role in popularizing the brand name and image of multinational organisations.
2.9 Challenges of Marketing
The process of integrating cultural differences within the marketing strategies of firms also creates a number of challenges, which have been understood from different perspectives by scholars. According to Katsikeas et al. (2019), the international marketing methods used by these firms often integrate a specific tone and language that could be regarded as offensive by people of certain cultures. The messaging format and language used by these organisations can also not be properly understood by consumers belonging to different countries, resulting in a huge problem of miscommunication or misinterpretation of advertisement messaging.
Further, it has been opined by Leonidou and Hultman (2019) relationship marketing has emerged as a critical challenge for many of these firms which look towards formulating joint ventures and partnerships with businesses across cultural boundaries. This implies that effective management of cultural diversity is important for the collateral business ventures, as well as the consumer-centric marketing approaches adopted by MNCs.
As already stated, the language plays an important role in bringing about prolific venture in the business. According to Payne et al. (2018), it is also necessary that the organisations understand the local language before expansion so that more customers can be attracted. The limitation or challenge that the language brings about to the marketing perspective is that of the ability to gain the trust of the audience. The local companies are preferred more irrespective of the way; the foreign companies display the language. Hence, as stated by Paurova et al. (2019) this remains as one of the areas in the marketing departments that can have a negative impact in bringing about cultural integrity.
For this reason, possible recommendations in this aspect can be brought about in providing the companies with an associated tour of maintaining the marketing competence. As pointed out by Elsbach and Stigliani (2018) another challenge that can be brought about is that of the beliefs. The beliefs are aligned with the culture and hence any form of unethical approach taken by the marketers can be regarded to bring about challenging impact in maintaining the success. For this reason, this can be regarded as having a huge impact in bringing about marketing propositions.
2.10 Strategies Adopted By MNCs To Deal With Cultural Differences in Marketing
An effective strategy of dealing with cultural differences for MNCs is by adopting an internal managerial approach that supports and sustains cultural differences. According to Reddy et al. (2017), support for cultural diversity within an organisation is dependent on the ability to sustain a dynamic workforce that has distinct intellectual capabilities. They suggest that this aspect is crucial for organisations in reaching out to a larger base of consumers and influences employer branding. Authors like Ali and Konrad (2017) have stated that the presence of a workforce which is racially diverse allows firms to connect to a consumer base that is racially diverse. This would be effective in enhancing the level of engagement that firms would have with their consumers by being inclusive of their cultural demographics.
This further underlines the importance of diverse leadership and inclusive recruitment practices for fostering a diverse employee culture within firms. Several MNCs across the world have implemented customer relationship management strategies as an important factor for driving performance. These strategies, which include networking through social media, play an important role in enabling firms to connect better with consumers and understand their cultural preferences.
2.11 Literature Gap
The scholarly writings reviewed in this section have not addressed critical questions related to cultural differences, which includes the variations in cultural orientations of consumers within a specific geographic region. These writings have not integrated market research or knowledge of varied consumer choices to determine consumer approaches towards standardized and localized marketing strategies. Further, industry reports from different MNCs have not been evaluated to measure the success of distinct marketing strategies with respect to profits earned in business.
The literature review provides the necessary approach with which concepts and theories of the dissertation topic along with its variables can be understood. The overall assumptions of the topic along with that of the strategies that are to be understood by the MNCs are well highlighted in the literature review. The chapter helps in gaining clear idea of the areas that exist in bringing about the effectiveness of the cultural differences and at the same time help in the contribution of changes in the market. The next chapter provides an analysis of the data that is to be collected and the mode of analysis that are to take place.
CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The chapter is directed at identifying those methods that can help in bringing about successful completion of the research. The data that can be suitable for the completion of the research is to be identified and the mode of analysis that is to take place is to be taken into consideration. In this case, one of the important applications of the chapter is that it can help in bringing about an understanding of the ethical considerations that are required for bringing about the full collection of the data. The limitations that have been encountered by the research are also stated in the chapter.
3.2 Research Philosophy
The research philosophy provides the ways with which data about a phenomenon is to be gathered and analysed. The research philosophy is important in bringing about insights into problems that can be used for the development of hypothesis and quantitative research. According to Abutabenjeh and Jaradat (2018), the research philosophy consists of three types, which include positivism philosophy, interpretivism philosophy as well as the realism philosophy. The application of the interpretivism philosophy is undertaken in this dissertation mainly because it can help in bringing about understanding the subject that is being studied. The study is conducted based on the principles so that specific roles can be performed for ensuing and inciting the social world.
