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TSM11105 International Tourism Assignment Sample

50% of module assessment

Due to be submitted by 1pm on Friday 11th March on Moodle using Turnitin.

Target length: 2500 words (not including reference list). The Maximum length: 3000 words.

Topic: Write an essay of 2500 words that addresses the following question for essay writing help.

Given the pressures of the global environmental crisis, is the growth of tourism still an appropriate development strategy

Essay Requirement

• Your essay should be based on secondary research and be supplemented with figures (visitor numbers and/ or statistics) and any contextual information you feel your research can contribute.

• Your essay should be fully referenced using the APA 7 style of referencing and follow an essay format, which means to be written in a continuous prose without headings and subheadings, tables and figures.

• References do not count towards your word limit, and they should be listed at the end of your report in alphabetical order.

• Essays that are submitted late without being granted an extension will be penalised (capped at P1%) if they are submitted within a week of the submission date. If submitted any later than that, your assignment will be marked at F5.

• Please contact Constantia Anastasiadou prior to the due date if you have valid reasons to request an extension – extensions after the due date will not be granted



Amidst the present uncertainty, tourism is expected to grow by 4 percent in 2023, further solidifying its position as a significant and resilient economic sector. For communities across the globe to get the most possible benefits from tourism, it must be handled with caution in order to maximise the advantages that tourism can give (Chang et al., 2020). In this file I will determine if the development of tourism is still a sustainable growth strategy in light of the current global environmental crisis and strain. Tourism has had a recent surge in popularity around the globe, and this research will investigate the reasons behind this increase. Similar to this, the research will examine how a successful tourist development strategy may help the whole globe in a similar way. I will use a variety of data sources, including national and international statistics, as well as news reports, to create a detailed analysis that includes all of the most important facts and numbers in their comprehensive essay.

International tourism has climbed for eight consecutive years, according to the most recent United Nations World Tourism Organization World Tourism Barometer data, marking a historic milestone. In 2019 the number of persons entering from other countries increased across the board. While the high growth rates of 2017 and 2018 may be linked to factors such as Brexit uncertainty, the collapse of Thomas Cook, geopolitical and social tensions, and the global economic slump, the outlook for 2019 is expected to be more moderate. Europe, Asia, and the Pacific were hit the hardest by the economic slump, with Europe and Asia and the Pacific bearing a disproportionate amount of the burden (Hall, 2019).According to the UNWTO Confidence Index, the global economy is expected to increase between 3% and 4% in 2020, which is a cautious optimism. While 43% forecasted a decrease, 47% forecasted an increase for 2019. According to forecasts, both the Tokyo Olympics and the World Expo 2020 in Dubai are projected to have a significant influence on the tourism industry. According to UNWTO Secretary-General ZurabPololikashvili, tourism is a strong economic sector in these times of turbulence and uncertainty (Higgins-Desbiolles, 2018).The industry continues to outperform the world economy and calls upon us to not only expand but to grow better, despite recent lowered global economic views, international trade tensions, social upheaval, and geopolitical unpredictability.

The United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) emphasises the need of sustainable growth in light of tourism's position as a key exporter and job creator. As the Decade of Action gets underway, tourists have a key role to play in global development policy, and they have the opportunity to make a substantial impact as the 2030 Agenda and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals are completed in under 10 years(Higgins-Desbiolles, 2020).The Middle East surpassed the rest of the globe in terms of growth in international visitor arrivals, becoming the fastest-growing region on the global tourism map. Because of slower development in Asia and the Pacific, international arrivals grew by 5 percent, although they remained above typical.743 million international tourists descended on Europe last year, despite the region's slower-than-average growth rate of 4 percent (+4 percent), which was lower than the global average. (This represents 51% of the worldwide market). In the aftermath of Hurricanes Irma and Maria in 2017, several Caribbean islands continued to recover, however South American immigration decreased as a consequence of the country's ongoing social and political upheaval (+2 percent). The cultural and heritage tourism in these areas have reduced drastically. According to the little statistics available, arrivals in North Africa increased by 9 percent in 2019, but arrivals in Sub-Saharan Africa increased by just 1.5 percent in 2019(Kapera, 2018).

