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 “An Investigation Of Funding Gap On Performance Of A Non-Profit Making Organisation. A Case Of Simukai Child Protection Programme”


1.0 Introduction

This chapter highlights the study's major emphasis, which is on examining how money affects a non-profit organization's performance. The backdrop of the study, a description of the issue, and the primary research question are all included in this accounting assignment.

1.1 Background of the Study

The Simukai Child Protection Program is being used as a research unit in the project, which aims to look at how financing affects an organization's performance that is not for profit. Timsina (2014), Trammell et al. (2012), and Mashakada (2015) all hold the same opinion that the financing gap has a substantial impact on corporate performance since it takes into account both expenditures and operational activity efficiency and effectiveness. In contrast, Adewale (2011) and Akinwale (2012) concluded that the organisation functions within its capabilities and that the budget gap has no impact on corporate performance.

The non-profit organisation Simukai Child Protection engages in a variety of operational activities, such as providing health and psychosocial support to children who live and work in the streets, assisting underprivileged students in their studies, operating vocational training facilities, and promoting economic youth empowerment. Due to a shortage of funding, the organisation has been working below capacity, and the number of kids receiving benefits from the Simukai Child Protection programme has decreased (SCP Annual Report 2016). The table below serves as the greatest example of this.

For 275 recipients, the total yearly funding received in 2014 was $758,000.00. The overall project projected cost was $760,000, while the actual project spending came to $796,000, leaving a financing gap of $36,000, or 4.7% of the total project budgeted expenditure.

The total yearly funding received in 2015 was $679,000.00 for 212 recipients, a fall of 22.9% in beneficiaries. The entire projected spending for the projects was $680,000, while the actual yearly expenditure came to $724,000, leaving a funding gap of $44,000, or 6.5% of the total anticipated expenditure for the projects.

For 143 recipients, the total yearly payments received in 2016 came to $606,000.00, representing a 32.5% drop in beneficiaries.

A deficit of $53,000.00, or 8,7% of the total annual projects' projected expenditure, resulted from the difference between the total budgeted projects' 2 expense of $610,000.00 and the actual annual project expenditure of $663,000.00.

According to the program's funding level in connection to funds received, the number of children receiving benefits fluctuates (Management Report 2016). The authorised proposal is followed while receiving money from donors. When the planned spending is less than the actual expenditure, a deficit results. The budgeted expenditure is determined via the calculation of numerous project proposals, however the donors often fall short of the budget values stated in the first proposal and provide financing that is insufficient to close the funding gap (SCP Operations Review Report 2015).

Grants from both global and regional funding partners cover the whole cost of the Simukai Child Protection Program. Grants are administered in accordance with the demands and guidelines of Donors (SCPP Memorandum of Agreements 2014-2016). Written applications with a clearly stated grant objective are used to get the funding. After the proposals are approved, budgets are then created and submitted for evaluation. The organisation has been carrying out donor-funded projects in different parts of the Manicaland Province, but due to a funding gap, some projects had to be abandoned. For example, psychosocial support activities, which cost $50,000, were abandoned in 2014, and a vocational training centre, which cost $114,000, was abandoned in 2015. (SCPP Operation Review Report 2016).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

A non-profit organization's effectiveness is negatively impacted by a financing deficit, as seen by the fewer kids participating in the programme. The Simukai Child Protection Program's performance study demonstrates an inverse link between beneficiaries and budget gap, leading to a decline in beneficiaries as the funding gap widens year after year. The study will try to determine the effects of the funding gap on corporate performance, current funding sources, and strategies to close the funding gap as well as potential funding alternative strategies for the Simukai Child Protection Program. The funding strategies are what allow business projects to be implemented successfully.

1.3 The Main Research Question

Examination of the impact of a financing shortfall on the operation of a non-profit organisation. A Simukai Child Protection Program instance.

1.4 The Sub Research Questions

? What is a non-governmental organization's fundraising strategy?

? What rules for implementing the financing policies are there at Simukai Child Protection Program?

? How many employees are needed at Simukai Child Protection Program to carry out the regulations?

? What checks and balances are in place to ensure that the Simukai Child Protection Program's policies are being followed?

? What difficulties does the Simukai Child Protection Program have implementing its policies?

? What is the most effective method for supporting non-governmental organisations?

1.5 The Research Objectives

? To determine the non-governmental groups' financing strategy.

? To determine the rules for Simukai Child Protection Program's policy execution.

? To assess the Simukai Child Protection staff's ability to put the rules into practise.

? To evaluate the safeguards in place for Simukai Child Protection Program's policy execution.

? To pinpoint issues that Simukai Child Protection Program faces while putting policies into practise.

? To develop the optimum method for supporting non-governmental groups.

1.6 Significance of the study

To the student

The study aims to fulfil the university's essential requirement for a Bachelor in Accountancy with Honors degree.

To the university

Since doing research is necessary in order to provide literature for other researchers, the study provides information and abilities in conducting research.

To the Organization

The research will provide suggestions for Simukai Child Protection Program to take into account.

1.7 Delimitations

In Mutare, the Simukai Child Protection Program was the subject of the study. The data pertains to the years 2014 through 2016.

1.8 Limitations


Some information was private and was withheld. The researcher gave a promise that it would only be utilised for educational reasons.


The investigation was constrained by the senior management's lack of availability because of their busy schedules in the past. To prevent annoyance, the researcher gave the participants questionnaires to fill out at their leisure.

1.9 Assumptions

The researcher made the assumption that the sample-based data would be trustworthy and sufficient to draw a conclusion.

1.10 Definition of Terms and Acronyms


? Beneficiaries: People who are using or benefitting from a certain organization's facilities are referred to as beneficiaries (Trammell et al., 2012).

? Grants - A grant is money given to an organisation by a third party, such as a donor or the government, with the intention of carrying out a certain project (Trammell et al., 2012).

? Project - A project is defined as a collection of business operations carried out outside the Organization's regular course of study (Adewale, 2011).


? SCPP -Simukai Child Protection Programme.

? SCP- Simukai Child Protection,

1.11 Chapter Summary

The chapter covered the study's history, statement issue, research questions, and aims, as well as its limits, presumptions, and importance. The literature review will be the main topic of the following chapter.



2.0 Introduction

The goal of a literature review is to identify gaps in the work of many writers and suggest ways to fill them. This chapter investigates pertinent literature that discusses the impact of a non-profit organization's performance funding gap. The researcher will get highlights on the gaps in past studies from the literature review, which will also serve as a roadmap for carrying out this study. This chapter summarises the convergent and divergent ideas and conclusions of several researchers on the subject. A literature review entails assessing data from other writers' past dissertations, books and journals that have been published, as well as corporate publications that have an impact on the subject.

2.1 The funding policy of a Non-Governmental Organization

The term "non-governmental organisations" refers to businesses that are not in it for the money; rather, they act as intermediaries to help different contributors' requests be fulfilled.