For this reason, the application is important as the cultural phenomenon associated with the marketing principles and the social cultural differences be taken into consideration. With the application of the interpretivism philosophy, new perspective on the topic can be found which is useful for bringing about reliability as well as the validity of the study. Thus, the application is important in bringing about understanding of the crucial subject matter and uses it for attaining the objectives set for the dissertation.
3.3 Research Approach
The research approach formulates the plan and procedure that exists in bringing about broad assumptions of the data collected and its methods. The application is based on the research problem that has been addressed in bringing together the existing hypothesis as well as that of the research objectives. One of the important applications of the research approach it helps the research align any information with the hypothesis developed for the research. The research approach consists of either the inductive or the deductive approach. The application of the deductive approach is considered in this case mainly because the research undertaken is based on the development of hypothesis due to the already existing theories.
As stated by Skarbek (2020) research strategy is to be conducted so that the hypothesis developed can be tested. In this way, deductive reasoning can be made so that the existing theories can be tested in a way that can help in the analysis of the topic. For this reason, the application of the deductive approach is considered as effective for this research as it can help in bringing about reasoning of the topic along with the generalisation of the important theories.
3.4 Research Design
The research design helps in deciding the framework that is to be adopted for maintaining the research methods and techniques. The application of the research design helps in the utilisation of methods, which are important and suitable for conducting the study in a successful manner. The research design comprises of three types that include the descriptive design, explanatory design and the exploratory design. For this dissertation, the application of the descriptive research is undertaken. The reason for this is that the topic can be systematically, effectively and accurately described.
In this way, the topic can have in-depth discussion, which can be considered to have flexibility in the study that has been conducted. At the same time, with the application of the descriptive design, more than one variable can investigated. This can make the study more flexible. Along with this as pointed out by Busetto, Wick and Gumbinger (2020), the descriptive design can also help in bringing about validity and reliability of the data that has been collected. For this reason, the use of the descriptive design in this case is justified in bringing about successful completion of the research. It can help in providing in-depth analysis of the topic as well as the concepts.
3.5 Data Collection Method
The data collection method brings about an analysis of the ways with which required information for the completion of the research can be gathered. According to Ruggiano and Perry (2019), the data collection method is usually of two types that include the primary data collection method and the secondary data collection method. In this case, the application of the primary data collection method is undertaken. The reason for this is that it can help the researcher direct knowledge of the existing work and bring about theories that can be aligned with the literature. Moreover, the researcher can also target those people that can provide authentic information for the dissertation to be successful. In this way, the researcher had selected the interview method.
The reason for this is that with an interview method, the research can set up open-ended questions, which is important for gaining valuable insights in the topic. The interview is conducted on 6 managers of different MNCs selected via random sampling method. This can help in understanding the scenario associated with the cultural differences of global strategy that are formulated across the MNCs. For this reason, the selection of this data collection method is justified.
3.6 Data Analysis Method
The data analysis method sets up the ways with which the collected data can be interpreted and presented so that it can justify the objectives and hypothesis that has been set up. The data analysis method consists of either the qualitative method, quantitative method or the mixed method. As stated by Guest, Namey and Chen (2020) although the use of quantitative method is used for, analysing the data collected from primary sources, in this case, the application of the qualitative method is made. The reason for this is that better understanding and insight of the topic can be made by this application.
Various perspectives on the subject can be taken into consideration, which can well be described to bring about a positive impact in meeting the objectives set for the research. For this reason, the application of the qualitative research approach is quite effective in this study. The data analysis method of the qualitative nature can help in describing the nature of the study as well as formulate steady approach for the overall application of the research.
3.7 Ethical Considerations
For the research to be completed in an ethical manner, it is necessary that an understanding of the rules and regulations associated with the research be undertaken. One of the ethical considerations that had been taken in this case is the fact that none of the respondents was force to participate in the research. The participants were provided with the free will to reject the questions at any time. Consent of all the 6 managers were taken in terms of interviewing as well as bringing about recording of the data collected. The data collected had not been manipulated in any way to suit the researcher.
The exact data that had been collected from the participants were considered and applied for bringing about meeting the objectives. Along with this, each of the data collected had been stored in safe places such as the cloud and portable devices that are accessible only to the researcher. After the completion of the research and results, the data collected are deleted so that it cannot be used for any other research that is intended to take place on the same topic.