According to Dependency Theory, modernization in developing nations has failed due to the capitalist system's uneven trade ties between developed and developing countries. Unbalanced trade relations arise when the global economic system favours affluent industrialised nations owing to their abilities to control and manage the global economy via capital accumulation, foreign investment control, and political influence. Dependency structures exist between the world's "core" of original capitalist nations and the world's "periphery" of newly independent developing countries. The global economic downturn has had little effect on visitor spending, particularly among the top ten spenders. France (+11 percent) and the United States (+6 percent), which are among the world's top ten outbound markets, had the highest percentage gains in foreign visitor spending.In Brazil and Saudi Arabia, two of the world's fastest-growing economies, tourists spent less money than in previous years. It can be noticed that outbound travel from China, the world's biggest source market, surged by 14 percent in the first six months of 2019, despite a 4 percent fall in expenditure.Since 1998, according to Pololikashvili, the number of destinations producing more than $1 billion in international tourist has almost doubled in number(Martínez et al., 2019). The responsibility of ensuring that all of the benefits are spread equally and that no one is left behind is one of the most important things that onehave to do. The United Nations World Tourism Organization has selected 2020 as the International Year of Tourism and Rural Growth, and one may anticipate that the business will play a vital role in stimulating economic development in rural areas, creating jobs, and preserving cultural heritage.

Tourism has a significant detrimental influence on the environment. They include issues with local natural resource depletion, pollution, and waste. In regions where resources are already limited, over-consumption of natural resources may have a negative impact on tourism. Tourism may result in soil erosion, increased pollution, the disappearance of natural habitats, and an increase in the number of endangered species being placed under threat. These consequences may have a long-term negative impact on the natural resources that tourism relies on. The tourism industry is presenting the promotion to demonstrate how robust and long-lasting it is. On the eve of the United Nations General Assembly in 2020, a worldwide debate will take place on the role of global collaboration in guaranteeing a better future for everyone, with tourism at the forefront of the discussion(Pan et al., 2018). Tourism is discouraged since it has a negative impact on the surrounding ecosystem. Just a few of the concerns include environmental effect, depletion of local resources, and waste generation. In tourist locations, overconsumption of natural resources is a prevalent concern, particularly in areas where resources are already scarce.

Natural ecosystems may be destroyed as a result of soil erosion and pollution caused by visitors, and endangered species may be placed under additional stress as a result of their presence. In the long term, these results may have a detrimental influence on the natural resources that are essential to the development of tourism. When it comes to water use, a typical tropical country golf course consumes the equivalent of 60,000 rural dwellings. Every year, around 1500 kg of chemical fertilisers, insecticides, and herbicides are applied to the crops in order to increase yields(Rasoolimanesh et al., 2020). Transportation accounts for 90 percent of all global greenhouse gas emissions, which is more than 5 percent of total global emissions. According to current projections, tourists will contribute to a 25 percent increase in CO2 emissions in 2030 relative to 2016. From 1,597 million to 1,998 million metric tonnes, there was a growth of 1.998 percent overall in production volume.

Modernization theory, which emerged in the 1950s and early 1960s, stated that development could only occur in developing countries as they became more industrialised and integrated with the more prosperous developed economies, and that development would occur in less developed countries to the extent that they imitated the developed countries' economic and cultural systems.This development is often hampered by global crisis.However, regardless of the global environmental crisis, the development of tourism and the tourist industry as a whole is vital for the future of the world economy. Travel's appeal and the growth of the tourism sector are influenced by a variety of variables. Here are some of the most important. Additionally, it's important to note that, when talking about tourism and the expansion of the tourism business, Sector 1 is only concerned with long-term expansion. It is vital at this point to have a grasp of what defines a sustainable development model in the tourism sector.Tourists, companies, and communities all get the benefits of sustainable tourism, which does not jeopardise the ability of future generations to meet their own needs in the process(Sheller, 2021). It maintains the created and experienced cultural past, as well as the traditional values of the host communities, while also preserving their socio-cultural authenticity and encouraging tolerance among people of diverse cultural backgrounds and backgrounds(Streimikiene et al., 2021). Among other things, it ensures the equitable distribution of socioeconomic advantages, such as stable employment and income-earning opportunities as well as social services, among all stakeholders and contributes to the reduction of poverty in host communities in order to ensure long-term economic viability.