According to Muthupandian (2016), non-governmental organisations may get money from a variety of sources, including the government, the general population, and international development organisations. However, foreign finance is the main source of funding in Zimbabwe and other developing nations. The goals of an organisation are crucial since they affect the financing source, and governments often prohibit foreign funding for groups that promote democracy, media freedom, and human rights (Sundem et al., 2012). Zimbabwe's current economic state prevents local businesses from having the funds necessary to support programmes promoting democracy and human rights. Local non-governmental organisations are concerned about having their accreditation refused if they support democracy, human rights, and the press.

According to Madhuku (2016), local non-governmental organisations' donor money have been significantly impacted by the economic challenges and political unrest in the area. International non-governmental organisations like VSO get the majority of its financing from governments and international organisations of first-world nations. United States, United Kingdom, and European Canadian International Development Agency and the Commission. The primary funders to NCA have been Sweden, Canada, and Norway. Like other organisations, Christian Care receives financing from overseas contributors.

2.2 The personnel capacity required for effective implementation of funding policy

Personnel with the necessary skills or expertise are needed to execute financial policies in an efficient and sound manner. According to Sundem et al. (2012), personnel capacity refers to the knowledge and skills that workers have gained via training and experience. The intricacy and compatibility of the funding policy with that specific Organization are determined by the staff competence to execute funding policy (Letting and Letangule, 2012). The inability of an employee to apply a policy or a lack of expertise leads to it being described as complex and challenging to manage. When choosing which finance strategy to apply, Katunar (2013) advises management to consider the capability of the workforce. The easier it is for an organisation to implement any form of financing policy or to accept any changes in the environment related to the funding policy, the more competent the workforce is. The workforce is recognised as one of the most important factors in an organization's performance, therefore the human resource capacity affects how efficiently corporate operations run. The business environment has evolved, and for the Organization to adapt to these changes, it now needs a highly capable staff. Improvements in technology equipment, competition brought on by sharp shifts in consumer preferences, and new, more complicated financing rules are some of the developments (Jones, 2012). According to Jabbouri and Zahara (2014), a trained personnel significantly affects how well a company's accounting system functions. The effectiveness of a financing strategy is decided by employee competency, which has an effect on business performance (Al-Nuseirat and Biygautane, 2014).

From a different perspective, Khan et al. (2012) suggest that an Organization can only find skilled labour by either hiring skilled labour or retraining current personnel. Additionally, according to the study, finding competent labour is quite expensive and necessitates a solid financial foundation for the organisation. According to Farooq and Khan (2011), training programmes are expensive and go against the main goal of any organisation, which is cost control and reduction. ALDamoe et al. (2012) made the case that hiring is the best method for obtaining skilled labour.raises the likelihood of labour turnover since highly qualified workers often switch jobs in search of better opportunities.

2.3 The controls required for effective funding policy implementation

The internal controls that are implemented by an organisation define its effective financing policies (Onaolapo et al., 2012). The management's internal controls, which take the shape of processes and restrictions, regulate the financing policies. Internal controls are necessary when an organisation expands beyond the capacity of a single person because they include a variety of stakeholders, including investors, management, and workers (Ayagre et al., 2014). On the other hand, according to Matamande et al. (2012), management must utilise internal controls to make sure the Organization meets its objectives and complies with legal requirements. Internal controls are preventative procedures that aim to lessen the likelihood that exposures may occur (Mohan, n.d). According to Jenkinson (2010), efficient internal controls make sure that each employee accepts responsibility for his or her actions and tasks, which improves performance. Organizations may use a variety of internal controls to increase the effectiveness of their financing policies, including job analysis and description, budgeting, division of roles, organisational structure, and planning (Chow and Perkins, 2015).

2.3.1 Budgeting

Budgetary controls, which are highly important in the organisation as they assure the achievement of numerous objectives, enhance teamwork. The organization's objectives are predetermined in the form of a budget for a certain period of time (Onduso, 2013). The researcher continued by demonstrating how the financing strategy is created while taking into account the organisational objectives that are listed in the budgets. According to Epstein et al. (2012), the budget includes the financing strategy for the given products and services as well as financial operations, improved planning, and goal-setting for the organisation. Onduso (2013), however, emphasised that too much dependence on the budget restricts the Organization's ability to operate with flexibility. The author also described how poor management occurs because it relies too much on financial restrictions. According to an experimental research by Kimungiyi et al. (2015), effective pricing strategy and sound planning go hand in hand.

The budget is a crucial component of the organisation because it enables the achievement of several objectives in a single course of action. According to a different perspective, Kariuki (2010) said that budgeting deals with the planning and establishing of objectives for the Organization's financial operations. Effective financial procedures significantly improve organisational performance, according to Kimungiyi et al(2015) .'s findings from an empirical research on Kenyan organisations. The researcher continued by pleading with both governmental and non-governmental organisations to work toward finding means and plans to enhance budgetary management as a means of boosting business performance. According to Kariuki (2010), poor forecasting may result in frequent deviations that might have an impact on the economy owing to overall managerial performance or ineptitude.
choices made by users. The budgets will serve as a benchmark for the staff, merging all of their individual job tasks into a single organisational objective.

2.3.2 Planning

The strategic planning process is best characterised as a forecasting exercise in which management plans the future operations of organisations. According to Owolabi and Makinde (2012), pricing strategies integrated into the planning stage; as a result, managerial skill is necessary for successful policy formation. Because it may reduce the chances of failure, planning is the most important stage in putting financial strategies into action. In agreement, Mcllquham-Schmidt (2013) said that contrary to common opinion, planning really enables management to lower business risks and uncertainties. Owolabi and Makinde (2012), however, argued that since planning upholds set pricing, it has no impact on the financing strategy. At the end of the day, corporate strategy planning has no bearing whatsoever on pricing policies. Olumuyiwa et al. (2012) provide evidence to support their claim that planning has little influence on pricing strategy.

The flexibility with which an organisation can embrace new environmental changes depends on how well its planning process works (Owolabi and Makinde, 2012). For a firm to thrive and expand in a market with intense competition, erratic economic circumstances, and diverse client preferences and tastes, it is essential that its planning and decision-making processes be flexible and effective. Both Mcllquham-Schmidt (2010) and Dauda et al. (2010) believe that there is a strong correlation between an organization's success and planning strategically. An empirical study on public institutions used a hypothesis test.

According to Olumuyiwa et al. (2012), planning significantly affects productivity and fosters improvements in staff performance. Owolabi and Makinde (2012) contend that in contrast, these researchers' perspectives are predicated on profitability, market share, and working capital as
performance metrics, therefore their institutes, governmental organisations, or other non-profit institutions are not included. This was corroborated by Parnell (2013), who found that businesses with effective strategic clarity outperform those with low or moderate levels.

2.4 The challenges encountered in the course of funding policy implementation

The review of the Zimbabwean economy from 2000 to 2008 highlights deteriorating macro-economic fundamentals, which include currency shortages, a decline in national production as measured by GDP, hyperinflation, underutilization of agricultural potential, and increasing loan rates (Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe, 2011). The agricultural industry was badly impacted by insufficient resources and a failure to fully use those that were made available, which led to an economic downturn. There are a lot of factors that contribute to the financial crisis or funding gap in the agricultural sector, including corrupt practises, bad indigenization policies, public borrowing, declining tax collection by government, and declining revenue collection (Mashakada, 2015).