3.8 Research Limitations
The research conducted had been undertaken successfully by aligning every method with the justified account of the method. However, there had been certain limitations that existed in bringing about successful collection of data and its application in the research. One of the major limitations that can be pointed out in this case is the fact that gaining the confidence of the participants had been difficult. The initial target participants had been difficult to gain as in most cases there had been negativity about the desire to participate. Some of the participants were reluctant to provide positive answers and hence the limitation of biasness existed. Collection of the secondary data had also been difficult mainly because the topic selected is unique. With these setbacks, the researcher also found it difficult to commence with the completion of the research within the time set. Hence, this is regarded as another research limitation associated with the research.
The chapter is important in helping to understand the data collection method that is to be used. In this way, one of the important applications that are to be made is that of the justification of the methods that have been used. For this reason, the chapter is important in bringing about the widespread understanding of the areas that can be utilised for the analysis as well as the collection of the data required for bringing about success. The next chapter provides an interpretation of the data that has been collected so that alignment with the collected literature review can be made.
CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
The chapter provides an overview of the interpretation of the data that has been collected. It is to be noted that the interview analysis is undertaken based on the responses provided by the managers. The importance of the chapter is that it allows the researcher with an opportunity to maintain a considerable impact in bringing about meeting the objectives in a stable manner. The chapter also allows direct quotations from the respondents to be used, which is aligned with the literature so that validity of the data collected is made. This is in accordance with the data management process that is undertaken by the respondents.
4.2 Interview Analysis
Question 1: How do you maintain the cultural impact on the company?
The cultural diversity has a lot of impact on the ways with which each company are to maintain its existence. In this regard, it can be stated that the overall understanding of the methods that are slated for the companies to succeed can help in the management of the MNCs in the market. The interview questions provide an idea of the ways with which such cultural impact on the companies can be maintained keeping in mind its advantages and disadvantages.
One of the interesting points that had been raised from the interview responses had been the fact that decisions that are made are related to the contribution that is made by the employees. In the words of the first manager, it has been stated that the decisions are taken based on the benefit that is provided for the organisation. The first manager had quoted that “Cultural impact is maintained by including decisions of every employee within an organisation for the benefit of growth”. As observed by Ottman (2017) this strongly suggests that the effectiveness of the cultural impact is strong and is regarded to have a significant factor for the employees in the organisations.
Similarly, the cultural barriers that exist are also encouraged to overcome mainly because it can help in bringing about perfect decisions for the employees. For this reason, according to Feng et al. (2019), the overall cultural barrier along with that of the organisational support are deemed to have a considerable impact on the MNCs. The response provided by the third manager has a significant contribution in bringing about an understanding of the possibilities of success that can be gained from the proper support of the entire cultural phenomenon.
The third manager has been quoted to say, “The impact is directed at having a considerable approach while maintaining the cultural phenomenon of business”. This provides evidence that the overall application associated with the cultural phenomenon can well be respected in bringing about the approach in business that in relation to the strategic business process. According to Guzman et al. (2018), it is also regarded to have an exquisite impact on the ways with which the difference in the cultural upbringing can help in gaining success in the international stage. For this reason, such an aspect is regarded to have a considerable impact in bringing about a phenomenon change in the organisational set-up.
The impact of the culture is strongly supported by the fourth manager mainly because the overall the cultural barriers tend to provide hindrance for the MNCs. In this way, in the words of Rao-Nicholson and Khan (2017) each of the MNCs can be assured that the undertaking of the cultural phenomenon associated with the barriers along with that of the responsibility of the managers are regarded to have similar impact in bringing about a considerable difference in the cultural benefit. As such the response provided by the fourth manager is, “Every individual belonging in different cultures are tended to overcome any cultural barrier and participate in the cultural practises”.
This also proves the fact that overcoming the cultural barriers is the main source of attraction that is to be imposed in the MNCs. As stated by Gherasim and Gherasim (2018) with this, the cultural differences and its impact cannot be deemed to have a special coordination while trying to maintain the effective phenomenon in the business market. This is in relation to the fact that each of the considerations that are undertaken by the companies is deemed to have different approach while trying to formulate a sensible marketing strategy for success.
Question 2: What type of cultural differences exists in the MNCs?
The interview tries to identify the differences that exist in the MNCs while trying to understand the level of success that are encountered with the diffe