Tourists of today and future, as well as the local communities that welcome them, benefit from sustainable tourism development, which both protects and generates new possibilities for them. If put into practise, it has the potential to result in resource management that satisfies economic, social, and aesthetic objectives while also maintaining cultural integrity, critical ecological processes, biological variety, and life-supporting ecosystems, among other things. This seems to be a great approach to take(Streimikiene et al., 2021). People are becoming increasingly aware that, while tourism is generally welcomed for the benefits it provides, the industry's environmental impact must also be considered, and efforts must be made to further strengthen the positive correlation between the environment's impact on tourism and the industry's ability to alleviate poverty. 'Sustainable Tourism' refers to tourism that is beneficial to the local economy while also causing no damage to the environment or social fabric of the places it visits. It is becoming more popular.

The majority of government officials all over the world have expressed support for tourism, and prior to the turn of the twentieth century, there were few efficient regulatory systems in place to take environmental concerns into consideration when considering the profitability of a commercial venture. They will only make significant changes to their business practises if they are compelled to do so by external circumstances that cannot be ignored or in order to gain a competitive advantage. This is true regardless of whether they are responding to exhortations or having the best of intentions (Sheller, 2021). It was the possibility of making large sums of money quickly by exploiting natural resources that were traditionally regarded to be freely available that drew the attention of government and corporate leaders, as well as a considerable number of local residents and businesses.

Sustainability in tourism is based on a set of norms and ideas that serve as a guide for those who practise it. A measure of the quantity of things that oneacquires and the amount of stuff that one may discard will help to limit waste and overconsumption in order to prevent the long-term implications of environmental devastation. However, this will be difficult. The preservation and promotion of diversity at the levels of the environment, society, and culture are needed in order to ensure long-term sustainable tourist development(Sheller, 2021). The long-term viability of tourism may be enhanced by the inclusion of strategic planning frameworks and environmental effect assessments in national and local strategic planning frameworks and environmental impact assessments. In order to keep their businesses viable while simultaneously safeguarding the environment, local economies depend on tourists for support, and this kind of tourism benefits both the environment and these businesses. By enabling visitors to engage in and learn about their surroundings, community participation not only benefits the locals of the region, but it also enhances the pleasure of tourists' holidays. Working together and avoiding any conflicts of interest requires continual contact between the tourism industry and local communities, organisations, and institutions, which must be maintained at all times. When employees are educated in sustainable tourism practises and employed at all levels of an organisation, the overall quality of the visitor experience is improved.

In reality, when animal interactions are carried out in a responsible way, this is precisely what occurs. The establishment of local economies based on attracting tourists to see and enjoy wildlife in its natural context reduces the likelihood of individuals being involved in wildlife poaching. In fact, ecotourism has a positive impact that extends beyond the tourist business, as it is becoming widely recognised that the preservation of native species is both financially and ethically beneficial to the industry (Rasoolimanesh et al., 2020). Sustainable tourism initiatives, such as conservation efforts for vulnerable or endangered species, are used to urge local people to maintain their environments and the wildlife that lives within them. In contrast to this, sustainable tourism generates income for the people who live in the area while also contributing to the preservation of the environment in question. However, sustainable tourism encompasses much more than simply viewing "landscapes." There are many other benefits to sustainable tourism as well. In addition to having a good influence on marine life and aquatic habitats, sustainable tourism has the potential to do so.