2.4.1 The mismanagement of funds

When organisational resources are not utilised or accounted for appropriately, either purposefully or inadvertently, it is called mismanagement of finances. According to Bawa et al. (2010), an intentional act occurs when an official misuses money for personal advantage, and these actions often entail fraud, embezzlement, nepotism, and bribery. Effective development projects have been seriously hampered by the improper handling of finances by the administration or individuals in control of these Non-Governmental Organizations. Punch (2011) contends that for an economy to expand even if its finances are secure, there must be zero tolerance for financial misconduct. Some of the personal pastimes include buying expensive cars and investing in the money market.

However, inadvertent mismanagement of cash occurs when management neglects to develop and carry out the financing policy. Regarding the Audit Report (2014).

According to data gathered by the Auditor General, the majority of exports were not properly invoiced, farmers created two invoices with different amounts and reported the one with the lower value, and the majority of export farmers externalised export revenues to offshore accounts. Due to financial issues, this has had an impact on both the economy as a whole and output. Changes have occurred in Zimbabwe as a result of the squandering of public monies, but government leaders have benefitted more from their multiple farm ownership, denying the bulk of the population access to the property (Mapfumo et al, 2012).

2.4.2 Environmental regulations

According to Collen and Leventis (2013), environmental rules may have a detrimental impact on how financial policy is implemented. Since the Non-Governmental Organization relies on contributions from both domestic and international donors, the researcher also highlighted that the environmental legislation has a direct influence on donor financing. According to Fabinger and Weyl (2013), environmental rules may be thought of as laws that limit the sorts of donations that are allowed into the nation or specify which initiatives must be executed. Political restrictions prevent certain overseas contributors from entering the nation. Politicians are the ones who publish the laws, therefore they may enact laws that make every effort to safeguard their interests (Collen and Leventis, 2013).. In other words, the political climate influences the NGO sector's actions.

The formulation and execution of the financing policies of Non-Governmental Organizations, according to Muthupandian (2016), are not significantly impacted by environmental legislation. Environmental restrictions are necessary to safeguard and support the work of these organisations, as shown by the governmental subsidies provided to NGOs (Nava, 2014). According to Collen and Leventis (2013), non-governmental organisations support and maximise public welfare as one of the goals of the government. The NGOs concentrate on offering products and services at reasonable costs or without charge. The government should create environmental regulations that may draw several NGOs and philanthropists eager to support initiatives for economic growth (Roe and Siegel 2012).

2.5 The best practice in funding the Non-Governmental Organizations

The financing gap is a problem that the non-governmental organisations are dealing with, and it has a significant impact on their performance (Da Silva, 2014). In order to demonstrate the connection between value chain financing and small- to medium-sized business access to finance, Murty (2012) conducted an empirical research on Rwanda. The study found a link between levels of profit and output and availability of value chain finance products. Since the authors proposed two models of financing access and their relationship to increased production, the producers' profit was evident. In an empirical research into the financial and decision-making involvement of non-governmental organisations, Sudha (2014) used the model of Indian groups. The researchers found that the financing policy's features had a significant impact on their ability to perform well in terms of improved savings mobilisation, donor money usage, and the value of free labour sharing.

2.5.1 The partnership between NGOs and government in services delivery.

In an effort to improve the supply of products and services, the state and Non-Governmental Organizations have many sorts of contractual agreements. (2012) Brzozowska vowed alliances are unavoidable because they offer foreign contributors power to invest in the nation. By providing subsidies, the government will take part in the organization's operations as well. The partnerships are the best method for addressing financial issues since they help provide public goods by bringing together finances from the public and private sectors (Mcgrath, 2010). In less developed nations, governments are using partnerships with non-governmental organisations to attract finance and managerial expertise from the private sector in order to fill budget gaps. Through an empirical research of Uganda, Felipe et al. (2015) found that the establishment of public and private partnership programmes resulted in improved performance and an increase in inputs. The researcher also said that more people, particularly the less fortunate, now had access to public goods and services, which led to improvements in quality and efficiency.

On the other hand, Moskalyk (2010) said that initiatives involving public and private sector partnerships are successful when corporate governance is effective. Politics has a significant impact on information on the advantages, dangers, and costs of public-private sector partnerships since the government will be engaged (Bauwens et al., 2012). Since they must operate, participate, and abide by the rules, the Non-Governmental Organizations will have a smaller voice.
restrictions imposed by the government (Colverson and Perera, 2012). But putting the agreements into action has several benefits, including closing the financial gap, reducing the political influence of outside contributors, boosting market competition, and transferring new technologies (Satch and Temple, 2015). PPPs provide a number of benefits, including the opportunity for new funding sources to boost economic growth, decreased public debt, and unambiguous responsibility of resources (Ntshakala, 2014).

2.5.2 Joint Ventures as a funding strategy to improve agriculture growth.

According to Stewart and Maugh (2012), a joint venture is when two or more parties create a commercial relationship with the goal of improving company performance. This agreement includes a risk-sharing component and equally distributes commercial profits to all participants. According to Steensam et al. (2013), joint ventures with foreign partners are used to infiltrate foreign nations; this is recognised as providing simple and quick access to the host nation. The study went on to say that international joint ventures boost market share and strength of the parties involved by using economies of scale, cost synergies, and improved marketing techniques. That collaborative venture was backed by Perkins (2011). This information and skill exchange among the joint venture's participants enhances market access, understanding of the non-resident partner, and access to distribution channels.

On the other hand, joint ventures foster relationships between non-governmental organisations, which improve information and skill-sharing initiatives and, in turn, improve the delivery of products and services, according to Lambrecht and Gellynck's (2015) empirical research. O'toole (2013) argued that although networks are seen as a key tool for innovation, some businesses lack the networking skills. According to Kuhne et al. (2013), a joint venture helps organisations overcome obstacles they encounter while working alone. The researcher goes on to say that partnerships facilitate the growth of commercial ties that emphasise innovation. They said that they had an opinion on the specific situation in which farmers were working but making only modest advances. According to Mitchell and Coles (2011) and Poole and de Frece (2010), joint ventures may capitalise on a person's skill while overcoming the weaknesses associated with that individual working alone.

2.6 Gap Analysis

According to Stewart and Maugh (2012), Ntshakala (2014), and Timsina (2014), financing policy has a significant impact on the effectiveness of non-governmental organisations because it specifies how money will be used to achieve organisational objectives. The efficacy of financing policy is also supported by Trammell et al. (2012) and Mashakada (2015), who argue that it improves operational effectiveness by regulating and restricting the distribution of cash to enable maximum use of organisational resources. Contrarily, Adewale (2011) and Akinwale (2012) suggested that the organisation runs in accordance with the budget gap's little impact on corporate performance.

Having the ability, Ineffective operations and inefficiency in the workplace were the main topics of previous studies. This study will look at variables that affect workers' behaviour and lead to inefficiency. In conclusion, financial policy serves as a guidance fort the regular business operations will be carried out. The goal of the study is to show how a non-governmental organization's success and its financing strategy are related.

2.7 Summary

Chapter II concentrated on already published information that was obtained from other researchers. The researcher's critique of the notion was aided by the literature study. The chapter examined research on how a financing policy may affect a non-governmental organization's performance. The techniques the researcher employed to gather data for the study will be the subject of Chapter III.



3.0 Introduction

This chapter provides an overview of the research methodology employed in this study as well as the methods and tactics used to gather data on the impact of funding gaps on nonprofit organisations' performance. This chapter emphasises how the descriptive research approach was utilised to gather adequate, trustworthy, and valid data on the subject under investigation.

3.1 Research Design

The study design is also known as a plan or a standard that researchers use to direct their data collecting (Cooper, 2011). The methods and strategies utilised in acquiring, presenting, and evaluating data relevant to the issue statement are included in the research design, which is a strategic strategy (Creswell, 2014). The researcher further said that since the procedure is in accordance with predetermined methodologies and norms, study design permits the dependability and validity of data. The main goal of this study is to investigate how operations management affects the performance of retailers, and the researcher found that explorative research is the best research approach. Case study, explorative, and descriptive research designs are the three categories of research designs (Kumar, 2011).

The explorative research design approach, according to Lili-Anne (2011) and Eeva-Mari, aims to analyse the phenomena or topic under investigation by data collection describing the current responses or circumstances on scenario. The adoption of an exploratory research design has various benefits, including helping researchers, fostering greater knowledge, and

concept evaluation (Croswell, 2012). The research results may be evaluated before drawing any conclusions; this process is known as idea testing. Enhanced comprehension is the researcher's

in a better position to comprehend how and why the scenario occurred. Exploratory research, on the other hand, cannot be used on a larger population of interest.

According to Woodside (2010), a case study is a kind of research that enables the researcher to look at real-world contemporary phenomena. A case study is more applicable when analysing an issue with any specific place, institution, or organisation (Cooper and Schindler, 2010).

The use of case studies has various benefits. The study may generally be effectively conducted without bias by a single researcher. Because the researcher concentrates on a particular firm, doing a case study is inexpensive. Compared to other approaches that use secondary sources, it offers more in-depth information. However, as other case studies are not scientific in nature, the information gathered cannot accurately depict the traits of a larger population. It is challenging to identify a clear cause of a scenario since the case study takes into account many demographic viewpoints.

Descriptive research design, according to Kumar (2011), is a method for coming to conclusions about a current occurrence via the collection and analysis of data and demographic traits. According to Manoharan (2010), descriptive research tries to outline changes in respondents' traits and behaviour as a manner of responding to the phenomena. The descriptive study gathers information that reflects real-world experience. However, since there is no assurance of secrecy and descriptive research is subject to prejudice and inaccuracies, respondents run the risk of giving inaccurate information as a result of excessive pressure. Since respondents often provide answers that the researcher expects to hear, the data likely to be skewed. The researcher justifies the choice of a descriptive research design as appropriate for this study given that it seeks to understand how a financial gap affects an organization's performance that is not for profit.

3.2 Mixed Research Method

According to Maruna (2010), the mixed research approach collects, analyses, and presents data from the subject area using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The reliability and validity of data are assured through mixed research, which incorporates methodologies, languages, approaches, and techniques from both quantitative and qualitative methods into a single study (Morse, 2010). The researcher has defended the use of a mixed methodology as the approach that is best suitable for examining how a funding gap affects the productivity of non-profit organisations. When using the strength to overcome the weaknesses associated with both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, it allows the researcher to achieve reasonable certainty.

The qualitative technique, according to Kumar (2011), aids the researcher in clarifying, illuminating, and comprehending phenomena, experiences, and behaviour of a specific group. In this study, qualitative research was used to analyse and evaluate the non-numerical and subjective data that was gathered via questionnaires and interviews. Data on financing gap topics like operational efficiency, which are seen as being judgemental in nature, data was gathered using a qualitative approach.

By assessing the consistency of the techniques, the purpose of the study, and the validity of the time period, quantitative research design assures the validity and dependability of the data produced (Manoharan, 2010). The term "prevalence in an issue" is frequently used to describe the consistency of methods and the time frame that is considered to be the "relevant valid timeframe" for the data. The information gathered is from the years 2014 to 2016, and this study is an exploratory one.

3.3 Population

A population, according to Neuman (2011), is the total number of components in the studied region. Population, according to Parker (2012), is the whole targeted group included in the research region. It is the area of study where the researcher gathers information in order to draw conclusions about the issue. Since they had information about the population size of 37, the Simukai Child Protection Programme workers, including managers, accounting staff, accountants, and procurement, were the population target in this study.

3.4 Sample

According to Saunders (2011), a sample is a subset or a portion of the target population. The researcher included a sample as a subgroup, with the findings from the sample being presumed to be representative of the total population. In support, Mertler and Charles (2010) said that findings from samples are representative of the total target population for the research. The researcher argues that employing samples is justified by time savings and a lack of funding to investigate the whole population. From the target population of 37 people, the researcher for this study selected a sample of 25 people. Data from the sample was gathered through questionnaires and interviews.

The tables above showed how the sample of 31 people was selected from the whole target population of 37 people. The sample picked will be representative of the whole population of 37. Thirty-seven people made up the sample size, and six were selected to participate in interviews.

3.5 Sampling Techniques

3.5.1 Probability sampling

Probability sampling is the method of selecting samples from the targeted population, and each member of the population has an equal chance of being chosen (Kumar, 2011).
This indicates that equal chances are provided for each component of the population under investigation to be chosen to participate in the study. The researcher makes sure that every component of the population has an equal chance of being chosen.

In order to create a sample group for this study, the researcher employed stratified random sampling approach. Stratified sampling, according to Creswell (2014), is a technique used to create a representative sample, however the sample will not be composed of homogenous groups. The researcher used this approach because it is the most suitable since the sample will include people at various position and working levels within the organisational structure. Regardless of their differences in organisational rank and level, Simukai Child Protection Program employees have an equal probability of being chosen thanks to sampling methodologies.

The study discovered a number of benefits linked to probability sampling, including convenience due to its simplicity. Higher degree of accuracy is guaranteed by the stratified sampling method of representativeness, which is equitable representation of all groups. The researcher has suggested it since it is convenient for both the researcher and the participants. However, the method has drawbacks as well, such as recurring task assignments that result in dull and redundant labour. The probability sampling approach is simple to control by the researcher, which increases the likelihood of faults due to its unpredictability

3.5.2 Non probability sampling

Non-probability sampling, according to Kothari (2012), is a sampling methodology in which the sample is gathered to meet the researcher's goals, but people in the population are not given equal odds of being chosen. As a result, the approach cannot track probability. When employing non-probability sampling, the sample is created using standards that are appropriate for the research topics. Statistics are not used to establish non-probability sampling; instead, theoretical saturation and analytical generalisation are used (Yin, 2014).

The study found that non-probability sampling takes less time since it is based on respondents' convenience. The expense of conducting a study utilising this sample strategy is considerably lower. Due to the convenience-based nature of the approach, the sample will likely be made up of unskilled people, which might be a significant drawback.