Poaching and habitat degradation may be avoided by sustainable tourism, and pollution can be minimised as a result of sustainable tourism. Because tourism generates more revenue, it is easier to accomplish collective cooperation to reduce pollution on an individual level. When compared to "poor tourism," sustainable tourism promotes the sharing of experiences, the learning from one another, and the enjoyment of one's surroundings among visitors and residents alike.Cash crops and insecure work are the result of mass manufacturing and unthinking mass transportation. Occasionally, a region's economic well-being depends on a single crop or a single enterprise, and it is only a matter of time until those circumstances shift."Sustainable tourism" encompasses a wide range of methods to accommodation, eating, farming, and cultural preservation, all of which are integral to the concept (Rasoolimanesh et al., 2020). When communities have boutique hotels, culinary schools, agrotourism, and tours that are incorporated into the tourism economy, they are less exposed to external events and the downsides of cash crop economies. Historically, rituals have served to bring people from various regions and continents together. They've been around for centuries, even at a time when most of us had substantially less, and as a result, they're almost unbreakable. Many old practises, on the other hand, are in danger of being lost as a consequence of globalisation.

Responsible tourism, regardless of the form of local culture and tradition that is being promoted, whether it is gin distilleries, handmade carpets, or any other sort of items, adds to the bringing together of merchants and consumers(Pan et al., 2018). The act of travelling is one of the most gratifying and fun things one may partake in throughout our lives when it comes to leisure pursuits. On their deathbeds, the great majority of people do not express a wish for more work time or for more costly clothing, according to research. Their top priorities include more time with family and friends, as well as more opportunity to travel and explore new places.


I would like to conclude that only in terms of the whole human needs, values, and standards of a decent life and a good society as understood by the societies experiencing change can development be accurately measured. UNDP created a Human Development Index (HDI) that considers development to have three aspects. Longevity and health, access to knowledge, and a decent standard of living.This aspect is supported by the concept of sustainable tourism.Sustainable tourism is beneficial to both the environment and the people that visit it. It is a win-win situation for everyone. Their usage is advantageous in terms of both economics and ecology, and their use is recommended in both cases. On our world, there are just a few natural landscapes or wilderness areas to explore. Every natural environment has been influenced by human activities in one way or another throughout the course of human history. Tourism is the only company or activity that has the ability to significantly modify the landscape. Woods, mountains, and regions famed for their rivers and lakes are among the natural sceneries that may be found in this area. The natural environment serves as the foundation for the tourist industry. Sustainability Tourism must be supported by both the government and non-governmental organisations in order to make significant improvements to the environment, regardless of the difficulties the environment is now facing.


Chang, C. L., McAleer, M., & Ramos, V. (2020). A charter for sustainable tourism after COVID-19. Sustainability, 12(9), 3671 https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/12/9/3671

Hall, C. M. (2019). Constructing sustainable tourism development: The 2030 agenda and the managerial ecology of sustainable tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 27(7), 1044-1060. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09669582.2018.1560456

Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2018). Sustainable tourism: Sustaining tourism or something more?. Tourism management perspectives, 25, 157-160. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09669582.2020.1791141

Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2020). The “war over tourism”: Challenges to sustainable tourism in the tourism academy after COVID-19. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29(4), 551-569. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09669582.2020.1803334

Kapera, I. (2018). Sustainable tourism development efforts by local governments in Poland. Sustainable cities and society, 40, 581-588. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2210670717314725

Martínez, J. M. G., Martín, J. M. M., Fernández, J. A. S., &Mogorrón-Guerrero, H. (2019). An analysis of the stability of rural tourism as a desired condition for sustainable tourism. Journal of Business Research, 100, 165-174. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S014829631930205X

Pan, S. Y., Gao, M., Kim, H., Shah, K. J., Pei, S. L., & Chiang, P. C. (2018). Advances and challenges in sustainable tourism toward a green economy. Science of the Total Environment, 635, 452-469. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S004896971831194X

Rasoolimanesh, S. M., Ramakrishna, S., Hall, C. M., Esfandiar, K., &Seyfi, S. (2020). A systematic scoping review of sustainable tourism indicators in relation to the sustainable development goals. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1-21. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09669582.2020.1775621

Sheller, M. (2021). Reconstructing tourism in the Caribbean: connecting pandemic recovery, climate resilience and sustainable tourism through mobility justice. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29(9), 1436-1449. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2211973617301319

Streimikiene, D., Svagzdiene, B., Jasinskas, E., &Simanavicius, A. (2021). Sustainable tourism development and competitiveness: The systematic literature review. Sustainable development, 29(1), 259-271. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/sd.2133

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