3.5.3 Purposive/Judgmental sampling

Purposive sampling, according to Yin (2014), is the process of selecting a sample based on the researcher's judgement of what is appropriate for the study. In other words, the sample is decided upon based on the researcher's assessments of the population. This method is useful for picking an area of inquiry where the researcher can be likely to find solid evidence. Additionally, the researcher employed purposive sample methods to carry out the study. Sounders (2011) said that the use of judgemental sampling is more acceptable in a research region with a dearth of qualified individuals in the problem statement.

Compared to other accessible sampling approaches, the method is simple and relatively user-friendly. Since the group chosen has experience in the investigation, the sampling strategy utilised determines the quality of the research. However, there are drawbacks to utilising this strategy that
are mistakes made by people in their judgements. Due to the sample procedures' high levels of bias, there is a poor degree of dependability.

3.6 Sources of Data

The two sources of information employed in this study were primary and secondary.

3.6.1 Primary Data

Primary data, as defined by Bethlehem and Silvia (2012), is unprocessed data that has been explicitly collected to meet research goals. From the study region, first-hand information was gathered for the research. Data was gathered on the ground via self-administered questionnaires and in-person interviews. Primary sources of information were seen by the researcher as less biassed and meaningful since they included authentic data.

Using primary data has various benefits, including maximising the authenticity and dependability of the data since it is gathered directly from the field. Primary data is superior than secondary data since it was collected directly. However, gathering primary data takes more effort and money.

3.6.2 Secondary Sources of Data

Information that already exists and was gathered for a different reason is known as secondary data (Saunders, 2011). Studies and data that have been gathered and examined by other academics and researchers make up the data in this repository. Data from complementary sources, such as secondary and primary sources, may also be utilised. As a source of secondary data, the researcher used yearly financial statements, corporate publications, and meeting minutes.

These are advantages of utilising secondary data since it may be utilised to define the current issue. Secondary data is quick to collect and time-efficient. By contrasting and comparing, it closes any gaps in primary data and is less expensive to collect. However, there is a lack of information on the data gathering methods, and the data may not be accurate for the research period.

3.7 Research Instruments

The researcher employed two different kinds of study instruments: questionnaires and interviews.

3.7.1 Questionnaires

According to Kothari (2012), a questionnaire is a collection of pertinent questions offered to a sample of the population in order to address the statement issue. The researcher may reach conclusions about the effects of operations management on performance thanks to the questionnaire's construction with questions that are characteristic to the study. Apparently, the questionnaire was referred to as a written interview by Blair and Frederick (2011). The researcher provided the sample with the questionnaires. Participants completed the surveys with help from the researcher. The data collection was completed within the allotted time since the participants were agreeable and eager to participate in the study. The data was categorised as qualitative data since the questionnaires were created to address specific study aims. When creating the surveys, closed-ended questions were employed.

By using questionnaires, the researcher is given the power to pre-test data at any moment. The use of a questionnaire ensures the confidentiality of the data, making it more credible. The time and money saved by using questionnaires over telephone interviews. Within the allotted time, the whole sample was covered. Since they are written documentation, questionnaires provide a future point of reference. There are drawbacks to using questionnaires, such as the restricted opportunity for in-depth investigation, the refusal of certain respondents to participate, and the possibility that some respondents may provide misleading information owing to improper influence.

3.7.2 Interviews

A talk or contact between two or more persons, one of whom is the interviewer and the other the interviewee, is called an interview (Blair and Frederick, 2011). The researcher asked structured questions throughout the interviews. As previously seen, the researcher asked several questions to each of the selected respondents. The interviews were conducted with professionals or knowledgeable participants who are authorities in their fields. There are two different sorts of interviews: telephone and in-person (Narli, 2010).

A face-to-face interview, according to Narli (2010), is a focused encounter between two or more people in the same physical location. This indicates that the interviewer and interviewee will meet to talk about a predetermined agenda. Face-to-face interviews provide the researcher the chance to constantly modify their phrasing to suit each responder. There is space to go into and further explain some problems being looked upon. However, since the two people are geographically apart, the cost is higher. To reach the respondents, the researcher should take transportation expenses into account.

According to Hair et al. (2011), a telephone interview is a two-way conversation between two persons conducted for research purposes. The phone interview is more practical than the in-person interview. The researcher may always get in touch with the responder there. Less information will be gathered than with other strategies since telephone costs are a barrier to completing a telephone interview.

3.8 Types of questions

3.8.1 Open-Ended Questions

The ideal way to define open-ended questions is as ones that provide respondents the freedom to express their own opinions and thoughts without restriction. According to Creswell (2014), an open-ended question is one that encourages responders to provide their own unique responses.

Since open-ended questions let respondents to express their thoughts, beliefs, and emotions, the researcher may gather in-depth data. Additionally, the potential for researcher bias brought on by human mistake is removed. This kind of inquiry improves the diversity of replies since it allows all participants to express their emotions, which enables the researcher to analyse the occurrence in various facets.

However, because of the wide range of replies, there will be a lot of data, making it challenging for the researcher to evaluate and make conclusions. Some information will be lost since some respondents may not be able to explain themselves well on paper and may not be literate. When open ended questions are used, there is an increase in investigator bias.

3.8.2 Closed Questions

According to Kumar (2011), closed questions are ones that only allow the responder to choose one option from a preset category and provide no possibility for participant input. They may also be known as structured inquiries. These questions will be constructed such that the responder must provide all of the available questionnaire-accessible feasible response closed questions are more suited in situations when participants are focused with their primary responsibilities since they demand less ingenuity and incentive to respond. Regular queries don't demand in-depth answers, so responders feel less threatened. Since the questions provide participants with instructions for responding, more relevant data is gathered. Since the answers to closed-ended questions are so simple to analyse, there is more consistency in replies.

The lack of depth and diversity in the data obtained, however, makes it impossible to discern the participants' objectives from it. The data gathered does not reflect the true nature of the issue, and the list of potential solutions shows a rise in the bias of the investigator. The questions set up a thinking environment where respondents provide replies that don't accurately represent their thoughts.

3.8.3 The Likert Scale

According to Kumar (2011), a Likert scale is a psychometric scale that researchers employ in surveys to make it easier for participants to respond to closed-ended questions. The Likert scale on a particular topic measures or specifies the degree of agreement and disagreement. The range provided illustrates how strongly they feel about a certain scenario or issue.

The responder indicates the intensity of their sentiments about a particular issue or circumstance by filling out or replying to the Likert scale. The researcher discovered that the Likert scale made data gathering simpler and quicker.

The Likert scale is the most popular method used by researchers to gather data, and it is simple to use. Mathematical analysis of a problem is made simple via computation and quantification. However, responders often avoid making extreme choices, which may be more realistic.

3.9 Reliability and Validity

Reliability, as defined by Mcburney and White (2012), is the examination or assessment of the consistency or uniformity among the instruments used for the same test. The method aims to reduce errors made during data collecting. By asking the identical questions of each responder in this research, the reliability of questionnaires was increased.

Validity goals are used to gauge the extent of the anticipated outcomes and to get results that are consistent with the research's needs (Creswell, 2013). In order to assure the validity of the data gathered, the researcher was directed by the study questions and goals while developing the questionnaire and interview guide.

3.10 Data Presentation

The two styles of data presentation are compelling and informative.

3.10.1 Informative Presentation

Eeva-Mari and Lili-Anne (2011) define informative presentation as a technique that emphasises fostering a thorough comprehension of the concept or phenomena while disseminating information. The instructive presentation avoided complex material in favour of the facts. To draw a conclusion, the data will be statistically evaluated and modal replies will be employed.

The informative presentation gives the audience a clear timeline for when an event, issue, or action should take place. Due to the fact that it offers pertinent information about the phenomena, it aids in decision-making.

However, since it just concentrates on the facts and ignores complex information, inexperienced staff may not be able to comprehend it. Only those who are familiar with the issue may be able to comprehend the data.

3.10.2 Persuasive Presentation

According to Eeva-Mari and Lili-Anne (2011), a technique of giving information that influences a change in the next person's attitude, circumstance, belief, qualities, or behaviour is known as a persuasive presentation. The researcher will concentrate on the presenting of study results gathered via questionnaires and interviews in the chapter after this. In order to show the data, the researcher employed tables, bar graphs, and pie charts.

3.11 Data Analysis

Using exploratory analysis, the researcher examined the study results. According to Manoharan (2010), exploratory research focuses on analysing data that relates to previously undiscovered links or phenomena. The strategy is more suited to characterising the phenomena or issue in the study field. With the use of data visualisation and descriptive data, exploratory analysis may help people grasp the issue at hand better.

3.12 Summary

The chapter relied on every aspect of the study approach and process. The study design, which served as the researcher's guide for data collection and analysis, is also covered in this chapter. This chapter also emphasises the data gathering tools and sampling methods required to create a sample. The study results from this chapter's research will be presented and analysed in chapter four, which will be devoted to data presentation.



4.0 Introduction

The presentation and analysis of the data acquired via surveys and interviews will be the main focus of this chapter. The Simukai Child Protection Program's sample population of 25 workers served as the source of the data. Pie charts, graphs, and tables were used to show the study results.

4.1 Questionnaires Responses Rate

SThe proportion of returned questionnaires against the total number of questionnaires sent out to the sample group is known as the response rate. The response rate was 88% when the researcher delivered 25 questionnaires, of which 22 were completed and returned. Due to the respondents' intense daily schedules, the study was unable to retrieve the other three questionnaires.

4.2 Interview analysis

Six interviews were performed on the location by the researcher. The interviews went off without a hitch and on time. According to the organisational structure of the accounting departments, the researcher conducted interviews with respondents at each level. Two supervisors, one accountant, and two employees who work in accounting are present. This was done in order to get various opinions from employees at all organisational levels.

Table 4.3 shows that out of 29 surveys that were completed, 62.1% (18 out of 22) were men and 37.9% (11 out of 22) were women. This demonstrates that there are more men than women in the Organization.

Question 2. Number of years in employment

Table 4.4 Employment duration

According to table 4.4, 6.9% (2 out of 29) had worked for the organisation for more than 11 years, 27.6% (8 out of 22) had worked there for between 6 and 10 years, 44.8% (13 out of 22) had worked there between 1 and 5, and 20.7% (6 out of 29) had done so for less than a year. The researcher came to the conclusion that respondents had sufficient experience in their professional or sector of work since the majority of respondents had one year or more of experience.

Question 3. Qualifications of respondents

Table 4.5 Qualifications

According to Table 4.5, just 13.8% (4 out of 29) had a degree, but 55.2% (16 out of 29) had a diploma or certificate. On the other hand, 9.1% of the other group (31.0%) had O and A level diplomas. The researcher came to the conclusion that the respondents were educated and competent to grasp and understand the questions asked in the questionnaire, thus reasonable assurance will be achieved. All of the respondents earned at least an O Level certificate.

As shown in table 4.6, the questionnaires were given out to the financial department.

Question 5: The funding management policies were formulated by the management.

This inquiry aims to determine if management created the funding management policies.

According to the highlighted data in table 4.7, the management created the financing management policies, with 58.6% (17 out of 29) agreeing and 34.5% (10 out of 29) strongly agreeing. 6.9% (2 of 29) were unsure. While 0% (0 out of 29) strongly disagreed and 0% (0 out of 29) disputed, respectively, that management was responsible for developing the financial management policies.

The accounting principles were developed by the Organization, according to the modal replies of 93.1% (34.5% strongly agreed and 58.6% agreed). 6.9% of respondents (2 out of 29) questioned if management had followed the funding management policies. However, 0% of respondents (0% agreed and 0% disagreed) disputed that the management had carried out the financing management policies.

The researcher came to the conclusion that the management has implemented the financing management rules after receiving a modal answer of 93.1% (21 out of 29 agreed).

Question 6: The funding policy at Simukai Child Protection Programme is documented.

According to Fig. 4.1, 51.7% (15 out of 29) and 27.5%, respectively, agreed and strongly agreed that SCPP's financing strategy is documented. 3.4% (1 out of 29) were unsure about the financing policy paperwork. While 0% (0 out of 22) strongly disagreed with the assertion that the financing policies were documented, 17.2% (5 out of 29) disagreed.

The majority of respondents, 79.2%, agreed that the financing policy was documented (27.5% strongly agreed and 51.7% agreed). 17.2% (17.2% disagreed and 0% strongly disagree) that they did not agree with the described financing policy.

The study came to the conclusion that the accounting financing rules at SCPP were recorded using the median replies of 79.2% (23 out of 29) greed.

Question 7: The funding policy was effectively communicated to the following people.

This inquiry seeks to determine if management, staff, and new hires were adequately informed of the accounting rules.

According to Fig. 4.2, 52% (15 out of 29) agreed and 41% (12 out of 29) strongly agreed that the Organization had been adequately informed of the financing policies. 7% (2 out of 29) were unsure if communications on financing policies had been made. While 0% (0 out of 29) agreed that the financing policy was conveyed to the management, 0% (0 out of 29) strongly disagreed.

Overall, 41% of respondents strongly agreed and 52% of respondents agreed that the financing rules were properly conveyed to the Organization, yielding a median answer of 93%. The financing policies, on the other hand, were not well articulated, according to 0% (0% disagreed and 0% strongly disagree).
The researcher came to the conclusion that the Organization was properly informed on financial rules to enable efficient implementation. A modal class of 93% of respondents (27 out of 29) agreed with the findings.

Question 8: The following personnel capacity is available at Simukai Child Protection Programme to implement the guidelines.

i) Employees with experience

According to Fig. 4.3, 14% (4 out of 29) strongly agreed and 72% (21 out of 29) agreed that SCPP has the experienced workers needed to guarantee the financing policy is implemented correctly. 3% of the time (1/29th) were unsure. Employees with experience were available, yet 10% (3 out of 29) disagreed with the statement, and 0% (0 out of 29) severely disagreed.

Overall, 86% of respondents (14 % strongly agreed and 72 % agreed) stated that SCPP has experienced staff who can guarantee that the financing policy is implemented correctly. 10%, however, disagreed (10% disagreed and 0% strongly disagreed).

Using modal replies of 86% (25 out of 29), the researcher came to the conclusion that the Organization had personnel with expertise who directly impacted the execution of the policy.

ii) Skilled labor

Fig 4.3 21% (6 out of 29) agreed and 7% (2 out of 29) strongly agreed that SCPP has the competent personnel needed to enable the financing policy's successful implementation. On a scale of 0 to 29, 0% were unsure. On the other side, 48% (14 out of 29) disagreed with this statement, and 4% (1 out of 29) strongly disagreed.

Overall, 28% of respondents (7% strongly agreed and 21% agreed) believed that the SCPP employed experienced labourers who were familiar with accounting principles. Contrarily, the median answers indicated that 52% of respondents (48 disagreed and 4% strongly disagreed) disputed that SCPP used skilled labour.
The researcher came to the conclusion that there was no skilled labour based on the modal replies, which were 52% (15 out of 29) disagreed.

Question 9: The following controls are being implemented at the Organisation.

i) Budgetary controls

Table 4.8 The responses on budgetary controls

According to table 4.8, 48.3% (14 out of 29) agreed and 13.8% (4 out of 29) strongly agreed that the Organization has adopted fiscal constraints. 10.3% (3 out of 29) were unsure if budgetary constraints will be implemented. While 10% (2 out of 22) strongly disagreed with the idea that quality controls were being eliminated at the organisation, 13.8% (5 out of 29) disagreed.

The majority of respondents (62.1%) agreed that the Organization has fiscal constraints in place (13.8% strongly agreed and 48.3% agreed). Out of 29 respondents, 10.3% were unsure. On the other side, 24.1% disagreed that budgetary restrictions were being applied (13.8% disagreed and 10.3% strongly disagreed).

The implementation of budgetary restrictions at all Organizational levels was cited by three of the respondents. The researcher came to the conclusion that financial restrictions are being applied at all levels of the organisation based on the interviews and the modal answer of 62.1% (18 out of 29 agreed).

Table 4.9 shows that 45% (12 out of 29) and 13% (4 out of 29) highly agreed that planning controls were put in place. 5% of the time (1/29th) were unsure. On the other side, 24% (7 out of 29) disagreed with the implementation of planning controls, and 13% (4 out of 29) severely disapproved.

Overall, 58% of respondents (13% strongly agreed and 45% agreed) concurred that the Organization has adopted planning controls. While 37% of respondents questioned that the organisation had planning controls in place (24% disagreed and 13% strongly disagreed),

The researcher came to the conclusion that planning controls were being used at SCPP to guarantee the effectiveness and efficiency of the financing programme since the modal answers were 58% (16 out of 22) agreed.

Table 4.10 demonstrates 73% (20 out of 29) and 27% (9 out of 29) highly agreed that SCPP employs cost management controls. On a scale of 0 to 29, 0% were unsure. While 0% (0 out of 29) disagreed and 0% (0 out of 2*) strongly disagreed that the Organization has put in place cost management measures.

Overall, 100% of respondents (27 % strongly agreed and 73 % agreed) agreed that the organisation had adopted cost management measures and that one of its goals was to reduce costs.

No one (out of 22) was unsure. In keeping with that, nobody (0% disagreed and 0% strongly agreed) disputed the existence of cost management controls.

One response mentioned the cost constraints SCPP is enacting to guarantee the efficient use of financing policies. The researcher came to the conclusion that cost management controls are being used based on the interviews and the median answer of 100% (29 out of 29) agreed.

According to table 4.11, 81% (18 out of 29) agreed that quality controls were used at SCPP, and 27% (3 out of 29) strongly agreed. 5% of respondents (1 out of 29) lacked confidence in financial controls. While 0% (0 out of 22) disagreed and 0% strongly disagreed that the Organization has quality controls in place.
95% of respondents agreed that quality controls were implemented at the Organization to guarantee that the financing policy was effectively implemented (14% strongly agreed and 81% agreed). 7% (2 out of 29) of people were unsure if there were quality controls in place. Similarly, 0% of respondents (0% disagreed and 0% strongly disagreed) disagreed that the Organization used quality controls.

Financial controls are being used, according to every interviewee.

The researcher came to the conclusion that financial controls were being used at SCPP to guarantee the efficacy and efficiency of the financing programme based on modal replies (95%; 21 out of 22 agreed) and interviews.

Question 10: The following are challenges encountered in policy implementation at Simukai Child Protection Programme.

i) The mismanagement of funds

According to Fig. 4.4, the primary difficulty the organisation is now facing is the mishandling of finances, with 73% (20 out of 29) agreeing and 13% (6 out of 29) strongly agreeing. 5% of the time (1/29th) were unsure. While 0% (0 out of 29) strongly disagreed and 9% (2 out of 29) disputed that SCPP had mismanaged its finances.

The majority of respondents (86%, 13% strongly agreed, and 73% agreed) agreed that the organization's main difficulty is mismanaging its finances. On the other side, 9% (9% disagreed and% strongly disagreed) disputed that the organization's biggest problem is its mishandling of finances.

One responder noted that inefficient and ineffective financing policies and procedures have a detrimental impact on efficiency and effectiveness. Based on the median class of 86% (19 out of 29) agreed and interviews, the researcher came to the conclusion that the Organization was mismanaging the finances.

ii) Environmental regulations

According to table 4.12, SCPP's biggest obstacle to financing policy execution is the environmental rules, with 14% (13 out of 29) strongly agreeing and 59% (13 out of 29) agreeing. On a scale of 0 to 29, 0% were unsure. While just 9% (2 out of 29) strongly disagreed and 18% (4 out of 29) disputed that environmental rules had an impact on them.

Overall, 73% of respondents (14% strongly agreed and 59% agreed) concurred that environmental rules provide SCPP with its greatest financing difficulty. No one (out of 22) was unsure. On the other side, 27% disagreed that environmental rules had an impact on them (18% disagreed and 9% severely disagreed).

Environmental laws have an impact on SCPP, according to two respondents. The researcher draws the conclusion that SCPP is impacted by environmental rules based on the interview results and modal replies, which show that 16 out of 29 participants (73%), agreed.

Table 4.13 shows that 54% (12 out of 29) agreed and 22% (5 out of 29) strongly agreed that the Organization is experiencing a liquidity crisis. 1 of 29 samples, or 5%, were uncetain. While just 5% (1 out of 29) strongly disagreed with the assertion that the Organization is suffering from a liquidity crisis, 14% (3 out of 29) disagreed.

Overall, 76% of respondents agreed that the Organization is experiencing a liquidity problem (54% strongly agreed and 22% agreed). On the other side, 19% disputed that the Organization is experiencing a liquidity problem (5% disagreed and 14% strongly disagreed).

With 76% (17 out of 29) agreeing with the modal replies, the researcher came to the conclusion that the Organization's financial policy execution was impacted by the liquidity crisis.

According to Fig. 4.5, 13% (3 out of 29) and 5% (1 out of 29) strongly agreed that the SCPP's operational inefficiency is the main obstacle to financing policy execution. 18% (4 out of 29) were unsure. While just 9% (2 out of 29) strongly disagreed and 55% (12 out of 29) disputed that SCPP is working inefficiently.

Additionally, 18% of respondents (5% strongly agreed and 13% agreed) concurred that SCPP's operational inefficiency is its biggest obstacle to implementing its financing strategy. According to the median replies, 64% of respondents (including 55% who disagreed and 9% who strongly disagreed) disputed that SCPP is running inefficiently.

The researcher came to the conclusion that the Organization is not suffering operational inefficiencies based on the median answer of 64% (14 out of 29) disagreed.

Question 13: The following are funding policies for non-governmental organizations.

i) Invitation of donor funding

Table 4.14 Responses on Invitation of donor funding

According to table 4.14, 23% (8 out of 29 respondents) and 68% (18 out of 29 respondents) strongly agreed that inviting donor financing is an appropriate funding approach for NGOs. 9% (3 of 29) were unsure. While 0% (0 of 29) agreed and 0% (0 of 29) strongly disagreed, respectively.

The majority of respondents, 91% (68% strongly agreed and 23% agreed), believed that inviting donor financing is an appropriate way for NGOs to raise money. However, 0% (0% disagreed and 0% strongly disagreed) disagreed that asking for donations is a good way for NGOs to get money.

The accountant said that the simplest and most practical method of obtaining money to support organisational operations is by inviting international donations. Based on interview replies and modal responses with 91% (26 out of 29) in agreement, the researcher came to the conclusion that asking for donations is an appropriate fundraising approach for NGOs.

ii) Internal revenue generation

Table 4.15 Responses on internal revenue generation

According to table 4.15, internal income generation is an appropriate financing approach for NGOs, with 45% (13 out of 29) strongly agreeing to it and 55% (16 out of 29) agreeing. 0% (0/29) of the respondents were unsure. However, just 0% (0 out of 29) agreed with this statement, while only 0% (0 out of 29) strongly disagreed.

Overall, 100% of respondents (45% strongly agreed and 55%) agreed that generating internal income is a good way for NGOs to raise money. However, no one (0% disagreed and 0% strongly disagreed) disagreed that generating internal money is a good method of supporting NGOs.

Internal income generation, which is a good fundraising method for NGOs and is made simple by using marketing mix and price tactics, was noted by two accounts clerks. Based on interviews and modal replies of 100% (29/29) in favour, the researcher came to the conclusion that internal income generation is an appropriate financing approach for NGOs.

Question 14: The following are best practices in funding the non-governmental organizations.

Raw data: Responses on internal controls

i) Partnership between NGOs and government

According to Fig. 4.6, 50% (15 out of 29) agreed and 41% (12 out of 29) strongly agreed that partnering with the government to support NGOs is an excellent approach. 9% (2 out of 29) have no idea. While 0% (0 of 29) agreed and 0% (0 of 29) strongly disagreed, respectively.

The majority of respondents, 91% (41% strongly agreed and 50% agreed), believed that partnering with the government to finance NGOs is the best method. Additionally, 0% disagreed (0% disagreed and 0% strongly disagreed).
Based on the 91% (27 out of 29) agreeable modal replies, the researcher came to the conclusion that partnering with the government to support NGOs is best practise.

ii) Joint Ventures as a funding strategy with other NGOs

According to Fig. 4.6, 9% (3 out of 29) and 5% (1 out of 29) strongly agreed that joint ventures are the greatest method for supporting non-governmental organisations. One out of 29 people, or 4%, were unsure. While 13% (6 out of 29) strongly disagreed and 68% (19 out of 29) disagreed, Collectively,14% agreed that joint ventures are the greatest method for supporting non-governmental organisations (5% strongly agreed and 9% agreed). On the other side, 81% disagreed that joint ventures were the ideal method for supporting non-governmental organisations (68% disagreed and 13% strongly disagreed).
Joint ventures are the best method for supporting non-governmental organisations, the researcher found, based on the median replies of 81% (25 out of 29) agreed.

4.4 Summary

This chapter presents and analyses the study results obtained via questionnaires and interviews. These results were shown as graphs, pie charts, and tables.



5.0 Introduction

This chapter aims to provide a summary, a conclusion, and suggestions related to the issue statement. This chapter of the research was written to summarise its earlier chapters' topics. The recommendations comprise ideas and opinions that emerged from the investigation.

5.1 Summary of chapters

The examination of the impact of a financial gap on the operation of a nonprofit organisation was the main topic of Chapter 1. The primary goals of the investigation were to determine how well SCPP's financing policies worked and to evaluate the difficulties encountered in putting them into practise. The study's history and issue statement are presented in the first chapter.

In Chapter 2, the impacts of a financing gap on an organization's performance are examined using material from various writers. The literature evaluations included a number of advantages and disadvantages of implementing new financial reporting standards. According to Muthupandian (2016), non-governmental groups may get money from a variety of sources, including the government, the general population, and international development organisations. Foreign investment is the main source of finance for Zimbabwe and other developing nations. According to Sundem et al. (2012), an organization's goals are crucial and affect the financing source, and governments often obstruct foreign funding for groups that promote democracy, media freedom, and human rights.

The descriptive research methodology used to gather data was described in detail in Chapter 3. This chapter also addressed the use of qualitative and quantitative methodologies for data collecting, presentation, and analysis. The chapter listed questionnaires and interviews as two research tools used to gather primary data on-site. In this chapter, the techniques for evaluating the authenticity and dependability of data were shown.

In Chapter 4, the study findings that were gathered via the use of questionnaires and interview guide were presented and analysed. The study results were well presented in the chapter using graphs, pie charts, and tables.

5.2 Major research findings

The results of the study indicate that the SCPP's accounting department is dominated by male staff. The workforce had a lot of expertise in accounting, and everyone had at least an A/O level qualification.

The management came up with the finance policy, and it was written down. The Organization received it with good communication as well. To guarantee the financing strategy was implemented effectively, the Organization has staff members with expertise. Planning and financial controls, together with budgetary controls, were used to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the financing policy's execution.

The Organization is dealing with improper financial management as a result of staff members' ignorance and incompetence. Environmental rules were mentioned as another difficulty impacting the success of the Organization. The difficulty SCPP was dealing with as a result of the treasury's lack of money was the liquidity crisis.

It is stated that the financing strategy most suited for non-governmental organisations is the invitation of donor funds and internal creation of profits. The greatest method for supporting non-governmental organisations is a cooperation between NGOs and the government.

5.3 Conclusion

The research study was completed effectively, and issues with the Simukai Child Protection Program's financial policy execution were noted. The researcher acquired sufficient data to address the study's research questions.

5.4 Recommendations

For the purpose of improving knowledge and skills, the organisation should implement training programmes for its staff.
In order to improve employee experience, it should also put a strong emphasis on staff retention.
Partnerships with the government should also be implemented by the Organization in order to get subsidies as a source of revenue.
To protect the financial resources, the Organization should switch to accrual accounting and improve the internal controls already in place.

5.5 Summary

Summaries of earlier chapters are included in this chapter. This chapter also included information about the study's results. The researcher came to a conclusion by making ideas and recommendations that might significantly affect the Organization's adoption of excellent accounting processes.

Reference List



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